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Sept. 24, 1946.
H. A. STRICKLAND, JR
2,408,350
ELECTRIC 'FURNACE MACHINE
Filed March 2l, 1941
'9 shams-sheet l
JNVENTOR
Harold Àßìriddond lr.
ATTORNEY
_Sept 24, 1946.
H. f?. sTRlcKLAND, JR
2,408,350 `
ELECTRIC FURNACE MACHINE
Filed March 2l, 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet 2
wHm1 m.,-
|Ilm
vl|xFINN
‘ INVENTOR
'Harold Á. Strickland JK
By
A TTORNE Y
Sept. 24, 194e.
H. A. STRICKLAND, JR
ELECTRIC FURNACE MACHINE
Filed March 2l, 1941
2,408,350
9 Sheets-Sheet 3
Sept.` 24, 1946.
H. A. STRICKLAND, JR
ELECTRIC FURNACE MACHINE
Filed March 2l, 1941
55,
2,408,350
9 Sheets-Sheet 4
Sept. 2_4, 194@
H. "A, sTRléKLAND, JR
ELECTRIC FURNACE MACHINE
Filed Hatch 2l, 1941
2,' 8,350
9 Sheets-Sheet 6
@C111
INVENTOR
Harold AS‘crìddnnd .In
BY
ATTORNEY
Sept 24, 1945~
v
H. A. sTRlcKLAND, JR
n 2,408,350
ELECTRIC EUENACE MACHINE
Filed March g1,- 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet '7
Sept. 24, 1946.
H. A. sTRicKLAND, JR?
ìïlft'JC’l'RIC1 FURNACE MACHINE
Filed March 21, 1941
9 sheets-sheet a
S„
epî. 24% 319461
H. A. STRICKLAND, .JE
ELECTRIC FÚRNACE MACHINE
Filed March 2l, 1941
9
, www
@mw
A ' JORAÉY
Patented sept. 24, i946
2,408,350
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,350
ELECTRIC FURNACE MACHINE
Harold A. Strickland, Jr., Detroit, Mich., assign
or, by mesne assignments, to The Budd Com
pany, Philadelphia, Pa., ' a corporation of Penn
sylvania
Application March 21, 1941, Serial No. 384,503
8 Claims. (Cl. B19-13)
My invention relates to furnaces for .heating
by electromagnetic induction, and particularly to
housings with -the automation and the indicating
and signalling systems, particularly in the latter
those which can be used orare intended for use
case in such manner that the high-frequency
in the heating of bar or billet stock for forging
high-voltage power cannot |be applied to the ma
of .either solid or tubular form, and either circu- Ul plete.
chine, save that the housings closures are com
lar or angular in cross-section, is inserted within
It has been an aim to render the furnace most
a coil adapted to be supplied with power from an
easily manipulable. ri‘he mere act of loading
alternating current source, usually a high-frethrough closure of .its loading door initiates the
quency' alternating current source of considerable 1o automatic cycle. Reloading iS required in the
VOltêige, and the power ybeing turned on to the coil,
event of a completed cycle.
heating currents are set up within the ymass of the
Handling of the workpieces into and out of the
bar or billet to be heated due to the electrofurnace is provided for by constructions and
magnetic induction from the coil itself. These
mechanisms in a manner which aiîoi'ds ease,
currents heat the bar or billet to a forging tem- 15 safety, and certainty Vto the operato-r, Safeguards
perature. Such a bar or billet is commonly called
the heating coil and its workpiece supports from
a woikpiece The objects of my invention follow.
damage by heavy stock and assuies delivery of
Outstandingly I aim to .make such a furnace a
the woikpiece 1n best condition with gieatest
machine.
rrhis I achieve
through the
.construcpromptness under uniformly obtaining tempera
tion,
organization,
and automation
of its
various 20 tures.
component parts, e. g., the heating coil into which
The attainment of constructions through which
the workpiece is thrust for its heating and all
one and the same machine may be used to heat
appurtenant devices. I have aimed to achieve
woikpiece stock of a wide range of dimensions
outstandingly adapted for installation in con- 25 I have done with a very maximum degree of sim
nection with high-speed production systems and
11H65 CO'mmOH in ÈOdaY’S industry.
Reliability, uniformity of heating, consistency,
plicity and resultant facility of change.
I have endeavored also to arrange the various
assemblies and subassemblies of the machine so
and continuousness of operation have been imthat they may be iemoved and replaced in eni
portant ends which I have had in view. Con- 30 ciently handled groups of Darts t0 the ends 0f
struction and ari angement of parts, and autosimplifying and facilitating repair and replace
mation have also played an important part in the
ment, testing, exchanging between one machine
attainment of these ends. Automation and coorand another, and of course efficiency of initial
dination of automation in interlocking of con-
trol elements have enabled me to attain these 35
manufacture.
Other objects and full ampliiîcations of the
ends to an extent practically eliminating the personal equation of the operator, and likewise
eliminating disturbances of these several factors,
foregoing outstanding objects will be fully ap
parent upon cne’s acquiring that understanding
of the invention which is afforded by the aC
i'eliability, consistency, and continuousness, oc-
companying drawings and the following detailed
casioned by disorders of any kind emanating from 40 description thereof.
whatever source reaching the machine.
There is delineated in the drawings that em
It has been an object too to provide a system of
bodiment of my invention now best known to
indicators and signals which not only .portray in
me, but it will «be quit@ apparent that it is sub
a simple and unmistakable manner all of the conject to yet other embodiments.
ditions under which the machine is operating or 45 Of the drawings:
HOt Operating, as the case may be, which may be
Figure l is a side elevation of the machine of my
necessary for its intelligent use to the above ends,
invention with the principal parts enclosed by>
and moreover such a system of indicators and
the housings of the machine. The heating coil
signals which themselves demand any `necessary
is shown in dotted line in the upper DOI‘tÍOH 0f the
attention of thel operator.
50 housing. while the door normally closing the low
I have sought safety in the use of such a Inaer ypart of the housing, has been removed to show
chine through appropriate housings of all of its
a bank of condensers connected with the coil;
high-frequency high-voltage parts, not to menFigure 2 is a front elevation of the machine;
tion effective insulation of them from the housFigure 3 is a vertical section on line 3_3 of
ings, >and the coordination of the closures of such 5,5 Figure 2, in a plane which includes the axis of
2,408,350
4
the heating coil, outstandingly showing the heat
perspective view of a bridge-piece connected with
a heating coil support clamp.
