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Патент USA US2408335

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Sept. 24,1946.‘
I D. s. OLIVER
LAPPING METHOD AND MACHINE
' Filed July 31, 1944
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Sept. 24, 1946.
D. S. OLIVER
. 2,408,334
LAPPING METHOD AND MACHINE
Filed July 31, 1944 '
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Patented Sept. 24, 1946 ‘
2,408,334
' _ UNIT-ED, srA-trss ,fiasriairrrv OFFICE
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"2,408,334
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LAPPING METHOD AND MACHINE '_ ~
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Delbert S.‘ Oliver, Euclid, Ohio, 'assignor to Pesco
' , ‘Products 00;, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of
Ohio
Application July'31, 1944,._Serial.No. 547,389. .
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. (ii/claims.
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<o1i5'1_:13i)
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drawingsvforming a part thereof and wherein:
Fig. l ‘is a view in elevation indicating sche
matically an arrangement incorporating, a pre
This invention relates to arrangements for
highly and accurately ?nishing rotative bearing
and ‘sealing surfaces particularly those having
an annularorringshape.
,
ferred embodiment of my. invention;
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Prior to this invention it has been found ex
ta
tremely dif?cult to properly ?nish a'rad-ially ex
tending bearing and seal surface on 'a‘drive shaft.
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v
Fig. 2 is a broken away sectional view
taken
substantially on the line '2-—-2 of Fig.1;
Fig.’ 3 is a broken away sectional view taken
substantially on the line 3+3 of Fig. 1.;
_ ‘
Equal di?iculty has been encountered'in an effort
._,Fig. 4 is a broken away sectional view of an
to accurately?nish the bearing and seal surface
on the ring portion of adiaphragm seal assembly. 10 alternative, modi?ed embodiment of my invenf
I have found that one of the principal reasons
for the 'di?culty encountered results from the
.di?’erences in the relative linear velocity between
the particles of the abrasive and the’ surface be
ing ?nished.
In order to produce a substantially
perfectbearing and seal surface this condition
had to be corrected and some; arrangement
tionyand
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. Fig. 5 is a broken away sectional view taken
I substantially on the line 5v—5_of Fig. ll. 3.
Referring now in greater detail to the ?gures
of the drawings and ?rst to the preferred embod
iment shown in Figs. 1 to the arrangement in?
corporating my invention is composed generally
of an abrading or lapping tool assembly A, a-work
worked out whereby substantially uniform abrad
piece holding assembly 13 adapted to hold a work
ing action could be accomplished throughoutthe
bearing and seal surface notwithstanding; the 20 piece C in proper relation to the lapping tool, a
fact that this surface was-annular or circular
turning power transmissionaassembly indicated
in shape.
generally at D and a source of power E. g
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It is a principal object of- this invention to
provide. a ?nishing arrangement, for annular
or ring-shaped bearing surfaces wherein the
abrading means is given a linear relative velocity
relative to the ‘bearing surface throughout the
radial extent thereof that is ‘substantially
_
V The present invention is directed particularly
to the construction» and mode of coaction-of
abrading or lapping tool assembly. A and work
‘ holding assembly B whereby to provide’ a more
' perfect annular or circular sealand bearing sur
face on work piece C.
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W
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Abrading or lapping tool assembly A comprises
It isa further object to provide in a finishing
a base l6 rotatably supporting the ?nishing vtool
arrangement of the present‘ typewan improved
holding means for the workpiece having abear
assembly for turning about a vertical axis. A
‘ pair of concentric coaxially‘v extending radially
spaced walls or lands II and I2 terminate inra
ingsurface thereon to be ?nished, the work hold,-v
ing means being effective to presentthebearing
. ingsurfaces I la and Ma, each of these terminal
uniform.
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holding means for the abrading ‘material and
corresponding pair of ?nishing material supports
surface with reference to'the abrading material
surfaces-being disposed in a plane perpendicular
and support’ therefor inyfsuch a manner that roe ~ .
to theaxis of rotation of the ?nishing tool as
tation of-thework holder and of the abrading
sembly A.»
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material .holderin the same direction at selected
The interveningspace between walls l l and I2
is preferably, enlarged tonprovide a chamber 13
of. substantially thev same order between all of
the particles'of ‘the abrasive and the-porticnsof
for the reception of anyenlargement that may
be present on the work piece C being ?nished as
the bearing surfaces-contacted thereby.
will appear.
relative speedslproduces relativeli-near yelocity
v _.
