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Sept. 24, 1946.- 3
2,408,293
A. M. CARM4EL I
TELEVISION SYSTEM
’ Filefd Oct. _14,‘ 1944
31
s Sheets-Sheet 1 ‘ r
I ,32. ,30 .
INVENTOR.
ALAN M. CARMEL
A Ti R Ey
Sept 24, 1946q'
' ~
-A. M. CARMEL
TELEVISION SYSTLJ
I Filed bot.- 14, 1944
‘2,408,293
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
BY
'
ALAN, M. CARMEL
A TTURNE y
Sept. 24, 1946.
'-
A. M. CARMEL
‘
2,408,293
TELEVISION SYSTEM
Filed Oct. 14, 1944
s 'bheets-Sheet 3
,
mmvrok:
ALAN M. (ARMEL
BY
.
.
A TTURNE)"
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
’ 2,408,293
mELE'm-smN
.
Alan M. fOar-n1el,‘-§Forest Hills, N. Y, 7
.QppliéationgOctirbenM,1944, Serial,LNo.-._V55’8;6301 1 i
- f2 clams. (01.242455)
"Myiinvention relates toi'television and its inain '
jmanylrh'ore "television signals
objects “are to .make ,permanent ,.records ,of. tele ; _' ,‘It
than sound signals are require'd‘per unit ‘o'f‘time.
.vision signals and to ,rreproduce felectric television
While sound. signals have been isatisfactorilyire
corded on .motion?picture?lms, ‘the high ‘jfre- V
Otherobliects .are to’ produce, records fo‘f‘te1evi-_
quency ,of ,television signals has been "hitherto
sion signals which can Jbestohéd, “which ,can wbe
regarded, as prohibiting jprop‘erre'cordinglon‘?lms.
used .at any {future time tor-reproduction, which
signals from suchrecords.
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I have overcome thisypreliudice and have found
that.,much more'television signals itha‘n sound
constitute documentary proof, sforsexample, for
legal "or .historic purposes, vwhich ,canfbeqs'hipped,
which can be fused forireproduction oribroadcast
signals can "be ‘recorded ‘,per jlength unit ‘ot?lm
vdue to ‘the .?act that, while sound signals must
which , can be vused “several times, -;to make ,poss'i
have distinguishably varying intervals, video sig
'ingia't =placesidistant from thefplaceio'f recording,
nals may be recorded .atuhiiormjinte'rvals .reguir
lole the-distribution ,of television programs over
ing only the. minimumlen'gth permitted ‘by micro
scopic and photographic methods. ‘Therefore,
independent -from cable networks ,.or, relay .sta
tions, and- to avoid distortions,expensesand other is further objects are ,toimove the record ic‘arri'er
with _a speed Just ~su?ic'ieritjforfs‘uch vminimum
drawbacks resulting-troinneétworksomrélays,
intervals, ‘to condensefthejtelevision signals ‘to
:Further -_obj.ects are "to :make records ,iof gthis
unlimited distances, ,toi'ma-ke sucha distribution
such, intervals, to. make ‘the "record 'on _ a?lm ,"of
kind which “can »-be ‘ multiplied inexpensively , and
reasonable glen'gtheand .moving -,at reasonable
$9 speed, .to lmake~the records‘t'su?icieiitly small ‘for
the accommodation.bfQseveral rows ofysign'als on
tion' of television {programs ,toiac?itate-lthis pro
which , can ;be icopied by ,-photographic processes,
Still I other, objectsiare l-to :faeilitate the produc
duction in. studios far-:from 'or énot-rconnectedwith
broadcasting stations, to ~make _(possible ‘this pro
duction in separate ‘gs-arts which ican'lbemepro
duced'coherently, to makepossible the gtes't ,o'f
one ?lm,v\andrtorecord or. reproduce one rbwiafter
theiot-her.
185
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, Still .further objects-are ‘to use a?lm whichfis
suf?ciently broad to withstand the stres‘s‘o'f ‘its
this aproduction or I of, .i-ts_~parts before public Lre- '
movement, .to ‘use -moving means ‘which, ‘do not
production, and tomake possib-lethe elimination
cause {sudden jerkseor, excessive stress, ‘toprovide
or insertion of parts :of- this production.
I
"Still ‘.further :objects are ‘to produce ,reconds of
television action "without motion ipicture iequ'ip
ment, to make possibleithe broadcasting of ite‘leé
vision action by stations which have :no icono
scope {or other scanning-wquipment, ,and toiserve
means toigraduallyincrease and Etard'th'espeed
of .theu'econd carrier, and to provide means 'for
reversing the moving direction-‘and for shifting
the ?lm/laterally relative .to therecording or re
producing
~ fstillotheriobjectsvaregtoiuse
devices; .
_
§ aipluralityio'f
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r ' ‘rem
several-broadcasting s-tationsbypne-scanning de d5 ordnarriersior ‘?lmswto useithese carriers alter
nat-inglyffor continuous-recordingor reproducing‘,
,vice.
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: Jenn other objects ma, enema-res?" ij?hi‘s
kind ,fromsignalsproducedby ‘convgantion'al'"scan;v
andxto ‘utilize, then-time when onegcarrier is not
used for recording or reproducing for reducing,
[reversing ‘and accelerating thespeedof- this‘ car
ning devices, ‘to ‘derive ‘the records ‘from iscané'
ni'ng ,clevices "operatingr ‘withou
40
chanically moving parts, —'exc pt “for parts
_I
A ,
stilliu-rtheriobiectsare to<controlithevspeedof
Lfor
moving the record carrier, anditoireproiiuceithe
the ‘carriers’ and-rtheeswitching from 'onencarrier
rier.
recorded signals 'byfmeans
'11
‘rise of Tin
ertia (‘and in -a ' manner I adapted Lforibfoadcasting'
with ‘conventional ~fequipmentzand for'erece'iition
withrconventionalreceivers.
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:Still further ioblje‘ct's fare to, g'record isound -.=si;g
n'als onFthesameicarr-ier ‘asthetelevisimmrmideo
signals, and v‘to record {and jgto meproduce rsound
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to another by‘ inarke‘rsnarried v'by the = record Icar
‘fiersfu
‘\>,'.»
