Патент USA US2408335код для вставки
Sept. 24,1946.‘ I D. s. OLIVER LAPPING METHOD AND MACHINE ' Filed July 31, 1944 2119'. j - .j | m , v .' ' 2,408,334. ' '2 Sheets-Sheet 1 a] E / ' 3,9 1» ' Zea/Z672‘! liver $ Sept. 24, 1946. D. S. OLIVER . 2,408,334 LAPPING METHOD AND MACHINE Filed July 31, 1944 ' 33.: 117 I 6 2 Sheets-Shee't 2 4, 26' 1/7 S_. K _ f'lverzflorr eZZer'Z 5 Oliver‘ , a2. Patented Sept. 24, 1946 ‘ 2,408,334 ' _ UNIT-ED, srA-trss ,fiasriairrrv OFFICE ’ . _ I ‘I, "2,408,334 I LAPPING METHOD AND MACHINE '_ ~ ~ Delbert S.‘ Oliver, Euclid, Ohio, 'assignor to Pesco ' , ‘Products 00;, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application July'31, 1944,._Serial.No. 547,389. . ' . . (ii/claims. l I , <o1i5'1_:13i) ’ . drawingsvforming a part thereof and wherein: Fig. l ‘is a view in elevation indicating sche matically an arrangement incorporating, a pre This invention relates to arrangements for highly and accurately ?nishing rotative bearing and ‘sealing surfaces particularly those having an annularorringshape. , ferred embodiment of my. invention; - Prior to this invention it has been found ex ta tremely dif?cult to properly ?nish a'rad-ially ex tending bearing and seal surface on 'a‘drive shaft. - v Fig. 2 is a broken away sectional view taken substantially on the line '2-—-2 of Fig.1; Fig.’ 3 is a broken away sectional view taken substantially on the line 3+3 of Fig. 1.; _ ‘ Equal di?iculty has been encountered'in an effort ._,Fig. 4 is a broken away sectional view of an to accurately?nish the bearing and seal surface on the ring portion of adiaphragm seal assembly. 10 alternative, modi?ed embodiment of my invenf I have found that one of the principal reasons for the 'di?culty encountered results from the .di?’erences in the relative linear velocity between the particles of the abrasive and the’ surface be ing ?nished. In order to produce a substantially perfectbearing and seal surface this condition had to be corrected and some; arrangement tionyand . I ~l , g' _ w . Fig. 5 is a broken away sectional view taken I substantially on the line 5v—5_of Fig. ll. 3. Referring now in greater detail to the ?gures of the drawings and ?rst to the preferred embod iment shown in Figs. 1 to the arrangement in? corporating my invention is composed generally of an abrading or lapping tool assembly A, a-work worked out whereby substantially uniform abrad piece holding assembly 13 adapted to hold a work ing action could be accomplished throughoutthe bearing and seal surface notwithstanding; the 20 piece C in proper relation to the lapping tool, a fact that this surface was-annular or circular turning power transmissionaassembly indicated in shape. generally at D and a source of power E. g ‘ p ’ g 7 It is a principal object of- this invention to provide. a ?nishing arrangement, for annular or ring-shaped bearing surfaces wherein the abrading means is given a linear relative velocity relative to the ‘bearing surface throughout the radial extent thereof that is ‘substantially _ V The present invention is directed particularly to the construction» and mode of coaction-of abrading or lapping tool assembly. A and work ‘ holding assembly B whereby to provide’ a more ' perfect annular or circular sealand bearing sur face on work piece C. ' I v W - Abrading or lapping tool assembly A comprises It isa further object to provide in a finishing a base l6 rotatably supporting the ?nishing vtool arrangement of the present‘ typewan improved holding means for the workpiece having abear assembly for turning about a vertical axis. A ‘ pair of concentric coaxially‘v extending radially spaced walls or lands II and I2 terminate inra ingsurface thereon to be ?nished, the work hold,-v ing means being effective to presentthebearing . ingsurfaces I la and Ma, each of these terminal uniform. ‘ 1 I 1 holding means for the abrading ‘material and corresponding pair of ?nishing material supports surface with reference to'the abrading material surfaces-being disposed in a plane perpendicular and support’ therefor inyfsuch a manner that roe ~ . to theaxis of rotation of the ?nishing tool as tation of-thework holder and of the abrading sembly A.» 3 I , _ material .holderin the same direction at selected The interveningspace between walls l l and I2 is preferably, enlarged tonprovide a chamber 13 of. substantially thev same order between all of the particles'of ‘the abrasive and the-porticnsof for the reception of anyenlargement that may be present on the work piece C being ?nished as the bearing surfaces-contacted thereby. will appear. relative speedslproduces relativeli-near yelocity v _. .A further and more detailed object is the pro-, The space [4 between the ?nishing material