.A further and more detailed object is the pro-,
The space [4 between the ?nishing
material or. abrasive supporting material-sur
vision in an arrangementv of ‘the present ‘type of > ' faces I la and Ilia forms a very important‘part in
a novel and particularly effective-holding and
' tensioning arrangement for/abrasive sheet mate
rial-suchas emery cloth or sandpaper and func
tioning to give the requisite backing-support to
the sheet/when engaged by the bearing surface
to be ?nished thereby.
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Other: and; more detailed» obiects, advantages"
and uses-of
invention ~ will become apparent
from, a reading of the following‘ speci?cation.
taken inv connection with the ‘accom'panyingv
the mode of coaction necessary. to .th’e'accoma
plishment of the substantially perfectbearing
and seal surface‘ on the work piece as will ap
pear. To facilitate the introduction of any ven
largement that may be present on the work piece
C there is provided- an enlarged. opening Hi. It
will be furtherincted thatwall terminal‘surfaces
Ho, and l2a each have a radial dimension that
is only a fraction of the total radial dimension of
l the Work piece and that‘the bearing seal surface
2,408,334
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of the work piece to be ?nished overlaps wall
terminal surface I2a radially outwardly and Wall
terminal surface I Ia radially inwardly.
Abrasive supporting surfaces I Ia and I2a pref
erably perform their function by having loose
abrasive powder applied thereto. However, as
be no greater than the radial width of the sur
face 26 to be ?nished and preferably slightly
smaller. It is of still further importance that
the annular surfaces 25 overlap wall terminal
surface Ila radially inwardly as indicated at 25a
and likewise overlap outer terminal wall surface
will appear from a description of the modi?ec'
I2a radially outwardly as indicated at 2612.
form of my invention'presented in Figs. 4 and5,
have found that particularly elfective results are
obtained if the mean radius rI2 of outer termina;
I
this abrasive or ?nishing function may' be ac;
complished by positioning a suitable bonded. 10 wall surfaces In is made to be of the order of
abrasive sheet such as emery cloth or sandpaper
in supporting contact with surfaces I Ia and I2a.
The work holding assembly B preferably com
prises a rotatable holding member proper I'l
formed with a coaxial bore I3 having splines I9
protruding radially inwardly from the wall there
of for cooperation with complementarily formed
splines 21 on the work piece C for effecting the.
driving thereof. The terminal of bore I8 is pro
vided with a resilient cushioning ring 2 I function
about six times the value of the mean radius 126
of surface 26 to be ?nished. By having the mean
radius rI I of inner wall surface i Ia and the mean
radius N2 of outer wall surface I2a arranged as
described, employing a width of surfaces Ila and
I211 not greater than the width of annular sur—
face 26 there results an overlapping between the
several surfaces both radially inwardly and radi
ally outwardly. It will now appear that when
the work piece C is rotated'in the same direction
as the tool assembly A the relative velocity be
ing to allow' for the necessary angular adjust
tween the outer lapping face I'Za. and annular
ments between the holder and the work piece 0
surface 26 will be the difference between the linear
and for holding the same'?rmly but resiliently
velocity of the surface I2a and the linear velocity
against the abrading or lapping tool A.
The work piece C may take a number of dif 25 of the surface 26.‘ The relative velocity between
the inner lapping surface Ila and the annular
ferent forms the essential structure of each of
surface 26 will be the sum of the velocity of the
which includes an annular or ring shaped bearing
inner lapping surface Na and the velocity of
and seal surface 26 extending in a radial plane
the surface 26. While it will be apparent that,
perpendicular to the normal axis of rotation of
strictly speaking, this is only true as regards an
the work piece C. The work piece C must be
average taken with reference to the median radii
arranged in driving relation to the holder B and
TI I, M2, and T26, it'is important to note that for
in the present instance this is accomplished by
all practical purposes this arrangement and mode
the splines 21 on the work piece cooperating with
of coaction produces a substantially perfectly ?at
the complementary splines IS on the holder.
surface. In other words, by means'of this ar
The particular work piece C shown in Fig. 3
rangement it is possible for all practical pur
further includes a reduced cross section coaxial
poses, to compensate for the fact that the outer
stem 28 terminating in a second enlargement 29
lapping surface .I2a is moving faster than the
which may also have splines thereon. The pres
inner surface Na and to thus obtain the same
ent abrading tool assembly A is particularly ef
fective for cooperation with this type of work 40 relative velocity between the abrading particles
and the work surface 26 on both sides of the work
piece since the reduced cross section stem 28
piece C. It is found that the lapping-surfaces
readily passes between spaced walls II and I2
Ila and I2_a remain true for a long period of
and-the enlarged chamber I3 provides for en
largement 29 carried on the terminal portion of
continuous operation and require resurfacing
the work piece.
only after several hundred pieces have been ?n
Turning power transmission assembly D may
take various forms the essential characteristic
required thereof being that abrading or lapping
tool assembly A must be rotated in the same di
ished.
