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Патент USA US2408290

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Sept. l24,V 1946.
A." T. BREMsI-:R '
Filed Nov. 13, 1942
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
Albert T. Bremser, Sidney,` N. Y., assigner to
' Bendix Aviation Corporation, New York, N. Y.,
a corporation‘of Delaware
-Application November 13, 1942, Serial'No. 465,448
(Cl. 10S-41)
17 Claims.
fuel injection apparatus embodying the present
rI’his invention relates to fuel injection ap
paratus and more particularly to means for con
trolling and effecting the delivery of fuel under
pressure to the cylinder of’a solid fuel injection
invention; and,
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view of a fuel injection
apparatus having a‘modiñe‘d arrangement for
controlling fuel delivery to the injection nozzle.
One of the objects of the present invention is
to provide a novel fuel’ injection apparatus of
the type wherein an injection nozzle and a fuel
' Referring to Fig. l, I0 is the' head of a cyl
inder of a solid fuel injection engine whereon is
>mounted a novel fuel injection apparatus em
pump are embodied in a unitary structure.
4bodying the _ present invention, said apparatus
Another object of the invention is to provide a l()v A'being preferably of the typecombining a fuel
fuel injection apparatus having> a pressure controlled nozzle valve with novel means for pro-
pump and a fuel injectionv nozzle in a unitary
structure. The injection apparatus, in the yform
tecting said apparatus and thev engine on which
the same is mounted in the event of inoperative-
illustrated, comprises a main barrel or housing
i I` secured to cylinder head I0 by suitable means,
15 such as bolts IIa or a clamp (not shown), so that
ness of said valve.
A further object is to provide a fuel injection
apparatus having novel means for preventing eX-
the lower end thereof extendsinto a recess I2
formed in said cylinder head, A nozzle holder
body I3 having an external'shoulder I4 formed
at the upper end thereof is mounted in the lower
cessive fuel delivery in the event. the nozzle valve
controlling fuel injection becomes locked in open
20 end of housing I I and is secured in operative po
Still another objectA is to provide novel'means
sition by a gland nut i5 which screws into said
in the above apparatus for preventing deleterious
housing andY cooperates with said shoulder, a
effects other than non-delivery. of fuel when the
gasket IB being preferably interposed between
pressure operated nozzle valve becomes locked‘or
Said shoulder and said gland nut. The latter iS
25 effective to hold nozzle body I3 in abutting seal
stuck in closed position.
A still further object is to provide a uniflow
ing engagement With the lower face of a disc
injector, i. e., aninjeetor having an injection
member Iï-which,` in turn, bears against the lowerl
nozzle and fuel pump embodied in e, unitary
end 0f@ Dump‘cylíïlder I8, and presses a shoul
structure, with novel- means for eiîecting adjustder ißa formed on the latter into engagement
ment of the nozzle valve s0 as to coni-,rol the 30 with an internal shoulderv in the bore of housing
pressure necessary toeffect fuel delivery from
the nozzle.
||- AS a reSullìkIiOZZle bOdy I3; dîSC member l1
Still another object is to provide a fuelv injed-,ion _apparatus having novel actual-,lng ,means
for controlling. the stroke of the movable pump
ing element of said'apparatus.
and pump cylinder
I8 are held against axial
movement and in fluid-tight engagement With
each other, the latter two elements cooperating -
in aV manner more fully described hereinafter.
' `
Threaded on the lower end of nozzle holder
'_A further Objectis to, provide a fuel pump embcdying a novel> arrangement for controlling the
:dow- of fuel therein whereby advantageous ccolA
- Y
ing thereof is effected;
body I3 is a sleeve nut I9 which is provided inter
mediate its ends with'an internal shoulder 20 for
supporting engagement with the flanged upper
40 end 2 l'a, of a nozzle spray or. atomizing tip 2l, said
The above and further objects and’novel fea-v
tures of the invention will more fully appearfrom
tip having a central'bore' or duct 2lb therein and
a plurality ofM radially extending orifices 2 Ic ad
the following detailed description whenthe same
jacent the lower -end thereof. 'The nozzle tip 2i
is readin connection with the accompanying
projects through the lower end `of sleeve nui-„I9
drawing.v lIt is to be. expressly understood, how-A 45 into the combustion chamber of'the‘engin‘e cyl
ever„that.the'drawingV is for the purpose of'illus‘trationenly and is not intended» as a definition of
inder so that vfuel can be sprayed from orifices
Zic into said chamber. The lower end of said nut
the «limits of theA invention, reference' for this
latter> purpose being primarily had tothe ap- ’
fits into the lower endof recess I2,- and anex
ternal shoulder 22 formed> adjacent said lower
pended claims.
y ` a
In the drawing, wherein like reference characters refer to like parts throughout the vseveral
l ~ `
Fig. 1 is a sectional view, withV parts broken
end seatson a gasket 23a which is, in turn, sup
ported by an internal shoulder said recess.