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‘.‘Still other ‘objects are'to ‘achieve-iallfthese re
sults ‘ygith; elativélly?'siinple, "inexpensive, reflective
and ‘reliatileimeans.
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Still f further objects and vadvantages will ‘ap
and -:television signals simultaneously wand v,sy'n 50 pear from the following ‘description vof’aii*"e'xein
pliiyingfenib'odiment of‘m‘y invention, from ‘the
chronizedly. Usually v, television, signals comprise
synchronization ‘and vdeflection o signals ,;in addi
tion to signals picturing opo'ints .of Jihe scanned
object,- and Iincludepthe recording. and reproduce
tion of all these sign-alsin mssob'jec'tsi '
" - a
‘appended claims "and "-fromf'the accompanying
drawings "in which:
_.'Fig.;1_."s‘hows"a recording fdevice'according to‘ my 7
invention, ,somgpans ' being shown ‘diagrammati
'cally, other’ partsin E‘VEIf’biCQl ‘side elevation ,~-some
2,408,293
3
for example, with a speed not less than 10 yards
per second. Preferably several rows of signals
of the latter parts being shown out along the
line l-l in Fig.2.
are recorded on the same ?lm. Each subsequent
row may be recorded after the moving direction
of the ?lm has been reversed, and the position of
the ?lm relative to the camera has been shifted
across the ?lm. All these movements may be
eifected by any suitable means, for example by
the device described in the following.
Fig. 2 shows parts shown in Fig. 1, seen from
the upper side in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 shows a reproducing device according to
my invention. some parts being shown diagram
matically, other parts in a side elevation corre
sponding to Fig. 1. some parts which are identi
cal with the recording device shown in Fig. 1 be
ing omitted.
10
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' A .plate 28 .isfsupported on an even surface
of the base plate 21 and has a lower extension
35 of 21 slidably
v29 ?tting a groove or recess
the moving direc
Fig. 4 shows some parts shown in Fig. 3, seen
in direction perpendicular to
from the left side in Fig. 3.
24. At one end of the groove
Fig. 5 shows a partial view of a ?lm used for‘ ' ‘tion of _ the ?lm
my invention, seen from the right side in Figs. 15 - 30, a bearing 3| is affixed to the base plate and
rotatably supports the end pin of a shaft 32
1 and 3.
a passing through a threaded bore of the plate 28
Fig. 6 shows a schematical diagram of the
or its extension 29 and having an outer screw
means controlling the movement of'the ?lm.
thread’engaging the thread of this bore. The
Fig. 7 shows a partial view of a ?lm used in
other end of the shaft 32 is coupled with the
a modi?cation of the invention.
20
shaft of a motor 33 a?ixed to the base plate 21
Fig. 8 shows a. schematical diagram of con
wherebyrotation of this motor moves the plate
trol means used additionally in this modi?ca
28 in the direction of the shaft 32. A disk 34 is
tion.
co-axially affixed to an extension of the shaft
Referring‘ to Fig. 1, numeral 2 indicates the
terminals of a television signals'producing device 25 of the motor 33' and can be engaged by a stop
ping device 35; The parts 34 and 35 and their
which may have any known and suitable struc
functions will be described more fully later with
ture and, for example, may comprise a cathode
ray oscillograph or iconoscope 3 with a camera
4 projecting a picture of an object 5 on a screen.
This device may be further equipped in known
manner with two de?ection oscillators 1 and
reference to Fig. 6.
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' Fourbrackets 36, 31, 3B and 39 are mounted
on the plate 28. Two parallel shafts 4i) and M
are rotatably supported in bores or bearings of
the brackets 36 and 31. Similarly, two parallel
shafts 42 and 43 are supported by the brackets
‘so
ampli?ers 8,5 and I0. According to the usual
method, the produced television signals are con
38 and'39. Each of the shafts 42 and 43 carries
a reel, 44 adapted to receive the ?lm 24. Each
ducted to a sender or transmitter, for example,
. .
by wires 13. This sender may comprise an ultra- 35
of the shafts 40 and 4| carries a drum or wheel
short wave generator l2 and an open aerial
45 coupled with the carrying shaft. The ?lm
earth circuit I l adapted to broadcast waves carry
runs from one reel .44, for example from the
ing the television signals.
,
upper‘ one, over one‘drum 45, passes before the
The same signals are according to my inven
camera 25' and runs then over the other ‘drum
tion conducted to a recording device, for ex—
ample by wires' l4, instead to the sender or in
7
vision signals to the wires l4 may be effected in
any suitable manner, for example by conductive
connection with the terminals 2. In the shown
embodiment, the terminals 2 are connected to
the turning points of a double arm switch 15,
each arm of which carries two contacts l5 and
I1. The switch 15 can be set in any of four po
sitions l8, I9, 20 or 2|. In the position 18 indi
catedyby a full line for each arm, the terminals
are disconnected. In the position 19, the termi
nals are connected through the contacts 11 to
wires l4. In the ‘position 25, the terminals are
drums 45 may be provided
“to
the’other
The small slots or perforations
with
teeth ‘46reel:
engaging
addition thereto. The transmission of the tele
41 (Fig; 5) provided in the ?lm.
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A motor 48 has a shaft 49 co-axially coupled
with the shaft of one of the drums 45, for ex
vample with the shaft 49. The motor,48 may be
mounted on the base plate 21, and its shaft 49
may have an end projecting into a tube-shaped
extension '50 of the co-axial drum shaft and
50 slidable in this extension in axial direction. In
the rotating direction, the parts 49 and 55 may
be coupled in any suitable manner, for example
byaflatkey 5i.
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Brakes are provided for one drum or prefer
connectedin the same way and’ also through 55 ably for'all drums and reels; These brakes may
be arranged, for example, in spaces located in the
the contacts 16 to the wires Hi. In the‘position
2|, the terminals are connected to the wires it,
brackets‘ 31 and 39 and may be constituted by
iron cores 56 affixed to the braked shaft and sur
alone.