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For the purpose of applying rotative power to
abrading tool assembly A and work piece holder
assembly B, transmission assembly D'is provided
rection as work holding assembly and work piece 50 which may comprise a pulley 3| receiving power
fromiany suitable source indicated generally at
C. Furthermore the respective turning rate must
E as being in the form of a drive belt. Pulley
3| may drive work holder assembly B directly and
through‘ means of a second pulley 32 and belt 33
ticable the ideal abrading conditions. It is de
sired that the relative linear velocity between 55 drives a thirdpulley'34.‘ Through a connecting
drive shaft 36 pulley 34 drives a fourth pulley 3'1
any radial point on the ring or annular shaped
bearing and seal surface 26 and the abrading
- in turnconnected by a belt38 to a pulley 39 di
be properly correlated with reference to one an
other in order to approximate as near as prac
particles contacting the same be substantially
rectly associated with abrading tool assembly A.
By the proper ‘choice of the respective sizes of
the same throughout both for the inner abrading
material supporting surface Na and *the outer 60 the several pulleys the desired optimum relative
speediof rotation can be readily effected between
surface I2a. It is believed that the present ar
abrading tool assembly A and work piece C. I
rangement more nearly approximates this ideal
prefer to turn abrading tool assembly A three
condition than any other heretofore available.
revolutions while turning work piece C two revolu
By the optimum choice of the relative dimensions
of surfaces I I a of the tool assembly and the bear 65 tions. This has been found to give very satis
ing seal surface 26 ,of the work piece and by
choosing the optimum relative rate of rotation
of the tool assembly and the work piece the above
factory results.
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' Turning now to the alternative modi?cation of
my invention shown in Figs. ‘land 5, it will be
apparent that the same fundamental features are
ideal mode of coaction is approximately realized.
I have found that particularly effective results 70 involved, this ‘arrangement being particularly
adapted for ?nishing a radially extending bear
are obtained by having the radii of walls I I and
ing and seal surface of the annular type on a
I2 several times as large as the radius of the an
work piece having no protuberance extending
nular surface to be ?nished. In addition it is
axially in the direction of the abrading surface
important that the radial width of the respective
abrasive material supporting surfaces l I‘! and I241 75 thus making it practicable to employ a bonded
e
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2,408,334
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.zsupported-sealgzfand bearing ‘:ring.
5.
.abrasi-ve such? aszemery clothrorsandpaper. ‘ The
.abrading tool assembly 2A; andi-theg-work; holder
proper l.28.fastened about anopening through the
radial inner portionzof a ?exible diaphragm sup
port czlzaawlcyimeans of ‘a fastening: ring l28b
the lowetpjortion of ‘which; cooperates with; ?ex
assembly; 23 are arranged to bezdri-ven in-gavsimilar
manner totha-t described inv the ?rstgmodi?ca
tion,‘ the latter functioning to,:hold ‘and .‘present
the workpiece "2C for ?nishing engagement-‘with
the .abrading sheet forming part of theabrading
=
1:001 assembly.
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A
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.ible ring . I21 1 for effectingthe ?exible driving
‘
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The abradingtool assembly 2-A5-compriSe‘S ~con~
' centric coaxiallyextending walls-fl ll and~H2_cor
. The arrange‘
;mentshown‘co'mprises :a ‘seal and bearing ring
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relationship.
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As in :the case :of. the modi?cation xof'Figu 1,. it
1O will be seen that the features: of Icriti'calim
portance include the provision of radially spaced
responding to walls H and 1250f the ?rst modi?
cation ‘and terminating :in_: abrasive ‘sheet material
hacking ‘surfaces J .I la. and Him
In :the more
speci?c aspects of this modi?cation it is. also
I supporting spaced~apart surfaces 1 Ma and “2e.