Removably mounted in nut i9 above nozzle tip
2|¿isa Valve» guide 24i that is centrally bored for
slidably receivingV the stem or piston portion of a
needle valve 25.». The bore> through said guide
away and'parts shown in-elevation, of one form of 55
member terminates at the lower or inner end of
the latter in a small orifice 24a which is co
axial with passage 2lb, and a conical seat 25 is
ber I8 for cooperation in a manner well under
stood in the art, with a helical groove 40 formed
provided adjacent said orifice for cooperation
in the surface of plunger 35, said groove being
continuously connected to the pressure chamber
with the tapered lower end of needle valve 25.
The latter is thus effective to control the ñow of
nected axial and radial passages 4l and 42, re
fuel from member 24 into duct 2lb and hence
into the engine cylinder. Preferably, the bore in
guide member 24 is enlarged immediately above
spectively. To vary the angular relation between
metering groove 40 and cut-off or by-pass port
39 and thereby vary the effective pumping stroke
valve seat 26 to provide a fuel pressure chamber
2l through which a reduced portion of valve 25
extends. Fuel supplied under pressure to cham
ber 2l through a suitable passage 28 in member
24 in a manner hereinafter described acts against
shoulder 29 formed on the valve by the reduction
of the piston, suitable means for angularly ad
justing plunger 35 are provided and. in the form
of the pump by suitable passages, such as con»
shown, comprise a sleeve 43 loosely surrounding
the upper end of cylinder I8 in the enlarged in
terior of the upper end of housing ll. Gear
teeth 44 are formed on the lower end of sleeve
in the diameter thereof, and is thus effective to
43 for cooperation with a rack member (not
lift the latter off its seat and permit the flow of
shown) in a manner Well-known in the art. The
fuel from said chamber through passages 24a,
upper end of sleeve 43 is axially slotted at 45
2 I b and 2 lc into the engine cylinder.
for slidably receiving a cross bar 4G rigidly con
Valve 25 is normally held in seated or closed 20 nected to plunger 35. Sleeve 43 seats on an in
position by novel means described hereinafter
ternal shoulder 4l in housing Il and is held
which apply a yielding pressure to the valve
against axial movement relative to cylinder I8
through a pressure pin or spindle 33 that freely
by a ring member 48 which engages an external
extends through the central bore in nozzle body
shoulder on said sleeve and is positioned against
i3. The lower end of spindle or rod 30 is prefer
an internal shoulder 49 in housing Il, said ring
ably recessed for freely receiving a pin 3| formed
member being held on the latter shoulder by a
by a reduced portion at the upper end of valve
spring 5i) which constitutes an element of the
plunger reciprocating means. The latter com
prises a tappet cup 5i which is slidably positioned
a washer member or plate 32 having a central 30 in the upper end of housing Il for engagement
recess therein through which pin 3l of valve 25
with the head portion of a member 52 operatively
extends, said washer being adapted to engage
connected to cr integrally formed with the upper
the upper end of the shank of the valve to limit
end of vpiston 35. Downward movement is im
the upward movement of the latter. A passage
parted to the latter by means comprising a rocker
33 extending from the upper end of body I3 con
arm or tappet lever 53 which is pivotally mount
neots with passage 2B in guide member 24 through
ed intermediate the ends thereof on a suitable
an orifice 34 in plate 32. The latter may be
rocker support 54 fixed to the cylinder head.
readily replaced if it becomes worn by the con
One end of said arm bears against the upper end
stant hammering of valve 25 thereagainst.