The television signals supplied by wires l4 are
transformed into light signals preferably by a .
device free‘ofv inertia, for example, by a cathode
ray tube 22 of which the raying intensity or
rounded by- stationary brake magnets‘ 51. The
60 operation of these magnets will be described later
with reference to Fig. 6.
I
The [driving force of the motor 48 and the
brightness of the light spot is modulated or con
inert and braking forces acting on the shafts 40,
trolled by the electric signals in known manner.
The light. rays originating from the screen 23 65 4|, 42 and'43 are mutually transmitted. At least
the transmission from one drum to the other
of the tube‘22 and indicatedv in Fig. 1 by dotted
doesnot rely on the film 24, but on a separate
lines are projected on a photographic film 24
transmission which may comprise two wheels 52
preferably by a camera or lens system 25 of
known and suitable structure.
The tube 22 and the camera 25 may be mount
ed on a common bracket 26 (Figs. 1 and 2) a?ixed
to a base plate 21. During the recording op
eration, the film 24 moves in its longitudinal di
affixed respectively‘to the shafts 40 and 4| and
connected by; chain or belt 53.’ An exactly equal
ized rotation of the reels 44 may be secured by
wheels 54 ai?xed respectively to the shafts 42
and >43" and ‘connected by a chain or belt 55
whereby the length of the ?lm portion between
rection across the light beam projected by the
camera 25 and with a speed sui?ciently high to 75 the two reels remains constant under all cir
record the signals in a row, one after the other,
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cumstancesxandnthe ?lm moves with 'a;.=mlnimum
of stress.
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same :lmanner.as.orlginal signals. For ,zexample,
they~:may:~:be::conducted by wires ill to 'a sender
12m‘ .by-swires flagtma. sender iii-.4 respectively which
,
Preferably. sound :sienals ,iare .vrecordedxsimul
taneously :on the ;same
‘fWJhQIQQbY television
and sound signals are automatically ;,synchr,o,
nized. Electric sound signals may the produced
senders ;may'.;b.e similarly sconstructed :as the
s?lldlil‘rltl, J32...
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.';~Reterring.to Fig. 5.,13l'5‘indicates one endof the
iniknownzmanner,:foriexample, by farEdeViQe com
?lm {2.4 whichjs .zaf?-xed to onegreel 44, ‘ the other
end 1being'=_.af?xed :to :the other reel. The area
used for the record begins atsomedistance from
prisingzajmicrophone .58. A double armswitch
59 constructed'jin ;a qmanner, correspondingqto
the switch 15 may be connected toqthegterinina-ls
the end If'?i‘lfQr: examplee-at thearbroken line-‘l6.
Rreferably lthe'ii-lm isrma‘de su?iciently fbroad'to
??rofithe microphone circuit. ‘This switch. 5-9 per
mits ‘the sound signals to be conducted eitherto
Withstand aconsiderable stress, ..for; example, .35 '
millimeters i-"wixle.v “.Thi ‘Width and .the small
a sender 6|» constructed similarly .as- the sender
M, £2, but operating with _1;another wave length,
or instead v1oz‘ :in addition g'theijeto, ;to {wires ~52 :15 height-of the .cmicroseoniezsignals recorded; makes’.
itpossi-ble to ediilid? thevrecordingareaintomar
: v
-
connected to ‘the _re,c,o1:di‘I1,§-:d6|Vi.C§-,
gins :‘for ‘ithe perforations 4] Land into a large
These WiI‘es’pGnduet the sound signals to ,a
number, for example twentmaof .-'signal:rowsof
cathode ray tube e63 ;~where they‘ are transfer-med
whichconly z‘? gfew;.are indicat; d by dottedlines.
into .-.1-i.;eh.t signals which are projected byza cam»
Halfgof these rowsemay .be' used~for television and
era 64 ,on-the ?lmie, the; function and arrange~
ment.-of the ‘parts ,63 and .66 ~_cor~resp_onding to 20 theptherhalf for sound-signals. Preferably, the
those pf the parts :2Z;and¢~25. Theitubes .22v and . sound;signal .rows are, positioned at one side,
foreexampleuat ,thelower side in ,Fig. 5, and the
63 as well as the cameras .25;and 64 arerprefere
televisionsignalsxarepositionedyatzthe other side,
ably v;so gpositioned that .thetwe ;foci ‘or record~
ing spots on‘the?lm have ar-distance-inthe :direc
tion of the ?lm'movement wherebyga favorable
parallel-and equidistant position ,of these tubes
eacihrtwmcoeo. .rating:te_levision and-sound, signal
rew'sjhaving. alwaxsthegsame distance.
and cameras ,is madejpossible. .In addition, .the » '
areiproizidedaswill:be , describedlater with refer
enceuito fElg. I6. ; These ;means are preferably
1.;Means :to {control the movement of the {?lm
two foci haye;ardist,ance in the orossingzdirection
switched :bythehlm which,1:for.this purpose, may
I whereby the jreoords will appear‘on the film in '
different rows as willibe
carry a-marker,:for example a very thin- metallic
layer 11 extending mear :the end 15 preferably
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described :later with ,ref
erence
,After to
thephotographic
Fig. 5.
?lm
_
24 has. been
y
{ex
alongiza. margin ofithe-?lm. Theportion of this
posed to .the light signals and, eventually, has
layerzwhich is :nearest to the: end 15 is broadened
been developed and ?xed in known manner, the I.
?lm .shows rirows ‘of a transparency varied or
byganyexteneion ‘l8.v :Theotherend of the ?lm
carries;aycorresponding layer'a-n'd extension, pref
erably:atithepphosite margin. The measures and
modulated according to theintensity of the sig
the ~r_positii.ons {of 5H. and :18 are determined :ac
- nals. This ?lm may be stored, shipped and used
fortreproduction of the electric signals .at any
eoiidingto their-{relationship ito other-‘parts of the
place ‘and time. During the reproducing opera
device which relationship will ;be described in; the
following. 'I'helengthof the layer 1,‘! is shown
relatiyely reducedgfor'thesake of better repre
tion, the ?lm is moved ;in substantially-the same
manner as during the recording, andthesame
moving device {comprising motors 33 andrlllireels
sent "ion,gand-alseethepther measures ofvFig;5
44, drums .45 and so on, or an identioalidevice may
hayezpeen adapted to thispurpose.