ing coil and its immediate mounting and housing,
the remaining portions of the machine being
mental section showing the bridge-piece of Figure
broken away;
Figure 4 is a transverse section, transaxial to
21 in use in connection with a special heating coil;
Figure 23 appearing on the sheet containing
Figure 4 is a fragmentary rear end view of a heat
Figure 22 on the same sheet is a transaxial seg
the heating coil, taken on line 4-4 of Figure 3
looking in the direction of the arrows;
ing coil showing means for securing workpiece
guide rails in connection with the special coil of
Figure 5 is an enlarged horizontal cross-section
of the heating coil in a plane including the axis
Figure 22; and
_ of the coil;
Figure 6 is a -transaxial section of the heating
coil on line E-ii of Figure 5;
Figure ‘7 is an enlargement of a porti-on of such
a transaxial cross-section of the coil taken on a
line such as '1_-‘i of Figure 5;
Figure 8 is a correspondingly enlarged portion
of a longitudinal section, being a view taken on
line 8-8 of Figure '7 looking in the direction of
Figure 24 is the diagrammatic illustration of a
modiñed form of the magnetic core. and iîrst to
Referring now to the drawings,
Figures 1 to 4, particularly Figures 1 and 2, it will
be observed that I have made the frame and
housing of the furnace machine 3E) generally of
L-shape as viewed in side elevation, and in form
not unlike the operator’s switchboard of a man
ually-operated telephone system. This is to »say
that the frame and housing comprise a horizontal
the applied arrows; d elevation of a detail of the 20
branch 3| having a horizontalv table-like top 32,
Figure 9 is a rear en
and a vertically extending portion 33. I shall not
heating coil showing the detail of the mounting
go into the details of frame members and panel
‘ of the work-supporting rails which lie within the
ings of this frame and housing 30 further than to
coil;
say that it is constructed of metal of a strength
Figure 10 is a transaxial cross-section similar
adequate to support the parts which I show and
form of
to that of Figure 6 applying to a modified
describe as supported thereby and housed there
coil and accompanying workpiece supp orts within
in. Front, side and back door openings 34, 35,
the coil.
and S6 (the latter not shown in form, although
Figure 11 is a partial horizontal section on line
H-H of Figure 1 looking in the direction of the 30 it is intended to extend the full length of the back
of the housing 3G) are provided for ready access
arrows to show the banks of condensers mounted
to the various instrumentalities supported by and
in the base of the machines and the bus bars
housed within the casing 34, and these openings
through which they are connected with the source
of power and with the heating coil.
are provided with suitable closures such .as »that
31 sh-own in the door opening 34 of the front of
the casing, which closures may be provided, as
is common, with suitable hinges and locks for
Figure 12 is a diagram of the water-cooling con
duits and circuits and their included devices con
nected with the automation system, a’s applied to
the various instrumentalities of the machine, e. g.,
~ work coil, condensers, etc.
Figure 13 is a rear elevation of the mechanism
having to do with workpiece gauging and locat
ing," workpiece push-out, and magnetic core
mounting, the vie-w being taken substantially on
line 13--13v of Figure 1 looking in the direction
of the applied arrows.
Figure 14 is a side elevation of the mechanism
of Figure 13 taken approximately on line lli-I4
'of Figure 13 looking in the direction of the arrows.
Figure 15 (see the sheet containing Figures 11
ready manipulation and locking. An opening 38
in the top 32 of the table-like portion 3i is closed
by'a cast foundation member 39 which mounts
the heating coil 4G. An opening 4l in the lower
section of the vertical portion 33 of frame .313 is
closed by a backplate 42 which mounts the work
piece gauging and ejecting mechanism and the
Ul .magnetic core of the coil. An opening 43 in the
upper section of the vertical portion 33 of the
frame is made for the mounting of the signal
and instrument board (not shown), and is closed
by this board when it is in place. Openings 44 in
50 the lowermost portion of the casing are guarded
by grillworks 45 through which the housing 3€!
ing a detail of the bus bar connections appearing
is ventilated- through suitable apertures in the
in Figure 11.
Y
`upper parts of the housing (not shown). rThe
Figure 16 is a side elevation of the pedal-ma
hood 41 is provided with side and top Ventilating
rating device for the mechanism of
' nipulated ope
Figures 13 and 14, the View being taken approxi 55 openings 48 and 49. A front-plate 5D rising from
the region of the foundation plate 39, coacts with
mately on line lG-lß of Figure 2, and showing
the rear-plate 42 in supporting the hood 4'5. The
onnection
with
the
mechanism
of
Ain diagram its c
front plate closes the otherwise open front end
Figures 13 and 14.
of the hood 41. The foundation plate 3S, the co
Figure 1’7 is a side elevation with portions in
Vaxial section of the push-out device such as used 60 acting and »surmounted back and front plates 42
and 50 (also castings preferably) and the hood
in the mechanism of Figures 13 and 14.
41 together constitute a housing unit individualV
Figure i8 shows in front elevation the door to
‘to the heating coil 44 and its immediate appur
the furnace which governs access to the heating
_tenant parts. The front plate 50 is provided with
coil and the associated control cabinet, with por
tions in section and removed, the View being taken 65 an opening 5i through which the workpieces are
fed to the furnace by projecting them axially of
substantially on line 18-18 of Figure 1 looking`Ã
4the coil 4U. A hinged door 52 closes or shrouds
in the direction of the arrows;
and 18) is a view on line l'ô--l 5 of Figure 11 show
Figure 19 is a diagram of the electrical inter
this opening during the heating operation. n
A bus bar system 53 is housed in the portion 3l
connections between the various instrumentalities
through which the objects of automat-ion, condi 70 of the housing 30 just below the foundation plate
tion indicating, safety, etc., are attained;
Figure 20 is a diagrammatic plan View of the
arrangement of the condenser units, 'their con
nections and their terminals within a single so
called “can” of condensers.
.
Figure 21 on the sheet carrying Figure l12 is, a
39 and tabletop 32. It is connected at 54 by
suitable buses to a source of power through a
contactor mounted in the cabinet (not shown)
,and by leads 55 extending vertically downward
7_5 to the banks of condensers ‘56 which are mounted
2,408,350
5
6
by porcelain insulators 51a on a system of rails
nated 58 and shown as mounted on the backplate
insulating strips 69 are bound in place by over
lapped turns lû of insulating tape given a water
and moisture-proof treatment and baked. The
opposite ends of the insulating strip 69 are pro
vided with jogs 'Il radially juxtaposed to the
42, is accommodated within the vertical portion
stepped ends of the insulating cylinders 66, 61.
33, as clearly appears in each of Figures l and 3.
A series of mica rings l2 are laid over the end of
The pedal-operated actuating device 59 of this
mechanism is, however, located in the bottom
cylinder 61. and against the end turn B8 of coil
51 mounted transversely of the section 3l of the
housing.
Stock-gauge and push-out mechanism desig
40, and a unit insulating ring of Micarta or Bake
lite ‘i3 is laid over the end of mica cylinder BS,
these rings completely filling the spaces between
the endmost turn 68 and the ends of cylinders 66,
i5l on the one hand, and of the strips 59 on the
most part of the front section 3l of the housing
and connected to the mechanism 58 by a conduit
60. The conduit 60 is preferably an overlong
rubber hydraulic tubing whereby device 59 may
be removed for services without removal of hy
draulic ñuid from the system.
Also housed within the vertically extending
portion 33 of the housing 30 are the systems of
water-cooling connections and their app-urte
nances, the subject of Figure l2, and the system
of electrical control including its various instru
mentalities as illustrated in Figure 19. There is
room in the rear part of the housing 3l! to house
other. They are sealed in position by coating
and baking with a resilient insulating compound.