of tappet cup 5! and the other end is connected
In order to deliver fuel under pressure to 40 by a rod 55 to a cam follower 56, the latter being
chamber 2l and thence to the combustion cham
in operative engagement with the cam 51 which
ber, pumping means are provided, the same being
is adapted to rock said arm and actuate plunger
preferably contained in housing il. As shown,
35 in a novel manner to be fully described here
said means comprise a plunger 35 slidably mount
inafter. The downward movement of said
ed for reciprocation in the bore of cylinder I8
plunger is resisted and the upward movement
so that a pressure chamber is formed at the
thereof is effected by spring 50 which has the
lower end of said cylinder by said bore walls,
lower end thereof seated on ring member 48 and
said plunger and disc member il. A passage lla
the upper end thereof engaging a washer 58',
25, Between the adjacent ends of body i3 and
valve member 2li there is preferably interposed
in disc il connects the pressure chamber to an
which, in turn, engages a downwardly facing
annular groove l'ib provided in the lower face
of said disc and said groove is adapted to overlap
and open into the upper end of passage 33. One
shoulder formed -by the enlarged upper end of
member 52 to transmit upward forces to
or more radial fuel inlet ports 35 are provided
in the wall of cylinder I8 to connect said pres
sure chamber with an annular fuel supply groove
plunger 35.
In the conventional fuel injection nozzle, the
binding or locking of the nozzle valve in either
.l open or closed position, or the clogging of the
3l formed in the internal wall of housing il,
fuel passages, such as orifices 2|c, may produce
plunger 35 operating as a slide valve to control
serious detrimental effects, particularly at highl
speed operation, which eñects substantially
diminish the life, efficiency and capacity of the
the flow of fuel through said ports into cylinder
I8 in a manner well understood in the art. In
order that fuel from a suitable source may be 60 engine. To minimize these deleterious effects to
employed in a novel manner to cool the fuel
the fullest extent and prevent permanent in
pump, the latter is novelly constructed with a
jury to the engine or fuel injection equipment as
pair of fuel passages 38 disposed in opposite
a result thereof, novel means are provided in the
sides of housing Il to connect with groove 3l.
above-described injection apparatus to insure
Fuel is admitted from the fuel source through 65 safe operation. The novel safety means include
one of said passages and may be discharged from
mechanism adapted to relieve the pressure which
the other so that, by delivering a quantity of
tends to build up in the pressure chamber when
fuel to the intake passage at a rate in excess of
nozzle valve 25 is locked in its closed position.
the amount used :by the engine, a continuous cir
For the latter purpose, the upper end of the bore
culation of fuel may be maintained through said 70 of nozzle holder body I3 is preferably enlarged
passagesand groove 3l te cool the parts adjoin
in diameter and receives the threaded upper end
ing the latter.
portion 30a of spindle 30 on which is mounted a
To control the point of fuel by-pass, i. e., the
spring supporting member 58, the latter having
termination of fuel injection, a by-pass port 39
an internally threaded bore 59 whereby itis ad
axially spaced above ports 36 is provided in mem 75 justably screwed on the end» of said spindle.
56 'holds plunger as in the desired stationaryposi‘
"siidably mounted in the upper Tend of the' bore
of body holder I3v for engagement -with disc yI1
tion. From point b’to point c .of the cam sur
face,¿the remainder of the suction or up-stroke
isa valve- member 6_5 which normally’seats- on
'the lower surface of said- disc to normally close
a central port`6I in said disc, said port connect
ing Withvthe pressure chamber of pumpV I8,y 35.
A spring 62 is compressed between> member V5&3
vof the plunger takes place, ports 36 being opened
-duri-ng this portion -of the stroke and remaining
open from points cto d when the plunger Yis in
DuringA this latter
vmovement of the pump plunger, the piston' in
the engine cylinder is in the course ofl its com
`top dead ycenter position.
and valve member âûïand normally maintains
Vthe latter in operative engagement with disc I1,
said spring also applying the `downward pres l0 pression stroke so there will be no danger of fuel
being forced into the cylinder by the small pres
sure which yieldably presses’y valve 25 into engage
ment> with seat 26.
sure in the fuel supply line.
