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Патент USA US2408267

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Sept. 24, 1946;
Original‘ Filed Oct. 5, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Sept. 24, 1946. '
Original Filed Oct. 5, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
28 I
2/9 4]
Patented sept. 24, 1946
Leslie T. Miller, Stoneleigh, Mdt, assignore to The
' Glenn L. Martin Company, Middle River, Md,
a corporation of Maryland
Original. application October 3.; 1.94;, Serial. N9
460,,642-. Divided and this erniicatien January
‘15, 1944; Serial No. 518,368
3' Claims.
(01. 123—..19.6)
I l
‘Figure 3
' This invention relates to a‘ cold weather lubri
cation system and is particularly directed to the
lu_.l'_>rica_1_n1;v ?ow control'valve. " ‘
This application is a division of application
Serial No’. 460,642‘, ?led October 3, 1942, which
relates to a cold Weether lubrication System and
an oil reservoir‘ 2_, a gasoline tank 3, an oil cooler
4;‘. and a valve 5, allinter-connected by nieans
of conduits,‘ the " connections and functions of
is particularly diretted. t9 the system of which
' The Will
oil‘ be
‘ ' icomparte
The parent application sets forth‘ novel struc
ment 6 ‘located within the'rnain'section of the
turel. ieatures end functions 0.; en improvedlu
brication systern wherein the ‘dependability and
eiiieieney are increased by the automatic. Opera
tieh of the elements of the system,
The difficulty of starting an internal combus
tion engine.- in cold climates is Well known. This
system is designed to overcome this di?iculty by
providing a certain and de?nite quantity of Ill-'
bricant' of low viscosity for the engine during
iiuhhe the wermih'e-hpheiied, ei'the eheiney '
Qil is supplied t9. the engine throheh conduit
7 here fitting. 8 0h. the, iqWer pertion 0t the res‘
The primary object 0.15 this invention is to Pro
vide a system ‘wherein this, diluentmay be added
to the return 1ihe and automatically, by means
of the ?ow centrel valve, eentrol the ?ew of fluid
reservoir. .This warmfnpv ‘compartment inclo's'es
a, small portion of the lubricantin the‘v reservoir
2, and his so named because the lubricantfis
drawn from this small conipartméntto the'enl
gine by the pump 9, during the initial starting
of the engine, and lubricant‘is‘returned'fr'oni the
engine to this compartment so; that by circulating
this small quantity of lubricant, it reaches a’ high
temperature more rapidlythan circulating
whole body of lubricant in’ reservoir ZYIn 'other
words. thiS ceihtertmeht; is celled. the. warm-up.
eemeertment beceuee'it. ceh?iies the. Oil heed.
the starting period. The general feature of this
system consists Qt eeidine e diluent, such as. gas.
eline, to the lubricant in the return line from.
the engine to. the .reservein
erveir-v Oil hump 9. iereee the lubricant to the
Another object is the provision of means
whereby, when the‘ diluent is added‘, the lubri
cent. is directed. threueh av return. line to‘ the
warm-up compartment of the reservoir rather
than. the main section of the reservoir
Another object is that in the construction and
arrangement of the va1ve,.a byepass is always
engine and. returns lhhrieant. by way of eondhit
ii}. to. the. distifihhtieh valve 5.- ’Ihis' pump may
be driveh hr the ‘engine or independently oi the,
ehe'ineshy meter tit. It, will he noted that. 911
eeeier 4 is located in. an an duet ll, whith hes.
e ferwerdly directed epehihe 12-. Flep the
rear hertieh ef the. eh" duet, is eleeieted to epeh
01.‘ clese this rear Portion thereby controlling the
?ew of air through elect H.- The oil. cooler is Qt
provided when the ‘oil is’ cold.
When the oil is
the conventional type having a central core for
‘cold and most viscous and liable to create exces
sive pressures, the valve a?’Qrds a-wide open by
pass around the cooler, thus protecting it from
damage. Relief valves might be used but they
do. not hinetion. until the pressure builds up
extehsivefheet. exchange between the oil and the
coelihe medium.’ air, the e Jacket Portion threileh
which the oil may be directtd for partial cooling
‘luring the Werihihe' up period of the engine-c
While the even bytpese Prevents the building
eh of excessive pressures! In case of surge
- ing through" conduit“!!! can be directed to new
in a predetermined manneh
Valve 5, is so arranged that the lubricant return
through the core 9f the Oil eeeielr or through.
the Jacket. oi‘ bv-heee the oil ‘cooler entirely
thiehgh inf-pets, ‘.4. ef the. velve-v Wheh the
return lubricant is directed through the mem
Pertieh ef' the‘eil eeeieh the lubricant ?ows to
the, reservoir 2 by rneans of pipe 15, it the valve
directs the return lubricant through the jacket
of pressure, damage to the. eeelermieht eccer
heiere the relief valve. thhetiehee While an open
peeitive PTQ12e_Qt.iQl1 ter the eeeleh
Further ebifeets. of the invention will. become
apparent hem the eecerhpehyine sieseriptieh of
thev drawings which term a part of the dittlesure
and wherein like numerals refer to like parts.