, These surfaces I'I la and, l 12a arelikewise dis:
important that walllrlsurfaces .1 illlaf'and 1112a be
‘posed int-a plane perpendicular to the axis 10f 315 1 overlapped-both radially outwardly. and radially
inwardly‘ by'thei‘bearing and; ring surface 126.»
rotation of tool assembly 2A. -'I‘heradius,»tuddth,
'.:‘.'I'his..;second modi?cation is=of special value
and other relationships of ‘terminal-wall surfaces '
illa and “2a with reference to thQfWOl'kaI?BCG " in'connec'tion ‘with ?nishing bearing and seal
surfaces .onibronze bearing rings, itbeing-quite
20 to be ?nished [are determined in accordance
with the same fundamentals described in connece 2O important that‘the bearing surface ‘bemade sub;
stantially perfectly flat. > It-has been found nec
tion with the ?rstmodi?cation; .Ilfhe ‘periphery
’ of outer wall surface :I l=2a merges with :aibeveled
' surface portion H2b for cooperation with radial
' essary tohold'th'ese surfaces to a'per-l'ection‘with
terminal portions of. a, sheet of abrasive cloth
such as emery cloth_ or sandpaper in‘ asmanner ‘as
will appear. An embracing ring M20 is received
about‘the outer periphery; of. wall H2 and is
formed“ with a radially inwardly/extendingp'ro
tuberance 1 12d complementarily formedxon the
in the limits of two light bands. .'Bronze' or‘iany
soft material has a tendency to ‘charge when
being lapped by a loose abrasive. It is there-
>
fore desirable. that .a bonded'abrasive such '- as
emerycloth be used and this ‘modification lends
itself especially to the use of emery‘cloth.
The
novel features of the holding assemblyare-of
inner, side thereof-Ifor,,cooperation with beveled ‘.
surface5 llZb- andeffectiveto ?rmly engage and
applyv the requisite-tension to ‘the ‘abrasive cloth
particular advantage in maintaining the‘ requisite
tens'ionof Ithe'emery cloth in firm-engagement
I5l by contact with-the peripheral :portion' I52‘
perfection ‘in the ?nish ofthe bearing and seal‘
thereofJ “This; results in "snug. engagement be
tween the abrasive cloth,_-l5l and. terminal‘rsur
faces I I la and -l l2a,~these Qlatter surfaces func-.
tioning asqa backing support for the abrasive
cloth and rendering the same effective in the ‘de
sired critical areas sin-contact with the bearing
and seal surface I26 of the work piece 20 being 40
?nished.
7 I
Clamping ring
H20 is fastened in abrasive ,
with the backing surfaces thus insuring greater
surface‘.
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While my invention ‘has ‘been disclosed ‘in Tech
‘ nection with certain speci?c embodiments there
of it is to lbe‘understoo'dv that this is 'by way-of
exampleand not limitation, it being "intended that
my invention be de?ned by the appended claims.
I claim:
7
1. An apparatus for lapping a work piece hav
ing a. headed stem and a ?at radial seal flange
spaced from the head; the sealsurface having
cloth engaging position by means of a'radially
an'annular contour arranged in- a plane at a
_ extending locking pin |I2e carried by the wall
H2 and cooperating with a bayonet slot H2)‘ 115 right angle to and concentric with the stem axis;
said apparatus comprising a rotatable holder sup
formed in ring H20.
I
porting the Work piece; and a lapping assembly
Work holding assembly 2B comprises upstand
ing rotatable supporting shaft .l H formed with ' , opposing said holder comprising a base rotatable
on an axis parallel with and spaced from the
an internal bore l Ila receiving a coilcompression
spring in engagement with the inner terminal 50 holder axis; two coaxial parallel walls of sub
stantial height having confronting abrasive sup
thereof, the outer terminal of this spring engage
porting ?anges at their ends and de?ning a rela
ing the closed end of a work supporting member .
tively deep chamber the entrance to which is '
or bonnet proper I I‘lc. Shaft H1 is provided with
restricted by said ?anges, the stem and head of
coaxial splines cooperating with complementarily
the work piece being received in said chamber
formed splines l 11d formed on the inner periph
‘and entrance thereto; and radially alined recesses
ery of Work supporting bonnet l I'Ic for effect
in‘ said ?anges effecting the insertion of the work
ing driving relation therebetween. Work sup
piece head into said chamber thereby to engage
porting bonnet “1c is formed on the outer por
the seal ?ange with the abrasive supporting
tion thereof with a recessed shoulder for the re
ception of a flexible ring l2! effective to resil 60 ?anges of the lapping assembly.
iently and drivingly support the work piece 2C.