At d- on thecam
the plunger begins its power or down-stroke and
reaches bottom dead center position when fol
'The diameter of port 6.1 is such that the area
of valve member 60, which is subjected through
Vsaid port to the fuel pressure inthe pump rpres
lower 56 engages lpoint e of the cam. Upon con
tinued rotation of cam 51, the plunger moves up
ward until surface ¿1_-b, is again reached to
valvev shoulder 279 which -is acted upon by the
complete the cycle. As a result of this novel
same fuel pressure. rAs a result, 'during normal
construction of cam 51, fuel injection into the
'.operation, valve 25 has a greater totalßu-pward
force acting thereon for «a given fuel pressure 20 engine cylinder can take place -only during a pre
determined part of the engine piston stroke even
than the pressure on valve member 6_0 through
with the nozzle valve locked in Yopen position, Vso
port 6I so that the former is raised from its seat
that the combustion chamber »of the cylinder
-While the latter remains
closed position. How..
cannot be flooded with fuel oil.
ever, if valve 25 becomes stuck in closed position,
sure chamber, is less'than the effective area of
asufñcient pressure is builtup -in the vpressure
In normal operation, when plunger 35 is at ytop
In- order
` dead center position prior to the îdovvn or power
vto effect a fuel by-pass from the pump pressure
stroke thereof, the pump pressure chamber and
the fuel conducting passages 11a, 33, 34~and 28
Vchamber to unseat valve member 60.
chamber in the latter event, one or more flutes
or slots 63 are provided in the periphery of valve
member EE which serve to connect the bore of i
body I3 below said member with port 6I when
said valve Amember is in open position. A radial
passage 6d connects said bore to an axially ex
and chamber 21 are filled with fuel .at supply line
pressure, inlet ports 376 »are >open» and Vby-pass port
Y35 is closed. When-plunger 35 moves Ydownward
to close inlet ports 36, the pressure lof the fuel
in the pressure chamber is built up after the port
closure and isV transmitted to chamber .-21, raising
tending slot 65 in the outer surface of flange I4
and said slot opens at its upper end through a
Vslot 66 to fuel supply groove 31. Accordingly,
when valve member 60 is in- open position, fuel
is ‘py-passed from the pressure> chamber to the
valve 2‘5 and thereby permitting fuel to be yin
jected into the combustion chamber of the engine
` cylinder through passages 2da, 2lb andr2lc. At
a further point in the down-stroke, metering
groove dû overlaps port 39 to connect the fuel
Novel means are provided for effecting adjust 40 supply line 31,l 3S with the pump pressure through
passagesl 4I >'and ‘t2 and fuel delivery is cut oif.
ment of the compression of spring 62 to thereby
After bottom ‘dead center position is reached the
control the fuel pressure necessary> to raise valve
suction stroke begins and continues until piston
»25 to open position. As shown, said means com
35 reaches a point at which it closes ports 36 and
prise a plurality of shims~61 located in the upper
port 39. At this point, plunger 35 comes to a
end of bore Y59 of member 58 so as to bear against
standstill and remainsV stationary until a short
-the end of threadedportion- 36a and thereby limit
time before fuel injection is desired. The up
the extent to which the-latter can be threaded
stroke is then resumed and the plunger completes
in said bore, By varying the number of shims
its travel to top dead center position, filling the
lutilized in this manner, there is obtained an
accurate control of the compression to which 50 pump and nozzle pressure chamber with fuel at
supply line pressure.
spring 62 is subjected. It is to'be noted that
The pressure at which valve 25 opens to begin
the pressure of said springen member 58`pre
supply line or sump~
'vents _the latter from unscrewing from portion
- 30a and vitiating a satisfactory adjustment once
the same has been attained.
In order to guard'against detrimental effects
of the locking Vor sticking of Valve 25 in open
position, plunger 35 is actuated in a novel man
ner to prevent a relatively continuous flow of
fuel into the engine cylinder-under the pressure
in the fuel supply line. On the up or suction
stroke of the plunger, the latter is caused to come
to rest with the lower end thereof just below ports
35. When the plunger is in this position, shown
' in broken lines in Fig. 1, ports 36 aswell as port ‘
3.9 are closed and no fuel is admitted to the pres
vsure chamber and, therefore, nonecan ñoW to -
fuel injection to the combustion chamber during
the power stroke of plunger'35- is readily prede
termined by adjustment of the number of shims
61 inbore 55.
If valve 25 becomes locked in closed position,
the building up of fuel pressure in the pressure
chamber unseats valve member 60 andthe fuel
from the pump pressure chamber is by--passed to
the supply line through port 6 I, flutes 63, the bore
of body- I3, and passages 64, 65 and 66. If valve
25 becomes locked in open position, the delivery
- of fuel to the combustion chamber in excessive
quantities is prevented by plunger 35 which closes
ports 3-6 and 39 for a substantial period between'v
y fuel injections.