In the drawings:~
?gure 1 is a diagrammatic view showing the
arrangement of the elements comprising the cold
weather lubrication system.
Figure 2 is a View, partially in section, showing
a cong device for- the diluent line. '
Figure ,1 of the drawings discloses ‘an: engine I,
this. valve is a vital part
heehzehtery View, partially in
section, of one end'of the flow control valve._
of the oil cooler or through the by-pass the lu
bricant will be returned to the warm-up corn
partment of the reservoir by way of pipe l6.
An engine-driven fuel pump ll draws gasoline
from tank 3 through pipe I8 to the carburetor IS.
A pipe 29 conducts some gasoline from the car
It will be seen from the
55 buretor to the valve 5.
drawings that pipe 20 has formed therein a loop
2| which projects into the air stream ahead of
the oil cooler to insure the diluent- being cooled.
The diluent may, of course, be conducted directly
to the control valve without any additional cool
ing. A diluent valve 22 is inserted in line 20 to
control the ?ow of diluent to the control valve
5. The diluent valve is a solenoid operated
valve, the solenoid being shown at 23, or the valve
the oil pump may circulate the oil of high vis
cosity and create tremendous pressures in the oil
lines and associated equipment such as the oil
cooler, such pressures being far in excess of those
for which the oil cooler would be designed to
promote efficient heat exchange, and as a result,
would damage the cooler. Secondly, due to tre
mendous resistance to the flow of the oil of high
viscosity, the supply of lubricant at the bearings
may be controlled manually through linkage 24. 10 and working parts of the engine may be inade
quate to properly lubricate the bearing, and fail
The ?ap control mechanism 25 is shown at
ure of the engine may result. To overcome the
tached to the control valve 5 at the opposite end
above difficulties by this invention, it is possible
from the diluent inlet.
to provide an adequate quantity of diluted lubri
An electrically operated motor-pump unit 26
is shown which aifords a means of circulating 15 cant in the warm-up compartment of the oil res
ervoir forv cold start.
gasoline independently of the engine driven
pump l1.
Figure 2 shows the construction-a1 details of a
The operation of the above described invention
is as follows: Before the engine is shut down,
the operator may close electric switch 31 which
?tting that may be inserted in line 20 which will
project into the air stream and afford a diluent 20 starts auxiliary gasoline pump 26 and energizes
the diluent valve solenoid 23, thus causing the
cooling means. As pointed out above, this fea
diluent to be admitted to the lubrication system
ture is optional.
in the inlet to valve 5. Since the lubricant flow
Figure 3 shows a fragmentary view of the con
ing in the system at this time will be hot, the
trol valve 5 illustrating the end of the valve at
which the diluent is introduced. It should be 25 diluent will cool lubricantaadjacent the thermal
element 29 and cause the valve to move to a posi
pointed out that any type of multiple control
tion that will return the oil to the warm-up com
valve of the slide or rotary type may be used but
partment of the reservoir. Slight cooling may
in the preferred form, a rotary valve is shown
cause the oil to flow through the jacket of the
having multiple ports which are so arranged that
oil cooler and then to the warm-up compartment
for various angular positions of the valve, the
or a greater degree of cooling will cause the oil
distribution functions set forth above are at
to flow through the by-pass directly to the warm
tained; that is, the valve, in response to the tem
up compartment. Thus, it will be seen that the
perature of the lubricant, may direct the lubri
oil returned to the warm-up compartment 6 will
cant through the core of the oil cooler and then
diluted, by the addition of gasoline, and a
to the main section of the reservoir or through
body of oil of low viscosity will be provided in
the jacket of the oil cooler to the warm-up com
the warm-up compartment for the next cold start
partment of the reservoir or by-pass the oil cooler
entirely and direct the lubricant from the engine
of the engine.
If the engine has been shut down so that the
to the warm-up compartment of the reservoir.
lubricant is not circulated by the pump driven by
The end of such a rotary valve 21, is shown in
the engine, by means of switch 38, which com
Figure 3 mounted for rotation in a bearing 28.
prises two switches 38a and 38b actuated by the
A thermal responsive bi-metallic element 29 is
link 5380, the circuit of motor 39 may ‘be closed by
shown having one end 40, attached to the casing
throwing the switch to the “cold weather” posi
of the valve and the other end secured to the
.- tion 0 to circulate the lubricant through the sys
shaft of valve 21. Upon variations in tempera
tem and at the same time operate the diluent
ture, the bi-metallic element will rotate the valve
valve and motor-pump unit 25 to add a‘ diluent
in a predetermined manner. The oil returning
as required. Thus, if the diluent has not been
through pipe [0 flows over the bi-metallic ele
added to the lubricant before shutting off the
ment 29 before it is distributed by the valve 21;
thus, it will be seen that the temperature of the 50 engine, it is possible to add diluent without the
necessity of restarting the engine. A body of
oil determines the position of the valve and there
diluted lubricant is thereby provided in the warm
by the return path of the oil to the reservoir.
up compartment 6 in the manner described above.