In such fashion the coil 49 is made and hermeti
cally sealed inside, outside, and at each of its
ends whereby heat may not crack the insulation,
and moisture may not penetrate it.
Heat is prevented from being directly radiated
from the red or white hot surfaces of a workpiece
being heated to the mica insulating cylinders S6,
61 by an annular lining of insulating ñrebrick 14,
a power transformer. The lowermost part of the
also shown in Figures 3 to 5 inclusive. This lin
vertical section 33 houses the contactor and such
connections as are needful to connect it to the í’. ing of flrebrick like the insulating outer covering
59 is comprised of longitudinally-laid segments.
source of power on the one hand, and directly or
However, instead of conjoining the end edges and
through a transformer to the buses 54 on the
hermetically sealing «together by intervened baked
other.
insulating compound, as in the instance of the
The heating coil 43 and the supports for the
workpiece within it are of a Very special con- it? bars 69, the individual segments 'l5 of this lining
are spaced from each other by water-cooled
struction which appears oustandingly in Figures
work-supporting rails 15 intervened between
3 to 9. The coil per se 40 is comprised of hollow
them, and so constructed as to hold them radi
conductors 6I generally of square shape. Cool
ally outwardly against the surface of mica cylin
ing water in suiiicient volume to cool the coil itil
der 55.
is passed through the hollow 62 of this conductor.
Individual turns of the coil (see particularly Fig
ures 5 and 8) are insulated from each other by a
spiral of mica 63 or the like, or else the conductor
throughout its length may be wrapped with an
insulating tape of an appropriate character,
preferably heat-resisting, suitably impregnated
with a suitable varnish after the winding of the
tape is complete. If the conductor is so wound,
then when the coil is wo-und on a suitable man
drel, there results inside and outside insulation
64, 65, as well as insulation 53 between the turns.
The coil is wound on a suitable mandrel (not
shown) preferably a collapsible mandrel.
How
ever, initially there is placed on a mandrel an
innermost cylinder of high-grade mica sheets Bâ
capable of high-heat resistance and impervious
to moisture and bonded with a resilient insulating
varnish. Also superimposed on the innermost
cylinder of mica 66 is a secondary cylinder of
mica 61 which may be composed of "micanite”
or other composite or compounded mica also
bonded with varnish. Figure 8 is a section of one
end of the coil, the right-hand end, as it appears
in Figures 3 and 5. From this it will be seen that
To this end the opposite side edges of the
segments 15 of the insulating lining (preferably
4
comprised of a high-grade insulating ?irebrick
compound) are chamfered at Tl, the chamfer
terminating in a slight jog '18, and the rails 1S
are provided with welded-on sheet m-etal holding
clips 19 of the form having a branch extending
on each side of the rail 'I6 at the angle of the
chamfer Tl whereby to lie flatly against the
chamfer and within the depth of the jog 18.
The rails ‘No’ are held radially outwardly by
three sets of supports, one at the middle and one
at each end. That in the middle is shown espe
cially in Figures 5 and 6 to comprise an expand
ing ring de or" sheet metal. The ring ûü is formed
of the overlapping wings Si of sheet or strip stock
welded respectively to opposite sides of the rail
To, and joined in their overlapping portions by a
clamping screw connection 8?: having an appro
priate lost-motion connection (not shown) be
tween the overlapped ends permitting the eXpan
sion of the ring 30 to a diameter which moves
the rails 'i6 toward or against the inner surface
of the mica SS, and retains them in that position
inch than the mica cylinder 56, and that the
endmost turn B8 of the coil Bü lies axially in
when the devices S2 are tightened up. Each of
these joints is insulated by a set of amber mica
washers 22a. These washers will stand a tem
perature of 1CGO° C. If these were not insulated,
wardly of the end of cylinder 61 a fraction of an
the ring would act as a short-circuited turn of a
micanite cylinder 61 is shorter by a fraction of an
inch, thus añording a stepped construction of the
insulating cylinder ends. Coil 4€] as insulated at
84, 65 is wound directly upon cylinder 6l. Before
the segmented strips are laid on, the coil is
wrapped in a single layer of bonded mica set in
varnish. This provides a very important seal
against moisture if such should collect in the
voids between the outside segments 69. Laid ax
ially upon the exterior of coil 4l! are segmental
strips 69 of Micarta, Bakelite, or the like, which
together completely encase the outer periphery
of the coil 40. These longitudinally extending
transformer.
The devices at the opposite ends of coil 43 are
diiîerent. At the upper or right-hand end of the
coil 4E) as illustrated, there is secured to each rail
an outwardly and radially extended support
stud
These studs are passed respectively
through slots or holes, as may be preferred, in
the outer ends of rails
of metal or insulating
material (such as Bakelite or Micarta), the rails
`iiél being laid longitudinally over the length ci
the exterior of coil 4o to project slightly beyond
5 each end.
As shown, the rails are of charnel
2,408,350
cross-section to aiîord less generation of eddy cur
8
rentsv as well as lightness with strength. At the
clamping screws 82 to be reached, and one >or
more of them released. The individual segments
opposite end (the left-hand end, as shown) the
projecting ends of work-supporting rails 'I6 are
engaged within the loops 85 of screw-hooks 8S,
l5 axially separated in the middle by the expand
ing ring 8!! may be individually placed in posi
the threaded outer ends of which are carried
radially through apertures or slots in the opposite
ends of the rails 84, there being preferably though
not necessarily one securing rail Sil for each work
supporting rail 76. When the nuts 81 respectively 10
on the ends of studs 83 and screw-hooks S6 are
tightened up, they hold the outer ends of the
tion or axially withdrawn from the inner or the
outer end of the coil, as the case may be, merely
by loosening the respective screw-hooks 86 and
studs 533 once the expanding ring 8B provides the
proper tolerance at their axially inner ends. Thus
removals and replacements may be made with
out removing the ensemble. All of this, of course,
is readily achievable when the heating coil and
the workpiece-supporting rail ensemble are dis
rails 16 toward or against the inner surface of
the mica cylinder 66 as does the expanding ring
associated from the housing. However, all of
8G. Thus the rails 'le are held in position 15 these operations may also be achieved while the
throughout their length and ñrmly hold the ñre
coil and rail ensemble are in place on the ma
brick lining 'l5 in place. There may be provided
chine, merely by removing hood 4'? and front
as many expanding rings 8|] as are needful to
plate 5u and its supported parts as a unit. They
meet the requirements of coil length.
together constitute aunit sub-assembly and may
The securing clips 19 are not of an adjacent
be slid oir forwardly.
continuous series. They are separated by wide
Heating coil ¿lil with its workpiece supporting
intervened spaces. In these spaces there are edge- i
appurtenances is mounted with its axis coincid
welded in the radial planes of the coil axis A/A
ing with a general horizontal axis A-A of the
to the tubular rails 16, an intervened series of
furnace machine, by supporting it from coil cen
workpiece supports 88 in the form of sheet or 25 tering C-clamps 98 carried from and forming a
strip metal ñns whose lengths are axially ex
part of pedestals Q9 erected upon and secured to
tending. Their leading edges are chamfered as at
the cast foundation plate 39 of the table-portion
89,`to prevent obstruction to the movement of a
32 of the housing. There are two (or more in case
workpiece being inserted Within the coil. They
of large coils) of these coil-supporting pedestals
are spaced slightly at each end from the inter 'lo 9S spaced apart an adjustable distance to sup
Vened ?irebrick securing clips 19. Their radially
port coils of a number of diiîerent axial lengths
inner edges 9S are parallel to the axis of the coil
without relocation upon the foundation plate 39.
