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Патент USA US2408337

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Sept. 24, 1946.
I
D. s. OLIVER ETA-L '
'
‘ 2,408,335 ,
TORQUE WRENCH
‘
Filed may ‘21, 1943.
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Patented‘: Swept‘. V24‘, 1946 g
‘- 2,408,335.
UNITED STATES "PATENT oFncE
Delbert s; Oliver, Euclid, and John Kanuch,
Cleveland,.0hio, assignors ‘to Pesco Products
00., a corporation of Ohio
.
Application May'Zl. 1943, Serial No. 487,896
1
.
This invention relates. to improvements in
wrenches for securely gripping rounded objects,
such, for example, as stud bolts, for applying
turning torque thereto in either direction.
It is a ‘general object of this invention to pro
vide an improved arrangement of mechanism
forming a gripping wrench of the overrunning
clutch type, particularly adapted for .engaging the
unthreaded portion of a cylindrical object such
as a stud bolt for applying turning torque thereto
in either direction, which arrangement is both
relatively 'simple- of construction and inexpensive
of manufacture while at the same time being em
cient in operation and maintenance.
,
a‘
It is a further object to provide an improved
torque wrench arrangement, the principal‘ parts
of which may readily be fabricated from com
monly available bar stock by simple turning and
machining operations.
'
2
,
.
Referring in greater detail to the ?gures of the
drawing, a preferred embodiment of the inven
tion is shown as comprising a wrench assembly
l0 including a main housing I2 incorporating a
gripping assembly M adapted to engage and
apply torque in either direction to a smooth cir
cular object such as a stud IS, the housing J2
being provided with radially extending, man
ually engageable handles 18 for applying torque.
The housing l2 may be readily formed from a
piece of commonly available cylindrical bar stock
by machining therein a coaxial bore vZll capable
of receiving one of the terminals of .a stud in
guided relation thereto but with a liberal clear
ance, with bore 20 being enlarged at the work
ing end to provide a cylindrical cage-receiving
bore 22. In addition, this enlarged bore 22 is
further recessed along a portion only of its axial
extent to de?ne'a pair of opposed cam surfaces
20 24 and 25 separated by a. relatively short dwell
surface 28.
Cage assembly M comprises a tubular cage de
?ning member 30 formed in the lower terminal
A further object is to provide in awrench as
sembly, including a housing having therein an
arcuately adjustable cage and cam operated over
running rollers, means for readily indicating the
portion thereof with a plurality of radially extend
arcuate positions of the cage together with readily
engageable manual means for predetermining the 25 ing recesses 32 separated by axially extending bar
like portions 34, these radial recesses 32 func
position of arcuate adjustment of the cage rela
tioning as cages for the reception of cylindrical
tive to the housing.‘
rollers 36, 38 and 45!. It will be noted that roller
Other and more particular objects,jadvantages
.38 is larger than rollers 36 and 4t], roller 38 being
and uses of the invention will become apparent
from a reading of the following speci?cation 30 the working roller cooperating with opposed cam
surfaces ZG-or 26 depending upon the direction
taken in connection with the appended drawing
of operation of the tool and effective to apply a
forming a part thereof and wherein:
radial inward force against the embraced stud
Fig. l is an axial cross-section view of a wrench
I6 for holding the same against smaller rollers
assembly in accordance with a preferred embodi
36 and 40 for gripping the stud against turning
ment of the invention and showing the stud in
relative to the tool when the tool handles 18 are
position therein with the gripping rollers in neu-.
turned. The relative size of roller 38 to that of
tral position;
rollers 33 and 46 is such that with a stud H5 in
Fig. 2 is a cross-section view taken substan
position between the three rollers and the rollers
tially on the line 2-—2 of Fig. 1 and showing to
advantage the relationship of detent means and 40 36 and 40 in engagement with the circular. wall
manual means for adjusting the arcuate position
of the cage;
.