The flow of fuel in the supply system through
the combustion chamber of the engine cylinder.
groove 31 is continuous, the same entering said
Plunger 35 is maintained in this position by cam
j 51 for a substantial portion of the period between 70 groove- through one passage 38 andv leaving
through the oppositely disposed passage 38. The
fuel injections. To accomplish this, said cam,
amount of excess fuel circulated in this` manner
which rotates in the direction of the arrow, has
may be regulated in accordance with‘the need for
a. circular contour for a substantial part of its
cooling the apparatus.
Í peripheral. surface, i. e., betweenpoints a and b,
which contour when in engagement With-followerl 75 A modification of the abovefdescribeduni'ñow
injection apparatus is shown in Fig. 2, wherein a
conventional type cam actuates the plunger and
and is centered by the shank of said element, said
spring being held under compression between said
novel means in the nozzle holder body guard
against the deleterious effects of the locking of
shoulder and a Valve mechanism in the upper end
of bore 13 so that valve 25 is pressed in the direc
tion of its seat. Said mechanism comprises a
screw member or stud 81 having a flange 81a
formed at the base of the head thereof for en
nozzle valve 25 in either open or closed position.
As shown, the apparatus comprises a nozzle holder
body 10 operatively mounted in the lower end of
housing II by means of a gland nut I5, sleeve
nut I9 being secured to the lower end of said body
and carrying guide member 2li in which is
mounted nozzle valve 25. A washer member 1I
gaging the upper end of spring 85, said head serv
ing as a centering guide for said spring. Screw
member 81 is threaded into the lower end oi a
valve member 88 which is slidably mounted in
is held between the lower end of said body and
bore 13 and has a needle valve element 88a inte
the upper end of said guide member and has a
grally formed with or otherwise rigidly secured
central recess through which pin 3l of valve 25
to the upper end thereof. The lower end of port _
extends. Body 18 is provided with upper and
14 is flared to form a conical seat which co
operates with valve element 88a to normally pre
lower axial recesses or bores 12 and 13, respec
tively, which are connected to each other by a
vent fuel flow through said port into bore 13. A
port 14. A passage 15 connects bore 12 with an
plurality of axial grooves or flutes 88h are formed
annular groove 16 formed in the lower end of body
in the periphery of valve member 88 to intercon
10 and said groove communicates with a groove 20 nect the upper and lower ends of said bore so
11 in the upper end of valve guide member 24
Ithat passage 18 communicates with bore 12 when
valve 88a is open.
by means of one or more passages 18’ in washer
member 1I, groove 11 being in turn connected to
The cross-sectional area of port 14 is such that
the upper end of passage 28. Bore 13 is prefer
the total effective fuel pressure acting downward
ably connected by a passage or series of passages 25 ly on valve 88 is less than the total pressure act
18 to the upper end of body 10 and, accordingly,
ing upwardly on valve 25 so that in normal opera
opens into fuel supply groove 31.
tion valve 88 is always closed and valve 25 is
opened periodically in response to the pressure
A delivery valve adapter unit 18 having an ex
created by the pump to permit fuel delivery from
ternal flange 19a formed thereon at the upper
end thereof is mounted in the upper portion of 30 bore 12 to the combustion chamber of the engine
bore 12 and flange 19a is pressed tightly between
cylinder. However, in the event valve 25 becomes
locked in closed position, the pressure in bore 12
a gasket 10a and the lower end of cylinder I8,
will, during the effective pumping stroke of the
said gasket fitting into an annular indentation in
pump plunger, cause valve 88 to open so that fuel
the upper end of body 18. The central bore of
said adapter opens into the pump compression 35 is by-passed from said bore through port 14 to
bore 13 and> from the latter bore back to .the fuel
chamber and a retraction type delivery valve 80
supply line via passage 18.
is slidably mounted in said adapter bore to con
trol the fuel ñow from said chamber to bore 12.