GS though not radially equidistant, and their
A reference particularly to Figures 3 and 4 will
locus is a cylinder of radi-us R whose center C is
make clear their construction. The lower por
eccentrically above axis A/A of coil whereby the
tion of the pedestals §39 has a plane of symmetry
axis of workpiece of radius W coincides with axis
coincident with the vertical plane of the axis
of coil. (See Figures 6 and 7) . The diameter ofV
A-A upon which the coil 4|) is to be centered.
the locus cylinder of center C is slightly greater
It terminates a considerable distance below the
than the diameter of the heated workpiece to
axis A-A, a distance sufficient to permit the
provide tolerance suñ‘ìciently greatv to- prevent 40 accommodation of coils d!! of a number of dif
‘binding due to expansion. Rails 16, clips 19, ex
ferent sizes. It is provided with integrally
panding rings "8G, and work-supporting fins 88
formed right and left branches Illu, IGI making
are all of high heat-resisting metal, especially
equal angles with the vertical plane V-V of axis
ñns 88. Water is continuously circulated through
A-A. Threaded through the arms |00, ||l| on
the tubular rails 16 in pairs in series, or in series
radial lines intersecting axis A-A are radially ad
as a group, the connection being generally illus
justable coil supporting studs |02, l U3. The heads
trated by a dotted line connection 9| between the
of these studs |02, m3 are located toward coil
two outermost tubes 16 of Figure 5 shown as pro
49 from the arms |00, lill, and support the coil
vided respectively with inlet and outlet openings
directly upon pads of insulating material I U4
92, 93 at the opposite ends of rails 16. Inlets and
secured to the heads. Thus by relatively adjust
outlets are each provided with moisture-discharg
ing studs m2, H33 the axis of a coil All of any
ing lips or flanges 94 which prevent accumulated
accommodatable diameter may be placed directly
moisture from running down the rails into the
upon the horizontal axis A-A of the furnace
coil.
machine. In this case there is provided only one
The entire system of equidistantly spaced po
securing bar Sli for two rails 7S, the two rails
lygonal workpiece-supporting rails 16 and lire
being bridged together and to the bar 84 by lat
brick lining may be bodily removed from the
eral extensions 34a and Séb having a rigid insu
interior of the heating coil 45], by simply remov
lated connection with bar 34 and taking at their
ing nuts 81 and the screw-hooks 3E, radially re
opposite ends the studs 83. Thus there is space
moving bars 84, and drawing the ensemble axially 60 for pads |34 directly to engage the coil, and more
outwardly (that is to say, to the right in the in
importantly rails 16 may be removed While the
stant case). This enables the replacement of
coil :lil is yet firmly clamped in position.
worn or broken ñrebrick segments 15, and re
The G-clamps 93 of these supporting pedestals
pair to any of the rails which may for any reason
are ‘comprised of C-arms, as clearly appears in
need repair. To facilitate this the expanding ring 65 Fig, 4, forked at their lower ends |05 to straddle
80 need not quite expand the rails 16 and the
the lower portions of pedestals 99 and be pivoted
ñrebrick segments 'l5 into contacts with the inner
at |235 on the opposite side of the vertical plane
mica cylinder 65, but provides such tolerance as
V-V from the body of the C-clamp. When the
will ena-ble the ensemble to be slid longitudinally
clamps 98 are in clamping position, their upper
outwardly without intermediately releasing the 70 ends lill lie in the vertical plane V-V, and are
clamp-ing screws 82. Ring 80 and the connected
provided with'a threaded adjusting stud |08, the
rails are readily adjusted to tolerance diameters
head ißt’ of which lies toward the coil 40 from
by ñtting to a suitable mandrel and checking
the upper end IG? with the axis of the stud in
by a sizing ring before placing in the coil. How
the vertical plane V-V.
ever, if need be, a suitable tool will enable the 75 Beyond the head |68 projects a reduced exten
2,408,350
9
10
sion of the stud H2 on which is radially slidably
bly. The ends |21 of the plate receive in over
lapped relation and bolted thereto if desired
(bolts not shown), the end plates £2 and '59,
thereby vertically aligning them with respect to
mounted a bridge member H3 carrying at its
opposite ends pads oi insulating material H3a.
A spring H0 on the reduced section H2 and in
termediate head |99 and bridge H3, presses the
the base 39.
bridge toward the coil 49 to achieve yieldingly
Located centrally of the base
and upon the
plane of symmetry V-V, is the aperture 49
the clamping of it, while a washer and cotter |||
prevent the radially movable bridge from drop
previously referred to, tl‘ircugh wl ich the con
ping from the reduced extension of the stud H2
nections are made from the source of power
when the clamp is released.
l0 connected with buses 5d and 53. The rectangular
This clamping arrangement is not only adapted
system of buses 53 emanates from concentric
for clamping the coils of different diameters
tubular conductors |28 lying in the
of sym
merely through the radial adjustment of stud
metry V-V and supported at its ends (or per
haps supporting) “le rectangular system 53',
|08, but also to clamp under different pressures
through the adjustment of spring H0. Yet fur
each one of the tubes |28 of the concentric con
ther, however, the structure of bridge member
ductors being connected with one of the bars
and hence with one of the buse ed. Vertical
risers |29 from the concentric conductor |22
duced Xtension H2 of stud |98, it is adapted t0
emanate therefrom through nested connectors
engage with the top of one of the rails 84 instead
of engaging between rails 84. See Figures 21 and 20 |30, each connecting one branch oi the riser |29
to one branch oi conductor ida. ïnsulation 46a
22 in this connection. Examination of these will
show that pads ||3a are elongated and provided
protects them from ground on plate 39. As clear
ly appears in Figures 3 and 4, particularly in
in their middles with slots H317 of a dimension
Figure fl, the inner of the connectors |39 con
adapting them to lit over the top of a rail 84
when bridges I i3 are rotated ninety degrees from
nects the inner branch oî riser |29 with the
the position shown in Figure 4. Thus coils hav
central portion of a continuous branch of con
ing“ any desired arrangement of bars B4 may be
ductor |28, the inner branch, while the outer
connector |39 connects the juxtaposed ends of
used, and the smaller coils in which there are but
the two-part outer branch oi’ conductor |23 to
three or four rails 16 and accompanying bars 84
may be accommodated as readily as the larger 30 the outer branch of the riser |23. Their ccn
nectors |3| respectively space the branches of
ones.