- '2. An apparatus for lapping a work piece as
The spring “1b is effective to supply the neces
sary axial pressure through the intervening ?ex
ible ring |2| to cause the desired abrading action
de?ned in claim 1 wherein yieldable cushioning
on annular bearing and sealed ring surface I25,
between the holder and work piece.
while at the same time this ?exible ring insures
means are interposed between the holder and the
seal ?ange to accommodate angular adjustment
I
3. An apparatus for lapping a work piece hav
the precise alignment required between bearing
, ing a headed stem and a flat radial seal ?ange;
and seal surface I26 andthe underlying surfaces
Illa and HM carry the abrading sheet in sup
said apparatus comprising a rotatable holder sup
porting the work piece; and a lapping assembly
opposing said holder comprising a base rotatable
on an axis parallel with and spaced from the
holder axis; and two coaxial parallel walls of
ported relation thereon.
'
The particular work piece 2C is characterized '
by the absence of any axially extending pro- .
tuberance that would interfere with the proper
functioning of the abrasive cloth and‘ it may in
clude, by way of example, a flexible diaphragm'
substantial‘ height having ‘concentric confront
ing abrasive supporting ?anges at their ends thus
to de?ne a relatively deep chamber the entrance
£408,334
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to which is restricted by said ?ang'es,said ?anges
surfaces, said walls-andg ?anges de?ning a rela
being spaced from each other a ‘distance less than
tively deep "chamber'the entrance to which is re
theldiameter of the work piece head, the stem
and~ head of ‘the work piece being received in
said chamber and entrance thereto, at least one
of said ?anges having an‘ asymmetric‘ region
stricted by said ?anges, the distance between the
confronting portions of said ‘flanges being less
than the diameter of the work piece head,’ the
head‘ and stem of the workpiece being received
adapted to e?ect the insertion'of the work piece
head into said chamber thus to engage the seal
respectivelyiin said chamber and the entrance
thereto, said restricted entrance having an en
?ange with the abrasive supporting ?anges of
the lapping assembly.
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4. An apparatus for lapping a work piece which
vhas a headed stem and an annular seal ?ange,
comprising a rotatable work supporting holder;
and a lapping assembly opposing said holder com
prising a base rotatable on an axis radially oil‘
set from the axis of said holder; spaced 00110811?
tric walls of substantial height upstanding from
10
larged region for permitting the introduction of
the work piece headinto said chamber past said
?anges, thus‘ providing for engagement of, said
seal ?ange with said abrasive receiving surfaces. -
6. An apparatus for lappinga work piece hav
ing a headed stem and a ?atradial'seal ?ange
spaced from the head, the seal surface having
an annular contour ‘arranged in a plane perpen
dicular to and concentric With the stem axis;
said apparatus comprising a rotatable holder sup
wards each other into the space between. said
porting the work piece; and a, lapping assembly
walls and having abrasive supporting surfaces 20 opposing said holder comprising abase rotatable
that ‘oppose opposite regions of said seal ?ange,
on an axis parallel‘ with vandspaced from the
said ‘base; ?anges on said walls projecting to
said walls de?ning an annular chamber the en
trance to which is restricted by said wall ?anges,
.the head and stem of said work piece being re
holder'axis; means on said base de?ning a rela
tively deep annular ‘chamber having radially
spaced ‘overhanging concentrically arranged
ceived in said chamber and the entrance there 25 ?ange portions the ‘outer surfaces of which are
to; and at least one of said wall ?anges having
adapted to receive'abrasivematerial, said ?anges
an-asymmetric region of su?icient dimensions to
extending towards each other in overhanging re
effect the ready insertion of the work piece head
lation'to the outer portion of said chamber there
into said chamber thus to engage the seal ?ange
by providing a restricted entrance of less width
with said abrasive supporting ?anges.
30 than ‘the-‘diameter of the work piece head, the
5. An apparatus for lapping a work piece hav
head and stem of the-work piece being received
ing a headed stem and a ‘?at radial seal ?ange;
respectively in said chamber and the entrance
said apparatus comprising a rotatable holder sup
thereto; said restricted entrance having an en
" porting the work piece; and a lapping assembly
larged' region for‘ permitting the introduction of
opposing said holder comprising a base rotatable 35 the work piece head into said chamber past said
on an axis parallel with and spaced from the
?anges, thus providing for engagement of said
holder axis; and two annular parallel walls of
seal ?ange with said abrasive supporting sur
substantial height having concentric confront
faces.
ing ?anges which provide abrasive supporting
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DELBERT S. OLIVER.
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