or. abrasive supporting material-sur vision in an arrangementv of ‘the present ‘type of > ' faces I la and Ilia forms a very important‘part in a novel and particularly effective-holding and ' tensioning arrangement for/abrasive sheet mate rial-suchas emery cloth or sandpaper and func tioning to give the requisite backing-support to the sheet/when engaged by the bearing surface to be ?nished thereby. ' » ‘ ~ Other: and; more detailed» obiects, advantages" and uses-of invention ~ will become apparent from, a reading of the following‘ speci?cation. taken inv connection with the ‘accom'panyingv the mode of coaction necessary. to .th’e'accoma plishment of the substantially perfectbearing and seal surface‘ on the work piece as will ap pear. To facilitate the introduction of any ven largement that may be present on the work piece C there is provided- an enlarged. opening Hi. It will be furtherincted thatwall terminal‘surfaces Ho, and l2a each have a radial dimension that is only a fraction of the total radial dimension of l the Work piece and that‘the bearing seal surface 2,408,334 p _. 3 of the work piece to be ?nished overlaps wall terminal surface I2a radially outwardly and Wall terminal surface I Ia radially inwardly. Abrasive supporting surfaces I Ia and I2a pref erably perform their function by having loose abrasive powder applied thereto. However, as be no greater than the radial width of the sur face 26 to be ?nished and preferably slightly smaller. It is of still further importance that the annular surfaces 25 overlap wall terminal surface Ila radially inwardly as indicated at 25a and likewise overlap outer terminal wall surface will appear from a description of the modi?ec' I2a radially outwardly as indicated at 2612. form of my invention'presented in Figs. 4 and5, have found that particularly elfective results are obtained if the mean radius rI2 of outer termina; I this abrasive or ?nishing function may' be ac; complished by positioning a suitable bonded. 10 wall surfaces In is made to be of the order of abrasive sheet such as emery cloth or sandpaper in supporting contact with surfaces I Ia and I2a. The work holding assembly B preferably com prises a rotatable holding member proper I'l formed with a coaxial bore I3 having splines I9 protruding radially inwardly from the wall there of for cooperation with complementarily formed splines 21 on the work piece C for effecting the. driving thereof. The terminal of bore I8 is pro vided with a resilient cushioning ring 2 I function about six times the value of the mean radius 126 of surface 26 to be ?nished. By having the mean radius rI I of inner wall surface i Ia and the mean radius N2 of outer wall surface I2a arranged as described, employing a width of surfaces Ila and I211 not greater than the width of annular sur— face 26 there results an overlapping between the several surfaces both radially inwardly and radi ally outwardly. It will now appear that when the work piece C is rotated'in the same direction as the tool assembly A the relative velocity be ing to allow' for the necessary angular adjust tween the outer lapping face I'Za. and annular ments between the holder and the work piece 0 surface 26 will be the difference between the linear and for holding the same'?rmly but resiliently velocity of the surface I2a and the linear velocity against the abrading or lapping tool A. The work piece C may take a number of dif 25 of the surface 26.‘ The relative velocity between the inner lapping surface Ila and the annular ferent forms the essential structure of each of surface 26 will be the sum of the velocity of the which includes an annular or ring shaped bearing inner lapping surface Na and the velocity of and seal surface 26 extending in a radial plane the surface 26. While it will be apparent that, perpendicular to the normal axis of rotation of strictly speaking, this is only true as regards an the work piece C. The work piece C must be average taken with reference to the median radii arranged in driving relation to the holder B and TI I, M2, and T26, it'is important to note that for in the present instance this is accomplished by all practical purposes this arrangement and mode the splines 21 on the work piece cooperating with of coaction produces a substantially perfectly ?at the complementary splines IS on the holder. surface. In other words, by means'of this ar The particular work piece C shown in Fig. 3 rangement it is possible for all practical pur further includes a reduced cross section coaxial poses, to compensate for the fact that the outer stem 28 terminating in a second enlargement 29 lapping surface .I2a is moving faster than the which may also have splines thereon. The pres inner surface