concentric conductor |29 apart from each other
The arm HH of the lower portion of pedestal
and maintain them apart through their connec
9€: is extended laterally and widened in a vertical
tion with the branches oi the bus system 53, or
plane to form a mounting pad H5 for the bus
vice versa, the connectors |39 to the riser being
bars llt through which the power is applied to
I I3 is such that merely by rotating it on the re
the opposite ends of the work coil 49. These bus
rigidly maintained in spaced relation through
bars Ht are two in number connecting one with
each end of coil d0 through a bolted-on con
the intervention of a spacing sleeve |32 of in
sulating material between the branches of the
riser |29. This insulating material itself if suffi
ciently solid and ñrm in its seating, may be sui
ñcient to retain all the parts of the bus and con
necting clip H1, bolted flat against the side of
the bus bar, and having a clamping connection
H9 with the laterally-extending terminal H9 of
ductor system 53, 54, |25, |29 in spaced relations,
The bars are insulated from each
insulating the various branches from each other.
other and from the mounting pads H5 by blocks
The bars oi the rectangular system
are, as
of insulating material |29, the outermost of which
shown clearly in the plan View oi Figure ll,
is utilized as a clamping plate to bolt the bars
bolted to the respective connectors i3| at each
together and to the pads H5. There being two
end.A Thus the entire ensemble becomes a unit
pedestals §51 and two pads H5, the buses H6 are
which may be separately fabricated and installed
rigidly supported in a horizontal position later
in the machine. At their upper ends the branches
ally of the coil, but parallel thereto.
of riser |29 are respectively joined by clamped
The foundation plate or base 39 upon which
on connectors |33 to the bus bars Hä. Connec
the coil :it is mounted through the pedestals 99
tors |33 are angle-shaped extending radially lat
is, as has been said, a casting in this embodiment
erally of the branches of riser |23, and then up
of the invention. It is formed with its upper face
wardly t0 have their outer ends respectively bolt
l2! on either side of the pedestals, slightly down
ed to the buses H9. The axially inner set of
wardly and inwardly inclined toward the vertical
connectors |3| of the ensemble on the other hand,
plane V-V whereby collected foreign matter or
also angle-shaped, have their axially inwardly
moisture will gravitate toward the center of the
extending branches bolted respectively to the bus
plate from both sides and from each end, the
bars 54 connecting with the source. Unbolting
ends being similarly inclined. At the center of
the plate and surrounding the region of mount 60 of this connection and unclarnping of connectors
|33 at the riser |29 enables the ensemble to be
ing ci the pedestals is an endless groove |22 which
bodily removed. Itis to be noted that the closely
keeps moisture away from the pedestals and pre
spaced relations of the concentric conductors |29
vents its creeping upon them. The center of the
and the ñat bars of the rectangular system 5S of
casting is thus a pad |23 upon which the ped
the ccil lid.
estals are mounted. Groove |22 communicates
at its axially inner end with a drainage conduit
|213 suitably connected to a drain, as will here
inafter appear. The under-margins |25 of base
39 are nnished to rest upon the top of table 32
the ensemble, as well as the nested and concen
tric relation of the parts connected with riser
|29, and the duplex connections thereof to the
outside bus, are such as to develop a minimum
of impedance.
The ensemble is shown particularly in Figures
and be secured thereto by suitable bolts. The 70
1, 2 and 4 as also directly connected with the
sides |26 are also iinished and receive in over
lapping relation the lower edges of the hood 41
banks of condensers 55 beneath them, the con
nection being by means or“ a system of vertically
secured thereto by suitable cap screws. These
and no other screws are removed when it is de
sired to remove the hood and front plate assem
extending jumpers |34 respectively connecting
75 the terminals of the condensers with one or the
¿2,408,35o
12
11’
other of the branches of the rectangular bus sys
tem 53. The ring bus is supported from base 39
by tie rods 39a which clamp the ring bus be
tween Wooden separating blocks 39h. The rela
Vusing various combinations of jumpers.
Thus
in an extreme case where very much higher volt
age were to be applied, connection to terminals
~13`1 would be omitted and one axially extreme set
tive arrangement of the condensers and their
relative dimensions as respects the bus system
of jumpers 136 would be connected to one bus
of the system 53 by one jumper 134, while the
53 is such that the jumpers 134 are extended ver
paralleling jumpers at the opposite end of the
tically upward from their terminal connections
bank would be connected by another juniper 134
to engage the bars of the system 53 in Vertical
to the other of the bars of the system 53. Thus
overlap. If desired, however, additional such ll) there would be provided sii/:cows of six units 139
support may be provided by suitable insulating
each connected with the`~ Lilus bar system 53.
blocks 135, the arrangement of two of which is
These are but a few of numerous readily attained
suggested in Figure 4. Referring particularly to
arrangements chosen for purposes of illustration
the plan View of Figure 11 in conjunction with
to show the facility with which the voltage and
the sectional elevation of Figure 4, it will be seen
capacity can by this arrangement be adjusted to
that in addition to having the rectangular bus
the requirements of Work coils of a wide variety
system 53 encompass the entire bank of con
of sizes.
i
densers and effect convenient connection of each
The stock-gauge and push-out mechanism
individual condenser thereto through vertical
58, 59, and the magnetic core 9'1 of the coil 40
jumpers 13d, I haverdevised an arrangement of L associated therewith, all coact with the axially
the opposite terminals 13S, 137 of the condenser
inner end of the workpiece at or near the axially
units within each so-called can 133. Upon the
inner end of the coil 413. While they are located
top of the can and in a plane substantially par
generally in Figures 1 and 2, their detail is de
allel to the plane of the bus bars 53, I can effect
picted generally in Figures 3, 13, 14, 16 and 17.
adjustment of condenser capacity and voltage
Referring particularly to Figures 3 and 14 for the
with greatest facility. As clearly appears in con
moment, it will be seen that th'e stock-gauge per
ïnection with the upper right~hand can 13S in
se comprises a tubular arm 1113 lying on the axis
_dotted lines, two groups 139 of condenser units
A-A of the coil L10, and supported from the plate
of a given capacity and voltage, each having one
42 of the coil casing for relative axial adjustment
terminal connected to a common lead 1110 which ‘1 by a clamping bracket |44 bolted to the plate 42.
is connected in common with the terminal 131 for
The tubular arm 143 projects rearwardly through
which five connector bolts are shown adapted to
the plate ¿12 a considerable distance allowing it
join such terminal to one of the vertical jumpers
to be axially adjusted back and forth through
|34. The independent terminals of each unit of
the clamp |44, to adjust its forward end with
each group are brought independently to one of - respect to the axially inner end of the coil 4Q,
the six independent terminals 13E, The termi
thereby to engage an inserted workpiece in dif
ferent axial positions within the coil 40. Once
adjusted for the proper gauging of the stock, for
'the proper heating thereof through the proper
length, the gauge arm 143 may be firmly clamped
in its supported position. (See Figure 3.)