'
Fig. 3 is a cross-section view taken substan
tially on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1 and showing to
advantage the arrangement of gripping rollers
and cam surfaces cooperating therewith for ef
footing the gripping action;
Fig. 4 is an elevation view of the cage and roller
assembly shown removed ‘from the housing; and
Fig. 5 is a cross-section view corresponding to
Fig. 3 but showing the cage and roller assembly
in the arcuate position wherein the relatively
large roller has been moved into engagement with
one of the cam surfaces and a stud has been
gripped between the three rollers.
portion 22.0-f the bore and the larger roller 38 ‘in
engagement with the dwell portion 28 the clear
ance between the periphery vof vthe stud and the
respective rollers‘ will be substantially the same
-with the stud positioned axially in substantial
alignment with bore 28 of the housing. Tubular
cage M requires only a simple machining oper
ation to provide a proper journalled relation
within large bore 22 and to provide the radially
extending slots 32, de?ning the cage orv roller
receiving chambers.
Cage assembly I4 is retained withinenlarged
bore 22 by means of a sheet metal retainer 42 cen
trally ori?ced for the passage of the stud and
_ formed on the peripheral portion thereof with an
2,408,335
I)
4
cessed cam-de?ning surface in the inner periph
inturned ?ange 44 for cooperation with a com
plementarily formed recess in housing l2 effective
to prevent inadvertent removal.
For the very important purpose of adjusting
the cage assembly 14 to the neutral or mid-posi
pair of oppositely extending rises or cam surfaces,
tion thereof and furnishing a de?nite indication
a cylindrical roller received :between said bars in
of the position of the cage assembly, there is pro»
vided a detent arrangement and a manually en
opposed relation to said cam de?ning recess, a
inner terminal of bore 4'6 giving a de?nite indica
tion of its position on the cage assembly as well
as resiliently retaining the same in such position.
For the very important purpose of arcuately
adjusting cage assembly as, there is provided a
manually engageable handle 52 in the form of a
housing including a spring-pressed ball, means
engageab-le by said ‘ball at a position correspond
ing to the position of engagement by said rela
tively large roller with said dwell surface, where
by to indicate the position of maximum opening
between the rollers to facilitate-the introduction
of the stud therebetween and manual means in
cluding an arcuate slot in said housingand a
ery of said housing bore in the area opposite one
pair of said bars, said recess cam-de?ning surface
including a centrally disposed dwell surface, a
plurality of additional cylindrical rollers received
gageable handle for arcuately adjusting the cage.
within the remaining recesses and spaced apart
The detent arrangement comprises radially ex 10 by said bars for cooperation with the circular por
tending bore 46 adapted to receive a ball 48 of
tion of said bore, said ?rst-named roller being
slightly larger diameter in cooperation with the
larger than said remaining rollers by an amount
such that when said large roller is in engagement
inner terminal thereof, which ball in turn is
mounted in a radially extending bore 50 formed
with said dwell surface of said recess and said
remaining rollers are in engagement with the cir
in tubular cage 30, this ball being normally urged
radially outwardly by coil compression spring 5i.
cular portion of said bore with a stud positioned
axially within said rollers the clearance between
Thus when cage assembly 14 is located in the
the periphery of the stud and the respective roll
neutral or mid-position thereof with the relatively
ers is substantially the same, means de?ning a
large, Work-performing 'roller 38 in contact with
detent arrangement between said cage and said
dwell surface 28, the index ball 48 engages the
radially extending pin inserted into the wall of
tubular cage 38. The handle 52 protrudes
through a slot 54 of an arcuate extent such as
to properly correlatethe limits of arcuate ad
justment of cage assembly M with the rises 24
and 26 of the cam to effect the proper gripping
radially extending handle protruding from said
cage for manually adjusting the arcuate position
of said cage with respect to said housing to either
move the same to the position of maximum open
ing between the rollers or to effect the movement
of said large roller into cooperation with said re
employ the stud wrench, manual adjusting handle 35 spective cam surfaces to reduce the space between
said rollers and thus grip said stud.