Na and to thus obtain the same ent abrading tool assembly A is particularly ef fective for cooperation with this type of work 40 relative velocity between the abrading particles and the work surface 26 on both sides of the work piece since the reduced cross section stem 28 piece C. It is found that the lapping-surfaces readily passes between spaced walls II and I2 Ila and I2_a remain true for a long period of and-the enlarged chamber I3 provides for en largement 29 carried on the terminal portion of continuous operation and require resurfacing the work piece. only after several hundred pieces have been ?n Turning power transmission assembly D may take various forms the essential characteristic required thereof being that abrading or lapping tool assembly A must be rotated in the same di ished. ' " ' For the purpose of applying rotative power to abrading tool assembly A and work piece holder assembly B, transmission assembly D'is provided rection as work holding assembly and work piece 50 which may comprise a pulley 3| receiving power fromiany suitable source indicated generally at C. Furthermore the respective turning rate must E as being in the form of a drive belt. Pulley 3| may drive work holder assembly B directly and through‘ means of a second pulley 32 and belt 33 ticable the ideal abrading conditions. It is de sired that the relative linear velocity between 55 drives a thirdpulley'34.‘ Through a connecting drive shaft 36 pulley 34 drives a fourth pulley 3'1 any radial point on the ring or annular shaped bearing and seal surface 26 and the abrading - in turnconnected by a belt38 to a pulley 39 di be properly correlated with reference to one an other in order to approximate as near as prac particles contacting the same be substantially rectly associated with abrading tool assembly A. By the proper ‘choice of the respective sizes of the same throughout both for the inner abrading material supporting surface Na and *the outer 60 the several pulleys the desired optimum relative speediof rotation can be readily effected between surface I2a. It is believed that the present ar abrading tool assembly A and work piece C. I rangement more nearly approximates this ideal prefer to turn abrading tool assembly A three condition than any other heretofore available. revolutions while turning work piece C two revolu By the optimum choice of the relative dimensions of surfaces I I a of the tool assembly and the bear 65 tions. This has been found to give very satis ing seal surface 26 ,of the work piece and by choosing the optimum relative rate of rotation of the tool assembly and the work piece the above factory results. i v ' ' Turning now to the alternative modi?cation of my invention shown in Figs. ‘land 5, it will be apparent that the same fundamental features are ideal mode of coaction is approximately realized. I have found that particularly effective results 70 involved, this ‘arrangement being particularly adapted for ?nishing a radially extending bear are obtained by having the radii of walls I I and ing and seal surface of the annular type on a I2 several times as large as the radius of the an work piece having no protuberance extending nular surface to be ?nished. In addition it is axially in the direction of the abrading surface important that the radial width of the respective abrasive material supporting surfaces l I‘! and I241 75 thus making it practicable to employ a bonded e . 2,408,334 6 .zsupported-sealgzfand bearing ‘:ring. 5. .abrasi-ve such? aszemery clothrorsandpaper. ‘ The .abrading tool assembly 2A; andi-theg-work; holder proper l.28.fastened about anopening through the radial inner portionzof a ?exible diaphragm sup port czlzaawlcyimeans of ‘a fastening: ring l28b the lowetpjortion of ‘which; cooperates with; ?ex assembly; 23 are arranged to bezdri-ven in-gavsimilar manner totha-t described inv the ?rstgmodi?ca tion,‘ the latter functioning to,:hold ‘and .‘present the workpiece "2C for ?nishing engagement-‘with the .abrading sheet forming part of theabrading = 1:001 assembly. - 1 A j c. - '- .ible ring . I21 1 for effectingthe ?exible driving ‘ .' The abradingtool assembly 2-A5-compriSe‘S ~con~ ' centric coaxiallyextending walls-fl ll and~H2_cor . The arrange‘ ;mentshown‘co'mprises :a ‘seal and bearing ring ' relationship. . - As in :the case :of. the modi?cation xof'Figu 1,. it 1O will be seen that the features: of Icriti'calim portance include the provision of radially spaced responding to walls H and 1250f the ?rst modi? cation ‘and terminating :in_: abrasive ‘sheet material hacking ‘surfaces J .I la. and Him In :the more speci?c aspects of this modi?cation it is. also I supporting spaced~apart surfaces 1 Ma and “2e. , These surfaces