A spray nozzle 30 is positioned adjacent, the bi
If the switch 38 is thrown to the “hot weather”
metallic element 29 and receives a diluent from
Pipe 20. By this arrangement, it will be seen CI (in position H, the motor 39 merely drives the lubri
cant pump and returns the lubricant to the oil
that upon the operation of diluent valve 22, the
tank without the addition of a diluent.
diluent, gasoline, will. be introduced into the lu
The operation of the ?ap control in conjunc
bricant by means of the spray nozzle 30 adjacent
tion with the motion of the valve should be ob
the bi-metallic element and, if the oil is hot, will
cool the oil in the vicinity of the lei-metallic ele 60 vious from the description of the drawings. This
mechanism is so designed that when maximum
ment, thus causing the lei-metallic element to
cooling is desired; that is, when the valve is moved
move the valve to a position corresponding to
by the temperature of the oil to cause the oil to
that of a lower temperature lubricant. The di
flow through the core of the oil cooler, the flap
luted oil will flow from the valve to the warm-up
- control mechanism operates to open flap l3 to
compartment of the reservoir by conduit l6.
permit maximum flow of air. During the initial
To the end of the valve 5 remote from the
stages of warming up the engine, it is desirable
diluent line 20, will be mounted ?ap control
to retain the heat in the oil until enough has
mechanism 25. The position of the flap is deter
accumulated to lower the viscosity of the oil and,
mined by the position of the valve 21.
therefore, the oil is not directed through the main
The difficulty in starting an internal combus
body of the cooler but flows through either the
tion engine in cold weather is due primarily to
by-pass or the jacket of the cooler depending upon
the fact that the viscosity of the oil increases
with a decrease in temperature. If an attempt
is made to start an engine with oil of high vis
cosity any of several things may happen, One,
the heat, content of the oil. Again, due to the
coupling of the flap control circuit with a posi
tion of the valve, the ?ap assumes position to re
strict the air ?ow and prevent heat exchange and
?uid adjacent said thermal responsive element
loss of heat from the lubricant.
whereby said valve is moved to a position to direct
the flow of said ?rst ?uid, in accordance with
the resulting temperature of the mixture of said
By way of example, when the temperature of
the lubricant is below 60° F.,' the valve is actu
ated by the bi-metallic element to direct oil ?ow ‘ill ‘ ?rst and said second ?uids.
2. A ?uid ?ow control valve comprising, a valve
through the by-pass. Above 175° F., the lubri
housing having a ?uid inlet port and a plurality
cant is directed through the core of the oil cooler.
of ?uid outlet ports, a valve member for directing
In the range of 100° to 140° F., the ?ow of lubri
the ?ow of ?uid from said inlet port to one of
cant is through the jacket of the oil cooler. In
said outlet ports, a thermal responsive element
the in-between temperature ranges, the flow is
secured to said valve in a position exposed to the
split between the paths of the two adjacent tem
?ow of ?uid whereby said valve is moved to di
perature ranges. The valve is also set so that
rect the ?ow of ?uid in accordance with the
oil above 160° F. is returned to the main section
temperature thereof, means to introduce a second
of the oil reservoir and below 130° F., the oil is
fluid adjacent said thermal element so that said
returned to the warm-up compartment of the
thermal element moves said valve to pass the
reservoir. It can be readily‘ seen that the valve
?uid through an outlet port corresponding to
may be so designed and its relation to the ther
the temperature of the resultant mixture of said
mal responsive element present so that the above
described paths for the various temperature
3. A ?uid ?ow control valve comprising a valve
ranges may be varied. The main purpose is to 20
housing, a ?uid inletv and a plurality of ?uid
insure that the valve will direct the lubricant to
‘ outlet ports in said housing, a valve member hav
the warm-up compartment of the oil reservoir
ing passages formed therein for directing the ?ow
upon the addition of a diluent.
of ?uid from said inlet ‘port to one of said outlet
It is to be understood that certain changes,
ports, a thermal responsive element operatively
alterations, and modi?cations may be made in
connected to move said valve, said thermal re
the above described structure without departing
sponsive element mounted in said housing in the
from the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
path of the ?uid ?ow so that it is exposed to
I claim as my invention:
the ?ow of ?uid and responds to the temperature
1. In combination, a valve housing having a
?uid inlet and a plurality of ?uid outlets, a valve 30 thereof, a spray means adjacent said thermal
element whereby a second fluid may be mixed
having a thermal responsive element located in
with said ?rst ?uid around said thermal element,
, the ?ow path of the ?uid to actuate said valve
to control the position of said valve and thereby
in said housing to direct ?uid ?ow from the inlet
the ?ow of ?uid through said outlet ports.
to one of the outlets, depending upon the heat
content of the ?uid, means to introduce a second
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