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Y-fE‘ig :6 shows :thedrums 4,5__schematically. One
‘ moving device isiconcerned, Fig. ,1 may bere 115 dri carriesithree circular .:conductors ‘?ushing
with-the :cylindrioahsurfaceiof the drum. These
garded as an illustration .also of ,the reproduc
conductors» may-ybeiormed “by-wires 1.9, 8.9 and
ingdevice. The .eqllipmentparticular to .the
beviused .for .thereproduetion. In. solar .as this
8:l;=;positiohe.dlgrooves 10f a cylindrical drum
body rof insulating materials These wires are
reproduction vis illustrated .in .Figs. .3 and 4. , -
In these ?gures..65.indicatesa'bracket.mounted
i
in a manner similar to the bracketidandsllp 50 ‘preferably:positioned-hear.oneredee of the drum
and parallel "to -,-this_~ edge vandhave small dis
porting .a light source or projector .65, or. if
tances-whicharesh-own;exaggerated for the sake
sound signals .are reproduced together with .tele
of clearer representation; ¢~When the marker or
Vision signals, also .a second light projector f6].
layer :1?! _;runsqover the drum, this layer conduc
These projectors . may have any ,known structure
tivelyporinectsthe‘conductors ~19 and v8!! and, at
adapted to direct strong, thin‘ light beams or
' the 51311116 hengtlreextgension vi8 runs overethe
‘rays (indicated‘by dotted lines) on the
112:2.
The‘position of the projectors 66 and 15'! corre
;condu,ctors.;8__? and 8|.v The other
ries similar conductors 19a,» 80a and
sponds‘to thepositionof the-cameras'l-? andiiliin
Fig. 1 ~so~rthat these vrays ‘hit ‘the ?lm at-rspots
_
a
arl‘yipositiened-near the opposite edge
Whereicorresp'onding signals are recorded.» The 60 efethisylatter ‘drum; and similarly connected when
rays 'pass more or less completely ithroughv-the
the layer _-Qf-t_he\_;other~?lmend :runs over the
?lm and enter- photo-electric cells i5,8-.;and ‘.69 1 re- ~
latter=d.1:um-._ ":
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spectively which are positioned immediately .at V 7' manenij==slidi . , IrQIJlarcQnIiHCiOIS. is in per
wvv‘contact ,with one of~six resilient
the other sideof the-‘?lm and generate electric 65
centactsiti (Fig.1).- statienarily supported in any
‘ signals vOren :intensityjl/iarying according rtowthe
suitable mannenfor example by insulating bolts
transparency :of the film ‘ whereby ithese gsignals
correspond to “the original electric v.signa-l-s .re- .
' corded {on the
‘The cells: 6.3 andi??rmayrha?le
any-known .and suitable structure and may be r
supported .in ;a;?xed position-.rel??ilewto the ‘light
sources abyan ?eshahedarm iii aii‘IXed to the
bracket 6,5.~
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The electric signals-reproduced iby >i?7lé$ eel-1s
may
used “for sending 'orabroadoastineiin
853 a-i?xedeto theebracketsii, and indicatedby
I
arrows
Rig. <6. , .Qver suchcontaets, the con
ductors 98b. ‘and 1.800;’ .are ,connelcted . to ,one' pole
of .a current, source .34',l-the. conductor .19 .is .9011
.nected, over the exciting ,circuit?of, .a relay ' 86 to
. a ,wireygsel" terminatinglin alcohtac’t'rsliding on
?'Ijhisrdiskicarries a conductor {88
it-hatrposition of ;-~_t-he,di.Sk Whichis
. .;.remeie irome’ihershewn‘cpqsiiienreenr
2,408,293
meets the wire 81 to a wire 89 as indicated by a
dotted line. The wire 89 is connected over a
master switch 85 to the other pole of the cur
rent source 84. The relay 88' can be operated
by a second exciting circuit having one pole con
nected to the conductor 19a and the other pole
connected. to a wire 99 which, in the shown posi
tion of the disk 34, is connected by the conduc
wire H2 or II3 respectively to contacts contact
ing the disk 34 at diametrically opposite points.
The disk 34 carries a conductor II4 which, in the
shown position of the disk, connects the wire I I2
to a wire H5 and thereby to wire 99 and the
other pole of the current source 93. In the op
posite position of the disk, the conductor I I4 con
nects wire II3 to a wire H3 (as indicated by
dotted lines) and thereby to the latter pole of the
tor 88 to the wire 89.
source.
Another relay 9| can be also operated by two 10 current
The operations described in the following are
separate circuits which are supplied with cur
identical for both the recording and the repro
rent in the same manner as the described cir
duction of the signals.
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cuits operating the relay 86, except that, with
At the beginning, the substantial'part of the
respect to relay 9I,' conductor 8| takes the place
?lm is wound around one of the reels 44, for ex
which conductor 19 has with respect to relay 88, 15 ample, the upper‘reel in Fig. 1. The other reel
and correspondingly, conductor 8Ia takes the
is empty except for the ai?xed end 15 (Fig. 5).
All parts are in the positions shown in the ?g
place oi'conductor 19a.