I'I la and, l 12a arelikewise dis: important that walllrlsurfaces .1 illlaf'and 1112a be ‘posed int-a plane perpendicular to the axis 10f 315 1 overlapped-both radially outwardly. and radially inwardly‘ by'thei‘bearing and; ring surface 126.» rotation of tool assembly 2A. -'I‘heradius,»tuddth, '.:‘.'I'his..;second modi?cation is=of special value and other relationships of ‘terminal-wall surfaces ' illa and “2a with reference to thQfWOl'kaI?BCG " in'connec'tion ‘with ?nishing bearing and seal surfaces .onibronze bearing rings, itbeing-quite 20 to be ?nished [are determined in accordance with the same fundamentals described in connece 2O important that‘the bearing surface ‘bemade sub; stantially perfectly flat. > It-has been found nec tion with the ?rstmodi?cation; .Ilfhe ‘periphery ’ of outer wall surface :I l=2a merges with :aibeveled ' surface portion H2b for cooperation with radial ' essary tohold'th'ese surfaces to a'per-l'ection‘with terminal portions of. a, sheet of abrasive cloth such as emery cloth_ or sandpaper in‘ asmanner ‘as will appear. An embracing ring M20 is received about‘the outer periphery; of. wall H2 and is formed“ with a radially inwardly/extendingp'ro tuberance 1 12d complementarily formedxon the in the limits of two light bands. .'Bronze' or‘iany soft material has a tendency to ‘charge when being lapped by a loose abrasive. It is there- > fore desirable. that .a bonded'abrasive such '- as emerycloth be used and this ‘modification lends itself especially to the use of emery‘cloth. The novel features of the holding assemblyare-of inner, side thereof-Ifor,,cooperation with beveled ‘. surface5 llZb- andeffectiveto ?rmly engage and applyv the requisite-tension to ‘the ‘abrasive cloth particular advantage in maintaining the‘ requisite tens'ionof Ithe'emery cloth in firm-engagement I5l by contact with-the peripheral :portion' I52‘ perfection ‘in the ?nish ofthe bearing and seal‘ thereofJ “This; results in "snug. engagement be tween the abrasive cloth,_-l5l and. terminal‘rsur faces I I la and -l l2a,~these Qlatter surfaces func-. tioning asqa backing support for the abrasive cloth and rendering the same effective in the ‘de sired critical areas sin-contact with the bearing and seal surface I26 of the work piece 20 being 40 ?nished. 7 I Clamping ring H20 is fastened in abrasive , with the backing surfaces thus insuring greater surface‘. - While my invention ‘has ‘been disclosed ‘in Tech ‘ nection with certain speci?c embodiments there of it is to lbe‘understoo'dv that this is 'by way-of exampleand not limitation, it being "intended that my invention be de?ned by the appended claims. I claim: 7 1. An apparatus for lapping a work piece hav ing a. headed stem and a ?at radial seal flange spaced from the head; the sealsurface having cloth engaging position by means of a'radially an'annular contour arranged in- a plane at a _ extending locking pin |I2e carried by the wall H2 and cooperating with a bayonet slot H2)‘ 115 right angle to and concentric with the stem axis; said apparatus comprising a rotatable holder sup formed in ring H20. I porting the Work piece; and a lapping assembly Work holding assembly 2B comprises upstand ing rotatable supporting shaft .l H formed with ' , opposing said holder comprising a base rotatable on an axis parallel with and spaced from the an internal bore l Ila receiving a coilcompression spring in engagement with the inner terminal 50 holder axis; two coaxial parallel walls of sub stantial height having confronting abrasive sup thereof, the outer terminal of this spring engage porting ?anges at their ends and de?ning a rela ing the closed end of a work supporting member . tively deep chamber the entrance to which is ' or bonnet proper I I‘lc. Shaft H1 is provided with restricted by said ?anges, the stem and head of coaxial splines cooperating with complementarily the work piece being received in said chamber formed splines l 11d formed on the inner periph ‘and entrance thereto; and radially alined recesses ery of Work supporting bonnet l I'Ic for effect in‘ said ?anges effecting the insertion of the work ing driving relation therebetween. Work sup piece head into said chamber thereby to engage porting bonnet “1c is formed on the outer por the seal ?ange with the abrasive supporting tion thereof with a recessed shoulder for the re ception of a flexible ring l2! effective to resil 60 ?anges of the lapping assembly. iently and drivingly support the work piece 2C. - '2. An apparatus for lapping a work piece as The spring “1b is effective to supply the neces sary axial pressure through the intervening ?ex ible ring |2| to cause the desired abrading action de?ned in claim 1 wherein yieldable cushioning on annular