In order to control the compression of spring
The upper end 85' of said delivery valve is adapted
85 and, therefore, -the fuel pressure at which valve
to engage -a conical seat 8l in said adapter bore 40 25 will be lifted from its seat. a plurality of
and a cylindrical portion 88a is formed at the
washer-like shims 89 are disposed between the
lower end of said valve for fluid-tight engage
upper face of shoulder 81a and the lower end of
ment with the internal walls of adapter 19. An
member 88. The axial position of screw member
annular groove 88h is provided between the upper
81 can be accurately adjusted by varying the num
end yof portion 88a and axial flutes 88o, said flutes
ber of shims 89 and thus provides accurate means
connecting at the upper ends thereof with a
for regulating the pressure exerted by spring 85.
chamber 82, which is formed immediately below
There is thus provided a novel fuel injection
seat 8l by an enlargement of the adapter bore. A
apparatus of -the uniñow type wherein a fuel
spring' 83 disposed between the bottom wall of
pump and a fuel injector are combined in a uni
bore 12 and a shoulder 88d formed on valve 80 50 tary structure. The apparatus embodies novel
yieldably urges the latter upward and normally
means for insuring .against any permanent or
maintains said valve in closed position. When a
serious deleterious results in the event the nozzle
suiiicient pressure is built up in the pressure
valve is bound or otherwise locked against move
chamber of the pump I8, 35 to lift said valve
ment either in open or closed position. Novel
from seat 8l and withdraw portion 88a from the 55 means are included for preventing excessive fuel
adapter bore, the pressure chamber is open .to
delivery to the engine cylinder when the nozzle
bore 12 and :the fuel pressure therein is trans
valve is in open position as well as novel means
mitted .to Valve 25 through passages 15, 18' and
for relieving the pressure built up in the pump
28. Thus, even if valve 25 is locked in open posi
compression chamber when the nozzle becomes
tion fuel delivery to the engine cylinder can occur
clogged or >the nozzle valve remains closed during
only when the sufficient pressure is built up in the
operation. There is also provided a novel ar
pressure chamber to move delivery valve 80 to
rangement whereby the nozzle valve operation
open position.
can be controlled, i. e., whereby the fuel pressure
Novel means are also embodied in body 10 for
at which the valve will be lifted from its seat
yieldably urging valve 25 into engagement with
can be accurately predetermined during assembly
its seat and for preventing any serious detrimental
of lthe injector.- Additionally, the novel structure
provided includes means whereby cooling of the
effects when said valve becomes stuck or other
wise inadvertently locked in closed position. In
same may be effected in a novel manner. Still
another novel feature of the pump and nozzle unit
the illustrated embodiment, said means comprise
a pressure transmitting element 84 disposed in
provided is the location of the by-pass port above
the lower end of bore 13 and loosely mounted on
the inlet port of the pump to insure against any
the upper end of pin 3l so as to transmit down
accumulation of air in the pump compression
ward forces to the latter. An upwardly facing
shoulder 84a is formed on said element and the
Although only two embodiments of the in
lower end of a spring 85 seats on said shoulder 75 vention have been illustrated and described. it
valvexmeans, and common >yieldable meansfor
normally holding said ñrst andi second valve
isV to be expressly understood that“ the same is>
not limited> thereto. For4 example~,fit will now be`
apparent to those skilled in'the‘art- that other
means‘in closed position.-
fuel injection apparatus >for internal
types of delivery valve units may be employed
in the embodiment of Fig. 2, that insteadiof `a Ul combustion engines, means forsubjecting aliquid
fuel to pressure for forcing the same into the
single spring, separate springs may be employed
cylinder'of an. internal combustion engine, a
for normally maintaining safety valve fill or 88
pressure'chambers may bev interchanged. Var
first valve means'responsive-to the pressure of
said'fuel for controlling `the flow of fuel» into
said cylinder, a second valve means responsive
to the pressure of said fuel for controllingthe
?low of said fuel 'to ay pointfoutside said cylinder,
and common means lfor yieldably biasing said
first and second valve means toward closed posi
ious other changes mayy also be made in the de
15 tion, the effective area of said Second valve means
and `nozzle valve 25 in closed position, :and that
by-pass port 39 may be connected to any lowv
pressure space other than the supplyline 3l, 38.
It is to> be understood also -thatthe nozzle safety
valves and adjusting mean-s shown in Figs. V1 and
2` for relieving the fuel vpressure in the pump
acted upon by said fuel pressure being less than
the `corresponding area of said ñrst'valvemeans
when both said valve means are in closed posi
invention. For a deñnition of the limits ofA the
invention, reference is had primarily to the ap
6. In apparatus of the class described where
pended claims.
in liquid lfuel is supplied under pressure @by a
What is claimed is :>
fuel pump, the combination of, a valve responsive
1. In fuel injection apparatus of the class de
to fuel pressure created by said pump forcen
scribed, pump means comprising a casing, a cyl-Y
trolling the flow .of fuel through an orifice, valve
inder in said casing andy areciprocating plunger
in said cylinder, said cylinder Vhaving port means 25 means for relieving the pressure in said pump
when said valve fails to open in response toa
controlled by said plunger and connecting the
predetermined maximum pressure, and common
interior of the cylinder with an annular space
resilient means interposed between said valve and
between said casing and cylinder, said space
valve, means for normally holding the same in
having an inlet and an outlet independent of said
ports whereby fuel may be circulated there 30 closed position.