I The'switch operated by relay 88 has one pole
ures. The relays 86,9I and 95 do not operate
connected over wire 92 to one pole of a current
whereby, according to their structure, the
source‘ 93 which may, for example, be constituted
by the poles of an electric power network. The
other pole of this switch is connected over wire
94 to several parallel branch wires in which the
switches of the relays 88 and 9I are open, and
the switch of the relay 95 is closed. The ?lm is
in a position where the metallic layer 11 and
its extension 18 positioned near the leading end
exciting circuits of the brake magnets 51 and of
of the ?lm contact the conductors 19, 89 and 8I.
the interrupter relay 95 are inserted. One brake 25 This does, however, not excite the relays ‘83 and
magnet is shown in each of four branch wires,
9I because the wires 81 and 89 are disconnected.
but any desired number of such magnets arranged
The master switches 85 and 91 are closed and
parallel or in series may be used. Beyond the
remain closed throughout the operation.
parts 51 and 95 the branch wires are connected
As soon as the master switch 91 closes, the
over wire 96 and a master switch 91 to the other 30 motor 48 starts in that direction which corre
pole of the current source 93.
sponds to the circuit comprising the wires H2
a The switch operated by the relay 9I has one
and H5 and which rotates the drums in anti
pole connected by wire 98 to wire 92 and one
clockwise direction (Figs. 1 and 3) winding the
pole of the current source 93. The other pole
?lm from one reel to the other.’ After a very
of this switch is connected by wire 99 to the ex 35 short time, the motor 48 reaches its full speed
citing circuit of a solenoid I00 having an axially
and the recording or reproducing operation de
movable core WI and being the essential part of
scribed before begins, the ?lm having just
the stopping device 35. Beyond the solenoid I90,
reached that position where the line 16 is in
this'circuit is connected by wire I02 to wire 98,
the proper position'before the cameras 25 and
switch 91 and current source 93.
84 or the light projectors 66 and 81.
One end of the core I9I "carries a head I03
The motor 48 keeps running with‘ uniform
a?ixed to the core and pressed against the disk
speed until the layer 11 near the lagging end of
34 by a spring I94. The disk has two diametri
the ?lm connects the conductors 19a and 89a.’
cally opposite recesses I05 ?tting the head I93. 45 This closes one of the circuits operating, the
In the shown arrangement, the disk can move in
relay 89. Consequently, the switch of this relay
clockwise direction until the head I03 engages
closes the circuits operating the brake magnets
one of the recesses I95. Preferably, the leading
wall of each recess I05 is obliquely, and the lag
51 and the interrupter relay 95. _ The latter relay
interrupts the circuit operating the motor 48.
ging wall is perpendicularly positioned with re 50 Due to the action of the brake magnets, the speed
spect to the periphery of the disk, and the head
of the drums, of the ?lm and of the motor 48 is
I03 is correspondingly shaped whereby the dis
quickly reduced. During this braking period,
engagement occurs substantially instantaneously
the ?lm moves a little farther, and the exten
and the engagement somewhat slower.
sion 18 contacts the conductors 80a and Ella at
The electromotor 33 coupled co-axially with
that time when the motor comes to a standstill.
65
the disk 34 is symbolically represented at another
At this moment, the connection of the con
place in Fig. 6 for the sake of clearer representa
ductors 80a and Ma closes one of the circuits
tion. One pole of this motor is connected over
operating the relay 9I. Consequently, this relay
wire I98 to wire 92 and the current source 93.
closes the circuit operating the solenoid I99.
The other pole is connected to a contact I91.
The right end of the core IOI carries a contact 60 The solenoid pulls the core I9I to the right side,
thereby disengaging the head I93 from the disk
arm‘ I98 which is insulated from the core and
34 and pressing the contact arm I08 against the
connects the contact I01 Witha contact I09 when
contacts I01 and I09. This closes the circuit
thecore is in a position disengaged from the disk
34. The contact I09 is connected by wire IIO to 65 operating the motor 33. This motor starts and
turns the disk 34 in clockwise direction whereby
the switch 91 and the other pole of the current
the conductors 88 and H4 are disconnected from
source 93.,
,
’ The reversible electromotor 48 may run in
the respective co-operating contacts. This in
either of the two rotating directions depending
terruption stops the operation of the relays 88
and 9I, the relay 85 consequently interrupting
the circuit operating‘ the brakes and the relay 95,
and the relay 9| consequently interrupting the
one pole of the switch of the relay 95. The other
circuit operating the solenoid I99. The relay 95
pole of this switch is connected to one pole of the
releases its ‘switch into the closing position, but
current source 93. The alternatingly used two 75 the motor 48 remains without current because
in known manner on which of its two circuits is
supplied with current. These two circuits may
have a common pole connected by wire III to
other poles of the motor 48 are connected by
' the conductor IJI 4:‘doesnot' close eitherntith'eztwot
motor circuits‘; '
.
~
The. motor-‘"33: turnsrthedisle 3,4.
after a;
half turn,_ the; spring; “Mg-presses the. heads‘ L03;
into the; next; recess; I115? whereby. the‘ core; I011;
moves to the left; side; and causesgtheaarm;I.0&:to1~
disconnect the contactsrl?r'lfandg I.I19.',, The head‘;
I 83 ; new steps further rotation,‘ of fthez. disktwhichi;v
mightresult frominertiai.
,
.
~
.
,
7
During the’ rotation: of: the; disk: . 34;. also: the;
threaded shaft 32 (Fig.1 2;); has madeza halfzturrr
and has shifted theqplate??g/togetherwiththen
drums-and the?lm into;.a positionkpropenfor. thei
nextzrows of, signals (televisionand sound);
After the? disk; has; madey-this: half; turn, 1 the;
conductors. 88v and; I I4 connect,_-respective con‘:
tacts; positioned, diametrically opposite tour/the.‘
contacts. originally- connected by; these: condnce
tors. The circuit operating th6im0tDr,-'48&in;011e~
posite direction is; hereby closede,andtheentire
process described isv repeatediwith,v the;?lm run
nine in opposite:v direction, At;the:zendl otthis;
second. run,‘ the movement is again, brakedhther
?lm is shifted to the next rows, andthe motorAB:
is eventually started in again reversed direction.‘v
in the manner ‘described, before: This isgreneatl
ed until all rows-0f. signals‘ have been; used“
The power of the. motor‘ andhoft theylbrakesjis,
preferably so measuredthat each. period‘ from
the beginning of thebraking to: the‘ fulltspeed».
in reversed direction takeszonly a-small fraction
170T
8111162150 .Eiest
do; 6: are indicated} by‘thes same:
numerals ;a.-sthe£0rm.andisome;part$ Lot? theisecond‘z
' devioe'i
are indibatedc bye numbers, computed by‘
addingrmlla- tm theznunrbersa indicating lt‘he iid'ent-i
tieal partscof the;?rstidevicez~
Re?erringm: to :Eigr 7,, thee ?lm: I-2'5 on: th‘ei ?rst:
device: di?'erss frame; the;
24s I
5."); 'mereL-yrs
in:thatztherpositionszandimeasures. of ithemarliersr
11; studs 18 are, so; medt?edf asa requiredibyf the;
V modi?ed positioni. offthee conductors: 7.9;‘. 893 81%,?