bearing and sealed ring surface I25, between the holder and work piece. while at the same time this ?exible ring insures means are interposed between the holder and the seal ?ange to accommodate angular adjustment I 3. An apparatus for lapping a work piece hav the precise alignment required between bearing , ing a headed stem and a flat radial seal ?ange; and seal surface I26 andthe underlying surfaces Illa and HM carry the abrading sheet in sup said apparatus comprising a rotatable holder sup porting the work piece; and a lapping assembly opposing said holder comprising a base rotatable on an axis parallel with and spaced from the holder axis; and two coaxial parallel walls of ported relation thereon. ' The particular work piece 2C is characterized ' by the absence of any axially extending pro- . tuberance that would interfere with the proper functioning of the abrasive cloth and‘ it may in clude, by way of example, a flexible diaphragm' substantial‘ height having ‘concentric confront ing abrasive supporting ?anges at their ends thus to de?ne a relatively deep chamber the entrance £408,334 8 to which is restricted by said ?ang'es,said ?anges surfaces, said walls-andg ?anges de?ning a rela being spaced from each other a ‘distance less than tively deep "chamber'the entrance to which is re theldiameter of the work piece head, the stem and~ head of ‘the work piece being received in said chamber and entrance thereto, at least one of said ?anges having an‘ asymmetric‘ region stricted by said ?anges, the distance between the confronting portions of said ‘flanges being less than the diameter of the work piece head,’ the head‘ and stem of the workpiece being received adapted to e?ect the insertion'of the work piece head into said chamber thus to engage the seal respectivelyiin said chamber and the entrance thereto, said restricted entrance having an en ?ange with the abrasive supporting ?anges of the lapping assembly. . - l 4. An apparatus for lapping a work piece which vhas a headed stem and an annular seal ?ange, comprising a rotatable work supporting holder; and a lapping assembly opposing said holder com prising a base rotatable on an axis radially oil‘ set from the axis of said holder; spaced 00110811? tric walls of substantial height upstanding from 10 larged region for permitting the introduction of the work piece headinto said chamber past said ?anges, thus‘ providing for engagement of, said seal ?ange with said abrasive receiving surfaces. - 6. An apparatus for lappinga work piece hav ing a headed stem and a ?atradial'seal ?ange spaced from the head, the seal surface having an annular contour ‘arranged in a plane perpen dicular to and concentric With the stem axis; said apparatus comprising a rotatable holder sup wards each other into the space between. said porting the work piece; and a, lapping assembly walls and having abrasive supporting surfaces 20 opposing said holder comprising abase rotatable that ‘oppose opposite regions of said seal ?ange, on an axis parallel‘ with vandspaced from the said ‘base; ?anges on said walls projecting to said walls de?ning an annular chamber the en trance to which is restricted by said wall ?anges, .the head and stem of said work piece being re holder'axis; means on said base de?ning a rela tively deep annular ‘chamber having radially spaced ‘overhanging concentrically arranged ceived in said chamber and the entrance there 25 ?ange portions the ‘outer surfaces of which are to; and at least one of said wall ?anges having adapted to receive'abrasivematerial, said ?anges an-asymmetric region of su?icient dimensions to extending towards each other in overhanging re effect the ready insertion of the work piece head lation'to the outer portion of said chamber there into said chamber thus to engage the seal ?ange by providing a restricted entrance of less width with said abrasive supporting ?anges. 30 than ‘the-‘diameter of the work piece head, the 5. An apparatus for lapping a work piece hav head and stem of the-work piece being received ing a headed stem and a ‘?at radial seal ?ange; respectively in said chamber and the entrance said apparatus comprising a rotatable holder sup thereto; said restricted entrance having an en " porting the work piece; and a lapping assembly larged' region for‘ permitting the introduction of opposing said holder comprising a base rotatable 35 the work piece head into said chamber past said on an axis parallel with and spaced from the ?anges, thus providing for engagement of said holder axis; and two annular parallel walls of seal ?ange with said abrasive supporting sur substantial height having concentric confront faces. ing ?anges which provide abrasive supporting - DELBERT S. OLIVER.