52 is moved arcuately to the mid-position of slot
2. A torque wrench for drivingly‘engaging the
54 thus adjusting large working roller 38 to its
curved surface of an elongated article, said
mid-position in cooperation with the dwell sur
wrench including, in combination, means de?ning
face 23 and affording the maximum opening be
tween the rollers for the introduction of stud it 40 a cylindrical housing having a coaxial bore there
through, a cage and roller assembly coaxially
all as indicated in Fig. l. The ball 48 is effective
journaled in said bore for arcuate movement
to resiliently maintain this neutral or mid-posi
therein and having one roller of a greater diame
tion of the cage and roller assembly. When the
ter than the remaining rollers, a recess formed
tool has been placed about a stud, manual adjust
ing handle 52 is moved arcuately to one side or 45 in the bore of said housing opposite said one
roller and de?ning a dwell surface and a cam
the other depending upon whether a stud is to
surface on either side of said dwell surface, which
be screwed more tightly into position or to be re
cam surfaces cooperate with said one roller to
moved from its mounting, to thus cause large
working roller 38 to move into engagement with
move the same radially inwardly to effect grip
either cam surface 213 or cam surface 26, as the 50 ping of said article between the rollers when said
case may be, and hence accomplish locking en
cage and roller assembly is adjusted arcuately
gagement of the stud between the three rollers.
with respect to the housing, the diameter'of said
With the stud thus locked in position the handles
one roller being such that when said larger roller
l8 maybe employed to apply the requisite torque
is in engagement with said dwell surface of said
to the tool housing [2 and hence effect the turn 55 recess and said remaining rollers are in engage
ing of the stud l8.
ment with the bore of said housing, the axis of
' While we have disclosed our invention in con
said housing and said assembly is substantially
nection with a speci?c embodiment thereof, this
equidistant from the nearest surface of all of the
is intended by way of example only, our invention
rollers and the opening between said rollers is at
being de?ned by the appended claims.
60 its maximum.
We claim:
3. A torque wrench for drivingly engaging the
1. In a torque wrench particularly adapted for
curved surface of an elongated article, said
drivingly engaging the smooth intermediate pe
wrench including, in combination, means de?n
riphery of a terminally threaded stud, including
ing a cylindrical housing having a coaxial bore
means-de?ning a cylindrical housing having a 65 therethrough, a cage and roller assembly coax
coaxially extending bore therein adapted to re
ially journaled in said bore for arcuate move
ceive a stud with one terminal portion thereof
ment therein and having one roller of a greater
protruding from said bore, means de?ning a cage
diameter than the remaining rollers, an arcuate
and cylindrical roller assembly receivable in said
slot in said housing, a rod secured to said cage
bore in journalled arcuately adjustable relation 70 and protruding through the slot in said housing,
thereto, said cage including a tubular portion for
a recess formed in the boreof said housing oppo
journalled engagement with said bore and formed
site said one roller and de?ning a dwell surface
with a plurality of radially extending recesses in
and a cam surface on either side of said dwell
the wall thereof separated by axially extending
surface, which cam surfaces cooperate with said
of the stud by the rollers.
It will thus be seen that when it is desired to
circumferentially spaced cage-‘de?ning bars, a re
75 one roller to move the same radially inwardly to
2,408,335 "
.
6
5
said rollers is at its maximum, said [position of
maximum opening or variations therefrom :being
visually indicated by said rod which additionally
e?ect gripping of said article between the rollers
when said cage and roller assembly is adjusted
arcuately with respect to the housing, the diame
ter of said one roller {being such that when said
one roller is in engagement with said dwell sur
serves as means for manually adjusting the cage
to said position of maximum opening or to a posi
CB
tion causing gnipping of said article by said
face of said recess and said remaining rollers
are in engagement with the bore of said hous-t
ing, the axis of said housing and said assembly
is substantially equidistant from the nearest'sur
face of all of the rollers and the opening between 10
'
rollers.
’
DELBERT S.’ OLIVER;
I ‘JOHN KANUCH.
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