19a; IlIlasa-ndZB I or, (WhiChiWHlibeid’BSBI'ibt-B?i laten);.
vand by: l'onger brakingstinte», andltiiuv that; the; ?lm:
I12 5.; ‘carries: additional; markersz, controlling: the
switchingttromt one: device: tmthemthenl; These:
- additionalmarkersimay.consistsof two conductive’;
layers I.zlii?onezgneapsthainner‘endziofi'each layer!
like
of two layers: I214. positione‘di f-artli'en" int:
thez moving directions tartheh- median part? of their
film ataazsuitablee distance. Ail‘llayersinear-itiiea
V leadineeendxof thaiilmaare‘positionedzat one mare»
gin of: th'er?lm; and‘ all layerstneam: then-lagging?
end} are; positionedzaitithe opposites margin." The":v
?lma 225, ot'. the; second'jdeyice: canniesscorrespondi
ing- markers 226 and 22-13
Reierringato'rEigzi?,
’
.
‘
dmmsa Hittite-provided
, withzcincular COIldlICllOI‘S'i'IIQ; , 805' and 8i-lfiorllQ‘ag 86w
V and-.5 81a: respectiuelyrwliich; are. identical: tot-‘the I
conductors; indicateda with? the~;same=: numeral'sunl
Eig; ftithe‘conductorsm "andia?aibeingi'connectedE
to one pole of the .current source; Blaandlthecona
Of the time required for the entire-runof; the.
?lm. Ifit should be desired to interrupt the, scan_-~
ductiorst ‘[9,; 19a; 8.1;: andi? I‘a: being connected! to
that-other pole: this sourciezinth'e manner: andi
ning, the recording, the lightprojecting; or: any
other ‘described operation during this reversing»,
period], one or more additional?relaysl IZiLmay;v
these: circuits area controlled .byt'thesmarkers 111i
be provided. Each'relay I20 maybe excited by
circuits I2I or I22 which are suppliedby thehcur-r
rent source 84, comprise either the;.conductors ‘I9;
Oyelifth?lWiIBSZ and: devicesisliownzimliligr .6.-_ 7 All;
anthl?aiofsthe ?lmr I?iz-inst' '
‘manner
described-~
7
~
7
~
Inrthe modi?ecksystemnthesconductors; ‘mlandji
beforewvith neteltenceetocEi-gs
8-1:: orr'mazandi?l marespeetivelys arespositionedfata
onee'sideaoicthe conductor:allvorr‘knmrrespectiyelyi- >
and 89. or the conductors ‘l9aandg8?aand; are
closed by the layers TI. The switch of agrelatg' 40 Q11? the; other sides. miadditiona‘l, similareconduee»
ton-‘128;; on I v218a:respeetively: iSi arranged which?‘
I2Il maybe used to interrupt-the connection be
tween two Wires I23; and I24 = which ‘may.- bejpBiI'ISL I , conductorscanz
connected?‘ to:;t'he1 conductor 893'
of 'alcircuit ,used in any of. the 3 devices; shown: in;
Or; 8.0a; respectively;by~ thezlayersi- I261 andi I21;
those -:'0f these»: layers: which: are‘; positioned? nearl
Figs. 1 and 3, for, example parts“, of the circuit.
ratingnwitha the con-s“
M, of the circuit 62,_o_f the-circuitr'II or ofzthe;
circuit -‘ 73, whereby the transmission; o?eien‘als;
is r, interrupted whenever the; ?lm- does; > not‘ move;
atfull speed.
'
-
ductors 80 and I28, and'lltliose ofi'ithesevlayerse
which r; are: positionedinearrthe; other: end‘; of? ‘the
?lm: co-‘operatinge with‘ the‘: conductors - 80a" andl‘
According “to a modification of, my rinyentlongd 50 I288». Thegseconda device: comprisesj twoi-d‘rums';
ample time is provided, forv reducing; reversing;v
and- accelerating the speed ofgthe; ?lmzandi’fpri
The control; systems; ctr/both: devices i may ‘be; 1
shifting from one row to anotherkand anjunin-d
terrupted - recording: or reproduction‘ is, obtained
supplied: withrcurrenti fromatwoaoommion: sources»
by usingoa plurality.- of signal carriersor ?lms
“sand 93:; Eachsottthetwoasystemacomprises ia
alternatingly and by switchingiroml one carrier:
to another at the end of arowof signals. Each,
of these ?lms may be operated by va separate de
_. control-isystenr identical -:.to~:th‘atideseribedibeforer
withmeferenceztoe?‘ig. 5;; except i for the modl‘?cai #
tionstdescrib ed in rtheibllowing with: reference ‘to:
Fig. .8‘; Fig. 6:,- isetor bezi regarded‘i'ase a; twice used!- ‘
vicersubstantially identical to that descrilbedbe
fore, except for certain modi?cations of thecon'ev
trol system which will be, described inthe; fol
lowing;
'
For-example, two. recording ;or rep'roducing?ee vices; are used, ‘each of which’ includes a; ?lm.
comprising several rows in a_ manner. similar-to;
thevv?lm' '24. Preferably; the; recording; or, reproe»
ducing‘roperation of the .two devices-alternatei'sog
that, after the ?rst row-oflthe-?rst?lm has been;
used, the, ?rst row of the other ?lm is used,_there-~v
supplement; toyF’igz. 8, conly'thosesparts ofl‘i‘Fig. v6i"
60 being-shownr agairr ineFig: Biwhich :are necessary;
to show the co-operation with the additional com »
trol emeansvo?. thezmndi?edrinvention; ‘other: parts
whiclnoperate: imexactlyr'thersame mannerzaside-l
scrlbedtbefore‘being toniittediiiriEigaza-for:theisake =
65:
of; clearen:representation;
‘
~
I
'
' v
The additional control systemicomprises at-mow»
tor; I 2 S-aandttWordisks? 30.: and‘i.I‘31Iadriyen1byethe
motors-1229;; Breferablmi. the. parts’: I295: I301:
I3>I1are~coupledtcoeascially, andithertwo disksanay: ' '
after the second row of; the ?rst ?lmhtherisecondi
70 be .combinedzin onezzdisk, these: partsl-ibeing j'showntl
row. of the other ?lm; and so on untilvall rows;
of both ?lms have been used;
r
In- the vfollowing5 description of. this“ modi?ca
tion; those parts of: the ?rst. device which; are
separatelyamerely; for -the;-sak sot-"clearer: repreel
sentations.