Mounted on this adjustable arm |43, shown in
Figure 3 as being iixedly mounted although it may
be adjustable, is magnetic core 91 comprised of
’an annular series of radially-extending, radially
tapering laminations, the details of which are no
part of the present invention and are, therefore,
nals 135 are arranged in two parallel rows lying
toward one side of the can, while independent
terminals 133V are arranged in two parallel rows
lying toward one side of the can and common
terminals 131 are arranged toward the other end
of the can. ïn plan the axially extending
branches of bus bars 53 pass midway between
them whereby a vertical jumper 134 may con
veniently connect with one of the independent
terminals at the same time that another jumper
|34 connects with a set of common terminals
|31. Sets of transversely extending jumpers lll!
not shown. Sufficeth to say, they are bound in
place upon the support 143 or equivalent support
by any suitable means such, for example, as the
of uniform dimension and of such length as to
span from one independent terminal to the next
adjoining of a transverse series of condenser'
units |39, enable the units of any given series to
‘be connected in parallel with each other, and
>through the common lead 149, in parallel to the
commonly known interlocking tongue and groove
device 145. This magnetic core is of considerablev
diameter and axial extent. Therefore, a consid
Verable magnetic mass is shown as of approxi
mately the diameter of the workpiece accommo
bus bars of system 53. Sets of axially extending
jumpers 1512 of uniform dimension and of a
length enabling the adjacent groups |39 of ad
jacent cans |38 to be interconnected in series,
span adjacent terminals of such groups. Thus
as appears in plan view of Figure 11 particu
ldatable by coil 411. As projected in juxtaposition
to the end of a workpiece, it receives the flux
GO
larly, adjacent independent terminals 13'1 of ad
jacent cans 138 have been generally connected
together, with the exception of certain units or
groups in the cans of the upper right of the
View. When connectors |35 are applied, as shown
in the remaining units, and connectors 131i are
applied as shown, this results in placing across
the bars of the system 53 ten rows of condensers,
three units 139 in each row. Thus adding jump
ers to include the remaining terminals 13'1 in
flowing external to the coil 40, collects and con
centrates it, and conducts it more or less directly
4axially inwardly of the inner end of the Work
piece. Its utilization and relative adjustment
with respect to th'e end of the workpiece very
considerably reduces the reluctance of the mag
netic circuit and añords a very flexible control of
the distribution of heat in the heating of the
axially inner ends of the workpiece. Thus with
'the proper gauge of the stock in position within
the coil 411, Vplus adjustment of the flux through
its axially inner end, irregular or imperfect heat
with jumpers, would result in so placing twelve
rows of condenser units 139 of each row. Nu
merous other combinations are readily attainable
ing or excessive heating in any portion in the
inner end of the bar may be avoided. Thus it
combines with such portion of the stock as may
project from the outer end of the furnace to
achieve a general reduction in the‘reluctance of
-«merely by adding and subtracting jumpers, or by 75
thefcircuit.
the same manner as those already connected
`
'
`
.
.
13
2,40'835'0
Workpiece stock-limiting switch |14 (see Fig
The push-out mechanism comprises a prefer
ably though not necessarily water-cooled push
ures 13 and 14) is also operated in connection
with the push-out rod |46. This is achieved
through the long arm of bell-crank lever |15,
|16, which long arm through a forwardly pro
jected end |11 also has a one-way forward en
out rod |46 working axially back and forth with
in the tubular workpiece stock gauge and sup
port |43. It will be noted by reference to Figure
17 _that this rod is water cooled all the Way to its
tip |41 by means of an internally-laid water-in
jection tube |48 which enters its tubular body by
Way of an elbow |48’ connected with its rear end
through a coupling |46. This water discharges
gagement with the adjustable collar |63. Like
the bell-crank |54, |56, the bell-crank |15, |16
is freely journalled on the pivotal shaft |55. Un
like the bell-crank |54, |56, the arms of which
through the main body of the rod |46, externally
of the injection tube |46, through coupling |49,
are integral, the bell-crank |15, |16 has its arms
relatively adjustable, the short arm |16 being
adjustably clamped by a split collar |18 sur
and through a hollow |56 in the elbow |48’ in
rounding a lateral extension |19 of the hub of
advance of the threaded connection 15| of the
injection tube |48 therewith. Thus the elbow 15 the long arm |15. Arm |16 forms a segment
about the axis |55, and on the outer arc-shaped
member |43’ provides both an inlet connection
periphery |66 of this segment rides the switch
|52 and an outlet connection |53. The engaging
tip |41 of the push-out rod |46 is made of heat
actuating roller arm |61 of the limit switch |14.
Bell-crank |15, |16 is biased toward a forward
resisting metal or other such material, and is
position by a spring |82 extending to back plate
preferably removably secured to the end in a
42, and the roller of roller arm |81, when the
manner not shown, but well known in connec
tion with welding electrode tips and th'e like.
bell-crank is in its extreme forward position and
This ejector rod |46 is axially projectable
the workpiece has been pushed out, engages in
an arc-shaped depression |63 in this segment.
through the tubular support and stock gauge |43
By angularly relatively adjusting the arm |16
by means of the long arm |54 of a bell crank piv
oted at |55 and whose short arm |56 is connected
with respect to arm |15, the action of limit switch
with piston |51 of a floating fluid pressure cyl
|14 may be adjusted effectively for each adjust
inder |58 linked at |56 to a bracket |66 secured
ment of collar |65. Switch |16 is mounted upon
vto the rear face of plate 42. The spring |56’
a bracket |64 also borne by back plate 42.
moves the arm |56 against the action of the pis- ,
Devices associated with the feeding-in of the
ton and cylinder. Bell crank |55, |56 is itself
workpieces on the other hand, are mounted in
supported along with other parts of the mech’
connection with the front plate 56 of the hous
anism from a larger bracket |6| also secured to
ing of coil «16. These are the coil mouthpiece 66
`the plate 42. Engagement of arm |54 with the
and the door 52 and appurtenant instrumentali
ejector rod |46 is a one-way engagement toward
ties. The mouthpiece 66, as has been said, serves
the coil through contact of its forwardly bent up
to center the workpieces of bar or rod stock
per end |62 with an adjustable collar |63 about
properly upon the axis A-A of the coil 46 and the
the rod, whereby the length of the rod may be
supporting rails 16. It is by virtue of its sus
made sufficiently great to enable it to be used in
ceptibility to removal and replacement from the
connection with workpiece stock of various
opening 5|, suited in size to the various sizes of
coils and stock. It is suitably bolted in place
lengths as associated with coils 4€! of various
lengths, the relation between the tip |41 and the
(bolts not shown) and mounted with a clearance
96o. for radial adjustment to precise position on
collar |63 being appropriately adjusted to the
axis A/A. On its inner side it is provided with
ejection requirements of stock and coil sizes and
positions and stroke of the push-out mechanism f an annulai- series of Aaxially and inwardly pro
at large.