,'7. In apparatus of the class described, a fuel
through irrespective of the position of said
pump comprising a cylinder having inlet and
plunger and said space being the sole connec
by-pass ports therein, a plunger in said cylinder
tion between said inlet and outlet when said
for controlling the flow through said ports, and
port means are closed by the plunger.
2. In fuel' injection apparatus, pump means 35 means for periodically reciprocating said plunger,
said last~named means` being operable to cause
comprising a casing, a cylinder in said casing'
said plunger to close said ports during at least
said cylinder and casing cooperating to form an
a major portion of the interval between the
annular space therebetween having an inlet and
beginning of successive cycles of operation of
an outlet through said casing, and a> recipro
sign and arrangement of'parts illustrated> with-.
out departing from the spirit and scope of the>
cating element in saidcylinder- for controlling 40
terior of said cylinder through ports in the walls
of said cylinder, said space being annular where'-r
by fuel may be continuously circulated around
said cylinder irrespective of the position of said
said plunger.
Y ~
8; In fuel'injection apparatus for an internal
combustion engine, pump means, means con-y
nectingr the pressure chamber of said pump
communication between said space and the in
- means to a source of fuel supply, means con
element and said space being the sole connec
tion between said inlet and outlet when said
port means are closed.
3. In apparatus of the class described, fuel
pumping means for an internal combustion en
gine, a first valve means responsiveto pressure
created by said pumping means for controlling
the llow of fuel from the pressure chamber of
said pumping means into an engine cylinder,
necting said chamber to the cylinder of an in
ternal combustion engine, said pump means com
prising means for controlling said first-named
connecting means, and means for cyclically oper
ating said controlling means to cut ofi communi
cation between said chamber and source during
at least a major portion of the interval between
the beginning of successive cycles of operation`
of said controlling means.
9. In fuel injection apparatus, a cylinder, a
a second valve means responsive to said pressure 55 plunger mounted for reciprocation in said cyl
for controlling the flow of fuel from said pres
inder and defining a pressure chamber therewith,
' means for supplying liquid fuel to said chamber,
sure chamber to a point outside said cylinder,
vmeans for delivering fuel from said chamber to
said first valve means being adapted to open in
response to a lower pressure than said second
a combustion chamber, said last named means
valve means, and a single resilient means for 60 including a pressure responsive control valve,
and means for actuating said plunger so as to
normally holding both said valve means in closed
maintain said plunger stationary for a substan
position, said first and second valve means being
tial portion of the duration'of each suction stroke
in axial alignment with each other and with said
thereof, said plunger in the stationary position
pumping means.
4. In apparatus of the class described, fuel 65 thereof being effective to cut oif communication
between said ñrst named means and the pres
gine, a ñrst valve'means responsive to pressure
sure chamber.
created by said pumping means for controlling
10. In fuel injection apparatus, fuel pumping
means adapted to periodically apply pressure to
the iiow of fuel from the pressure chamberl of
said pumping means into an engine cylinder, 70 a quantity of fuel, means comprising a delivery
pumping means for an internal combustion en
a second valve means responsive to said pressure
line from said pumping means to an engine
for controlling the flow of fuel from said pres
sure chamber to a point outside said cylinder,
said first valve means being adapted to open~
in response to a lower pressure than saidäsecond 75
compression chamber, a pressure responsive valve
normally maintaining said delivery line closed,
said valve being moved to open position by the
building up of fuel pressure in said line, means
comprising a by-pass passage for relieving the
pressure in said delivery line, a valve responsive
to the pressure of the fuel for controlling the
ilofw of fuel through said passage, and common
so as to connect with said chamber for contin
resilient means for normally holding both of
said Valves in closed position, said second-named
valve being moved to open position only when
uously circulating fuel through said chamber at
a rate exceeding that necessary to feed
pumping means, said chamber being the
connection between said pair of passages.