V
'
'
,
Armless Idlrcanab’e operated. by;eithen=‘otv’two;
identical with partscrdescribced before-‘with refer; 752‘ exciting circuitser Q'ner 013:;v thesdmirouit's: is?» come-
nectedmir oneeside over: sliding contacts‘ similar“
2,468,293
12
visionsignals in the recording device, are not
immediately connected to the tubes 22, but one
to 82 to the conductors I28 and 228 and on the
other side to a contact I33 sliding on the disk I30.
of these wires is connected over a. wire I64 to a
The contact I33 can be connected to another
contact slidingly contacting the conductor I51
sliding contact I34 by either of four conductors
on disk I3I. As said before, conductor I51 is
I35 carried by the disk I30. ‘The contact I3_4
permanently connected to conductor I56. A wire
is connected over wire I31 to the other pole of
I65'is connected to a contact slidingly contacting
the current source 84. The other exciting circuit
the conductor I56, except when contacting the
of therelay I32 is similarly connected on‘ one side
insulating material of one of the gaps of I56,
to. the conductors I2Ba and 228a, on the other 10 and a wire I66 is connected to a sliding contact
side to-a sliding contact I38iwhich can be con
positioned on the’ conductor I56 at an angle of
nected by eitherof the conductors I35 to a sliding
90 degrees relative to‘the sliding contact of wire
contactf.l39 which is connected to wire I31:.
I65. vThe other vwire I4 is connected to two
. The switch arm of the relay I32 is connected
branch wires I62 and I63. The other ends of the
on one side overwire' I40 to one pole of "the cur
wires I62 and I65 are connected to the tube 22
rent source 93, and on the other side, when in 15 of the ?rst device, and the other ends of the wires
closed position, over the exciting circuit of ‘a
I63 and I66 are connected to the tube 22 of the
solenoid I4I to the other pole of 93. The sole
second device in the manner described before with
noid I4I has an axially movable core I42 carry;
reference to Fig. 1. ‘
ing a head I43 ?tting each of eight recesses I44
In the corresponding reproducing system, one
20
which are equidistantly distributed over the pe
of the wires 13 which are connected to the sender
riphery of the disk. I30. When the solenoid is
14 has its other end connected to the wire I64,
excited, the head I43 is withdrawn from the en
and the other wire 13 has its corresponding end
gagement with the respective recess I44 against
connected to the branch wires I62 and I63. The
the pressure of a spring I46. '
'
wires I62 and I65 are connected, instead to a
tube 22, to the cell 68 of the ?rst device, and the
wires I63 and I66 are correspondingly connected
to the .cell 68 of the second device.
Similar control means may be provided for the
The other end of the core I42 carries a con-tact
arm I41 which is insulated from the core and, in
the withdrawn position of the head I43, forms a
conductive bridge between two contacts I49 and
I50 whereby a circuit I40, I52, I53 operating the
motor I29 is closed. '
,
30
,
The disk I3I'carries circular, conductors I54,
I55, I56, I51, I58 and I59 which may be posi
tioned on thecylindricalperiphery of the disk,
.sound'signals. For example, wires I61, I60, I69,
I16 and HI and the conductors I58 and I59 may
co-operate with the. wires 62 and the tubes 63 in
the recording system or with the wires 1| and the
cells 69 in the reproducing system in the same
but are'shown on a broad side of the disk for
‘manner as the wires I62, I63, I64, I65 and I66
the sake of clearer representation. The conduc- ° and the conductors I56 and I51 co-operate with
tors I55, I51 and I59 form full circles. The con
ductor I54 has two arc-shaped gaps, each smaller
than 90 degrees and ?lled’ out with insulating
the wires I4 and the tubes 22 in the recording
system or with the wires ‘I3 and the cells 68 in
the reproducing system.
material indicated by‘ dotted lines. The conduc
In the modi?ed form, the invention operates as
40 r
tors I56 and I58 have similar gaps of about 90"
follows:
degrees. Both arc-shaped parts of the conductor 1
'At the start, the disks I30 and I3I are in the
I54 are permanently connected to‘the conductor
positions shown in Fig. 8. The relay I32 is not
I55 by conductors I60 carried by the disk I3I,
excited and the circuits operating the solenoid
and the arcs of the conductors I56 and I58 are
I“ and the motor I29 are disconnected. The
similarly permanently connected to the conduc
circuit operating the motor 48 is closed over the
tor I51 or I59 respectively.
conductors I54 and I55. The circuit operating
’
‘
The wirev I II leading to the common pole of
the reversible motor 48 is connected to a station
the motor I48 is disconnected at a gap of the
conductor I54. Wire I64 is connected to wire
ary contact slidably contacting the conductor I54,
I65 over the conductors I51 and I56, and wire I69
except when this contact contacts the insulating‘ 50 is connected to wire I10 over the conductors I59
material of one of the gaps of I54. The conduc
and~I58 whereby the system is set for operation
tors I54,,:I60 and I55 connect the wire III to an
of the ?rst device.