jecting spaced teeth at |65, the inner side walls
of which project radially and axially inwardly
The stroke of the push-out mechanism is
toward the coil, and the extremities of which
achieved by iiuid pressure applied through con
have an extent substantially paralleling the axis
duit 66 from a master cylinder 59 of the automo
A/A and lie on a circle substantially of the same
diameter as those circles on which lie the inner
bile brake type operated by foot pedal |64. The
system is kept ñlled from the usual reservoir |65
as in the automobile practice. The stroke of cyl
inder 5S and hence of the ejector rod |46 is regu
lable by an adjustment of the leverages through
edges of the work-supporting ñns 66, while their
inner sides meet their inner ends at a relatively
sharp angle. All this clearly appears in Figure
3 and Figure 5. Thereby these teeth guide the
stock accurately into engagement with the ñns 88
of the supporting rail 16, preventing impinge
ment upon intermediate transversely-extending
walls (this through their inclined inner walls
and their extremities), and when the workpiece
is pushed out, remove from it foreign matter
which foot pedal |64 is connected to the piston
rod |65' of cylinder 59. Pedal |64 is a bell
crank whose short arm |66, to which retracting
spring |61 is connected, is adjustably fulcrumed
atl |66 upon a fulcrumed bearing bracket |69.
Bracket |69, together with pedal |64 and cylinder
«59 and appurtenant parts, are all borne from a
removable mounting plate |16 bolted to the face
of the housing section 3|, whereby the ensemble
of this foot-pedal-operated actuating mechanism
such as light scale which may have formed (this
`through the opening |1I, without disconnecting
the hopper plate |66 which discharges through
from hose 66, and to the extent permitted by the
provided length of flexible hose 66, merely by dis
connecting the plate |16. A heel |12 on lever
|»64 abuts the inner face of the mounting plate 70
|16' at the outer extreme of the stroke. Further
opening |61 to a chute |36 projected from the
opening |61 exteriorly of the machine. Thus no
scale or other foreign matter drops to the foun
dation plate 39.
The door 52v which normally closes the mouth
piece opening |89 is hinged on a transverse axis
|66 (see Figures 18 and 3) just above the open
through the sharp innermost edges). Such
foreign matter as is removed falls between the
is removable as a unit from the housing 3| 65 teeth or past their inner extremities and upon
stroke adjustment can be had through the screw
threaded adjustment of piston rod |65’ with re
spect to link |13 by means of which it is con
nected to pedal |64.
ing 5|, the hinging being achieved through a
75 journalling of the axis shaft |90» at one end in
2,408,360
a small exterior bracket' | 9| and, at the other,
16
mentalities can be removed as a unit with the
in a journal |92’` in a control box casing |93. Like
chute |83, bracket |9| and the casing |92 may
housed coil 49, if this be desired, merely by un
bolting the foundation plate 29 and the back
be cast integrally with the plate 59. However,
plate 42 from the faces of the principal housing
the control box |93 especially may be separately C1 39 of the machine, the electrical, water and’other
formed and mounted to facilitate control assem
connections having been previously broken. It
blies therein.` Door 52 is biased to a normally
will, of course, be particularly necessary to re
open position in which it is raised vertically as
move the bus bar system 53 by disconnection
shown in Figure 3 by means of a strong spiral
at the connectors |39 and appropriate lowering
spring |94 on the axis |99 reacting, at one end, 10 of the bus bars. This makes for convenient ma
` against the Yfront plate 59, and at the other end
jor 'subassembly and shifting of such major sub
against the door 52. However, the door may be
assembly from machines to test bench or back,
latched when moved downwardly against the
or substituting one such major assemblage from
pressure of spring |94 to engage the end of a
one machine in another, and so forth. Nor
latch bolt |95 operated from a latch mechanism
mally, however, the subassembly comprising plate
within the control housing |93. lThe door 52 is
59, door 52, box |93, and hood 41, is the unit re
in the form of a hood, as will most clearly appear
moved, leaving base 39 and plate 42 on the main
from an inspection of Figures l and 2, a hood
frame. This alone `gives four-sided access to
open on its rear and undersides and axially
the coil 99 as clamped in place.
sufûciently long to accommodate a considerable 20
Effective provision is made for water-cooling
length of stock projecting axially outwardly of
of all parts whatsoever, such as heat in what
the mouthpiece 95.
otherwise would be an undue measure.
Such a hood-like door 52 at
This in
one and the same time enables stock consider
cludes not only the coil 49 and its work support
ably greater length than its portion to be heated,y
'ng rails 19 and the water-cooled push rod |46
to be handled in and out of the furnace, with 25 (mention of the hollow conductors for water
out interference from the door when in closed
cooling of which has already been made), but
position, safeguards the operators from contact
also the iron core 91, the condenser banks 56, and
ing the outer end of a highly heated piece of
any transformers which may be used. A coil of
stock (which, in case of electrical failure in the
water-cooling tubing 2| l is provided about the
coil might be at high potential) and, through the 30 magnetic core 91 for the purpose of cooling this
substantially flush engagement of its inner edges
mass of laminated transformer iron. The in
with the iront -face of the plate 59, prevents
ternal annular cooling of the push-out |46, as
somewhat escape of heat by convection. Note
shown in Figure 17, also aids in cooling the core
especially the position illustrated in Figure 1.
91. The coil 2|| is closely heat-coupled to the
Control box |93 contains a latch mechanism
laminations 91 and provided with appropriate
|99 controlling the latch bolt |95 for holding
inlets and outlets 2|2. The water-cooling sys
the door in closed position, the door-operated
tem at large is illustrated in diagrammatic form
control switches |91, and an electric terminal bar
in Figure 12.
|98. The latch-bolt-operating mechanism com
Here we have shown a principal water inlet 2 | 3
prises spaced guide mountings |99 for the inner
projected through a shut-off valve 2|Ll and a
end of the latch bolt, and the latch-bolt-operat
large strainer 2|5 to a general machine-distrib
ing solenoid 299 connected to operate latch bolt
uting main
|95 through a bell-crank lever 29|, one arm of
branches to all apparatus to be cooled. Main 2|6
connects with the ingoing terminal of coil 40 at
2|1, with the in-going termini of the rails 16
at 2|8, with the inlet to the cooling coil 2| | of the
magnetic core 91 at 2|9, with the push-out rod
|49 at 229, and with the water-circulating inlets
which engages with a collar 292 on the latch
bolt |95. When the solenoid draws its core up,
the latch bolt is retracted and the trap door is
sprung upwardly to añord access to the outer
end of the stock which it has hitherto shrouded.
2|9
extending by
appropriate
The bank of control switches |91 are of the
of the condenser banks at 22|. Similar such con
“micro” type. There are three of them shown in 50 nections as those made to coil 49 and condensers
front elevation, numbered, respectively 293, 294
59 may be made for transformer coils where
and 295. They are each as shown actuated
transformers are used. The outlet connections
from the axis shaft |99 through operating arms
of these respective instrumentalities are for the
2'91 secured by clamp 299 to shaft i 99 and oscil
coil 49 at 222, for the rails at 223, for iron-core
lable with it. The shaft |99 is rigidly connected
with door 52 by means such as pin connection
298, although any other such means may be used.