15. In apparatus of the class described, a
pump comprising a cylinder having inlet
by-pass ports therein, a plunger in said cylinder
said first-named valve is closed and a pressure
for controlling the flow through said ports, means
in excess of that necessary to normally open
said first-named valve is built up in said delivery 10 for periodically reciprocating said plunger, said
last-named means being operable to cause said
plunger to close said ports during at least a ma
l1. In fuel injection apparatus, a cylinder, a
plunger mounted for reciprocaticn in said cyl
inder and defining a pressure chamber therewith,
jor portion of the interval between the beginning
of successive cycles of operation of said plunger,
at least one fuel supply port communicating
with said pressure chamber, a pressure responsive
control valve adapted to regulate the fuel dis
charge from said chamber, and means including
ated by said pump means for controlling the flow
of fuel from the pressure chamber of said pump
a cam for actuating said plunger, said cam main,
means responsive to said pressure for controlling
a first valve means responsive to pressure cre
means into an engine cylinder, and a second valve
taining said plunger stationary for the greater 20 the ñow of fuel from said pressure chamber to
a point outside said engine cylinder, said ñrst
portion of the duration of each complete stroke
cycle thereof at a point in the suction stroke
when said plunger closes said port.
valve means being adapted to open in response
to a lower pressure than said second valve means.
16. In fuel injection apparatus of the class de
12. In apparatus embodying a fuel pump,
means comprising a delivery passage adaptedto 25 scribed, a pump casing, a pump cylinder in said
casing, a reciprocating plunger in said cylinder,
deliver fuel from said pump to a discharge orifice,
a tubular nozzle holder body extending into said
a control valve actuated by the fuel pressure in
pump casing in axial alignment therewith, means
said passage to open the latter for fuel discharge,
for securing said cylinder and nozzle holder body
a delivery valve operatively associated with said
pump to control the fuel delivery to said delivery 30 in said pump casing, an adaptor interposed be
tween said nozzle holder body and said cylinder,
passage, a by-pass passage connected to said
a delivery valve operable in said adaptor for con
delivery passage at a point between said delivery
trolling the flow of fuel from the pressure cham
and control valves, and a by-pass valve normally
ber in said cylinder to said nozzle holder body,
closing said by-pass passage, said last-named
valve being moved to open position by the fuel 35 means for supplying liquid fuel to a space in said
pump casing around said cylinder, means includ
pressure in said delivery passage when said pres
ing a by-pass valve in said nozzle holder body for
sure exceeds the pressure normally necessary to
connecting the interior of said nozzle holder body
actuate said control valve to open position and
to said space, a control valve for controlling the
all of said valves being co-axial with each other
40 flow of fuel through said nozzle holder body to a
and with said pump.
combustion space, and common resilient means
lf3. In fuel injection apparatus embodying a
interposed between said by-pass valve and said
fuel pump, means Comprising a delivery passage
control valve for normally holding the same in
adapted to .deliver fuel from said pump to a dis
closed position.
charge orifice, a control valve actuated in one
17. In fuel injection apparatus of the class de
direction by the fuel pressure in said passage to
scribed, a'fuel pump comprising a casing, a cyl
open said orifice for fuel discharge, a by-pass
inder in said casing and a reciprocating plunger
passage connected to the pressure Chamber of said
in said cylinder, a nozzle holder body, means for
pump, a by-pass valve normally closing said by
securing said nozzle holder body and said cyl
pass passage, said by-pass valve being movable in
the opposite direction to open position by the 50 inder in said pump casing in axial alignment with
each other, a pair of valves in said nozzle holder
fuel pressure in the pump pressure chamber
when said pressure is in excess of that necessary
body adapted to be moved to open position by
the fuel pressure created by said pump, one of
said valves being a control valve adapted to nor
valves for normally holding the same in closed 55 mally control the flow of fuel to a combustion
space and the other being a by-pass valve adapt
ed to control the flow of fuel to a region of low
1li. In injection apparatus of the uniñow type
pressure for relieving the fuel pressure in said
having a housing and pumping means in said
cylinder and holder body whenever said control
housing including a cylinder and a plunger, a
fuel supply chamber in said housing surrounding 60 valve fails to open in response to a predetermined
maximum pressure, and common resilient means
said cylinder and adapted to be connected peri
interposed between said valves for normally hold
odically with -the pressure chamber of said pump
ing the same in closed position.
ing means, and means including a pair of pas
sages disposed on opposite sides of said housing
to move said control valve to open position, and
common resilient means interposed between said
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