The operation of the ?rst device starts in the
manner described before. When the markers I26
connection‘replaces the- connection shown in Fig. ' > and I21 positioned near the leading end of the
6 between wire III and this pole of the current
?lm I25 contact the conductors 80 and I28, this
source; ‘The interrupter relay 95 may be omitted
does not close the corresponding exciting circuit
other sliding contact which is connected by Wire I6I to one pole of the current 'source 93. This
in the modi?ed system. The two other poles of
of the relay I32 because this circuit is interrupted
the motor 48 are connected by wires H2 or II3 I_
between the contacts I33 and I34.
60
to the other pole of 93 in the manner shown in
.When the marker I21 positioned near the
Fig. 6.
lagging end of the ?lm I25 contacts the conduc
The corresponding motor I48 of the second de
tors 69a and mm, the other exciting circuit of
vice is similarly connected, a wire 2II leading to '
the relay I32 is closed, and consequently the relay
a sliding contact positioned on the conductor I54 '
closes the circuit exciting the solenoid MI. The
at an angle of 90 degrees relative to. the sliding
contact of the Wire III.
>
' .
~
Meansare provided in the modi?ed recording
system to control the cathode ray tube 22 of the
?rst device and that of the second device alter
core I42 moves to the right side, disengaging
the head I43'from the recess I44 of the disk I30
and ‘closing the circuit operating the motor I29
by means of the contact arm I41. The motor
I29 turns together with the disks I30 and I3I
70
natinglyby the television signals generated by
until, after an eighth of a turn in clockwise di
the scanning device, and the same means maybe
rection, the spring I46 moves the head I43 into
used in the corresponding reproducing device for
the next recess I44, stopping the‘disks and inter
connecting the cell 68 of the ?rst device andthat
rupting the contacts I49 and I56. During this
of the second deviceaalternatingly to the sender
turning movement, the conductor I54 reaches
14. For example, the wires I4 carrying the tele 75
2,408,293
13
14
-
a position‘where this conductor closes the circuit
operating the motor I 48. This latter motor starts
times, being the lagging ends due to the reversal
of the movement.
With the moving direction
operative position.
Then, the operation con
and is gradually accelerated while the motor #8
reversed and with the second rows of the ?lms in
continues running at full speed and the ?rst de
operative position, the operation continues in the
vice continues the recording or reproducing oper C1 manner described before.
ation.
'
After the eighth turning step of the disks I30
At the time when the motor MB has reached its
and I 3 i , the control system is again in its original
full speed or shortly thereafter, the marker I26
position and the third rows of the ?lms are in
positioned near the lagging end of the ?lm I25
contacts the conductors 88a and IZBa, turning 10 tinues until all rows have been used.
the disks £36 and I3I a second step of an eighth
of a turn in the manner described before. Dur
ing this turning movement, the conductor I5A
' I desire it understood that my invention is not
con?ned to the operations and devices described
and shown, the same being merely illustrative,
reaches a position where the circuit operating the
and that my invention may be carried out in
motor 48 is interrupted by a gap in this conduc
other ways Without departing from the spirit of
tor. At the same time or shortly thereafter, the
my invention as it is obvious that the operations
marker l’? positioned near the lagging end of
and devices described and shown are only a few
the ?lm I25 causes gradual reduction of motor
of the many that may be employed to attain the
tB’s speed and then, the extension 18 of this
objects or" my invention.
marker causes the ?lm 525 to shift to the next 20
Having described the nature of my invention
row and switches the motor 43 from one moving
and how it operates, what I claim and desire to
direction to the reverse direction in the manner
secure by Letters Patent is:
described before with reference to Fig. 6. The
1. A device for use in a television method com
motor #8 does, however, not start its reverse
prising the recording of television signals, said
movement before the disk HI has made another
device comprising a ?lm suf?ciently broad for
(third) step. »
,
several rows of signals, a drum having a cylin
Also during the second step of the disks I39
drical surface contacted by one side of said ?lm,
I and I3I, the conductor E56 loses contact with
a plurality of conductors carried by said drum on
the Wire I55 and, at the same moment, comes in
said contacted surface, a conductive layer carried
contact with the wire I66, and the conductor I 58
by said ?lm on said contacting surface and ex
loses contact with the wire I13 and comes in
tending over a portion of the length of said ?lm,
contact with the wire I'II whereby the system
means to rotate said drum and to move said ?lm
is set for operation of the second device which,
in
contact with said drum, and electric circuits
at this time, is running with full speed.
controlling said moving means, said circuits com
During the run of the second device, the sys 35 prising said conductors whereby said layer acts
tem operates in the same manner as during the
described run of the ?rst device, except that the
two devices have exchanged their roles. A third
turning step of the disks I39 and NH is caused
by the lagging marker 22? whereby the motor 48,
the moving direction of which has been reversed
before, is started. A fourth step is caused by
as a temporary connection for said conductors.
2. A device for use in a television method com
prising the recording of television signals, said
device comprising a ?lm sufficiently broad for
several rows of signals, a drum having a cylin
drical surface contacted by one side of said ?lm,
a plurality of conductors carried by said drum
the lagging marker 226 whereby the recording or '
on said contacted surface, a conductive layer car
reproducing operation is ‘switched from the sec
ried by said ?lm on said contacting side and ex
ond device to the ?rst device now running in op 45 tending over a portion of the length of said ?lm,
posite direction with the second signal row in
said layer having two different parts connecting
operative position.
temporarily some of said conductors, one of said
At the beginning of each of the four ?rst steps,
parts connecting conductors which are not con
one of the four conductors I35 connects the con
nected by the other part, means to rotate said
tacts 533 and 539 while the contacts I33 and I34 50 drum and to move said ?lm in contact with said
are disconnected. After the fourth step, the con
drum, means to brake said movement, means to
tacts I38 and I39 are disconnected, and at the
shift said ?lm across the moving direction, means
beginning of each of the following four steps, the
to reverse said moving direction, electrical circontacts I33 and E34 are connected by one of the
cuits controlling said braking means and compris
conductors I35 whereby these latter four steps
ing some of said conductors, and electric circuits
are caused by those markers I21, I26’, 22'! and
controlling said shifting and reversing and com
226 which are positioned near the other ends of
prising others of said conductors.
the ?lms i 25 and-225. These other ends, at these
ALAN M. CARMEL.
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