Thus, when spring |94 moves the door upwardly
or when the door is manually moved down
wardly, the bank of switches 293, 294, 295 is op
erated. The control box |93‘is normally closed
by a suitable cover 299 appearing in the front
elevation of Figure 2. A small handle 2|9 pro
jected radially outwardly through the cover from
bolt |95 añords a means of manually operating
bolt |95 independently of the solenoid mecha
nism 299, 29|. Projection of the latch bolt is
by means of spiral spring surrounding the bolt
between the collar 292 and the guide |99, as
shown.
Viewing now the ensemble of all instrumentali
ties connected with the housing of coil 49, espe
cially with the foundation plate 39 and the front
ci Cil
cooling coil 2H at 224, for push-out rod |46 at
225, and for the condenser banks at 226. These
outlet connections connect in common tothe
drain connection 221. Inasmuch as electric po
tentials appear across several of these water
60 ports, it is necessary to make water connections
through electrically insulating water conductors.
This is done, for instance, in the cases of the
heating coil, cooling coil for laminations, -indi
vidual capacitors, etc. However, in connection
with various of these instrumentalities, there are
lprovided control and signal actuating devices in
tervened between the inlet main 216 and the
drainage main 221, respectively. Thus, while the
inlet connection 2|1 to coil 49 is made directly
70 with the main 2|6, the outlet connection is by
way of’a conduit 228 through a thermostat con
nection 229 governing a control switch 239 and
through a water-ñow control switch 23|. Thus,
and rear plates 42 and 59 which are erected
the inlet connection 2|8 to the work-supporting
thereon, it will be seen that all of these instru 75 rail system >16 is not, as in the case of the coil
2,408,350
17
43, direct to mains 2|6, but by way of an elec
tric or other water heater 232 and a branch 233
whereby the water reaching the rails is heated
to a temperature such that moisture condensa
tion or collection on the rail 16 is prevented, irre
spective of the state of use of the furnace. A
18
14) is closed when the workpiece is in place
against the stock gauge to in turn close contacts
244 in a second control line 242.
Thermostati
cally-controlled switch 230 closes the circuit of
water heater 232 for the cooling of rails 16. The
pressure-operated switch 235 places potential on
the main bus lines 245, 246 of the control sys
tem. Switchboard signal lamps 241 are con
nected in order, one across the lead-in of the
of the iron core S1. This coil may be supplied
directly from main 2|6, if desired, but the con 10 control bus line 245, 246 from the alternating
current low voltage means 248 through line
nection illustrated is preferable. Similarly flow
switches 249 in advance of the pressure control
controlled switches like 23| and thermostatically
switch 235, one across lines 245, 246 behind the
controlled switches like 230 may be utilized and
pressure switch 235 and illuminated when the
are intended to be utilized in connection either
pressure switch is closed by turning on the cool
with the condensers 56 or any other instrumen
ing water. The lamp 241 in parallel with the
talities where it is desired to individualize indi
water heater 232 is controlled by the thermo
cator switch and machine control due to temper
static switch 230. One such lamp is in paral
ature or now of water connected with such in
lel with each of the several relays 239, 242a and
strumentality. An extra group of such devices
243e, respectively indicating the “on” condition
230 is shown unconnected and is intended to rep
of the associated relay. An anti-reset safety re
resent connection to any other such instrumen
lay 250 circuit is controlled jointly by control
talities in the same manner as connected with
line 24| in which all contacts 245, 243 are in se
the coil 4o through branch 222. A pressure-op
ries with those of pressure switch 235, and a
erated switch 235 is connected through pressure
normally closed contact 25| of the workpiece load
diaphragm 233 with the mains 2|6 to indicate
ing limit switch |14. The normally open switch
through its action the fact that cooling water is
|14 controls relay 243er. Relay 250 carries a nor
on the system. Drain opening |24 of the base
mally open locking Contact 253 and a normally
plate 39 is connected to a separate drain 231
open control contact 254 controlling, in series
used to prevent possible back pressure from line
221 forcing water into base pan.
30 with contact 244 of relay 243e (the load limit
switch relay), the application of potential from
This ensemble of the water-cooling system is,
bus 245 to control line 242. The three switches
as heretofore stated, installed appropriately with
203, 264, and 205 are operated by the door 52
in the vertically extending section 33 of the main
(see Figure 18) when the door is manually closed,
housing 30 and is, for the most part, mounted
upon the rear of the general vertical partition 35 switch 263 being a momentary switch or a pass
ing contact switch, while switches 234, 205 re
wall 23S which is extended downwardly near to
main closed as long as door 52 remains closed.
the bottom of the casing and upon the side walls
The contactor pilot relay 255 initially receives
of this Vertical section 33 in any suitable manner.
its potential from control line 242 by way of
The systems of electrical control connections
switches 204 and 203, and then locks up by its
and the contactor system for connecting to the
normally open locking contact 256 which con
source of power, as illustrated in Figure 19, are
nects its circuit 251 by bypass 25B around mo
also mounted within the vertically extending sec
mentary switch 203 and back through switch 204
tion 33. Except the main bus bar contactors,
through the control line 242. The circuit of re
they are mounted on the back wall 36 which
may be constructed in the form of a door to be 45 lay 255 is completed through a conductor 25S
and normally closed contact 265 to bus 245. A
swung outwardly to afford access to the com
sequency controller connects contact 26| placing
partment 43 in a manner not shown. The con
potential as» derived from control line 242 by way
tactors connected with the source of power are
of switch 204 and branch 258 upon sequency con
preferably mounted either upon the partition wall
233 or upon the side wall of section 33. Inas 50 troller 262, which sequency controller is a chrono
metrically-operated device adapted to apply, in
much as the particular places and modes of
desired timed sequency and in succession with or
mounting form no part of my invention, they
are not illustrated. As disclosed in the diagram
without overlap of connection, the connection of
a multiple number of machines such as the in
of Figure 19 however, there are provided the
following electrical control instrumentalities. 55 stant one to the same source of power, each ma
chine being connected by program or require
In addition to the indication and control switches
ments (disconnection is by means of the indi
of the order of switches 230, 23| and 235 of the
water-cooling control system, there is connected
vidual furnace machine’s own timing). Contacts
to be operated from each thermostatically-con
263 of such controller apply potential derived
trolled temperature switch 233, a relay 239, the 60 from control line 242 over branch 264 to the tim
circuit of which is normally closed by switches
ers. Two timers 265 of identical construction are
230 as long as the temperature of the cooling
set to start and stop at the same times and there
by to impose simultaneously upon the control
water is below a dangerously high value. Re
circuits and in synchronism the same control
lays 233 elo-se and maintain closed under condi
tions of normal water temperature, contacts 246 65 ling time intervals. The timer-controlling relays
266 operate over parallel controlling circuits 261
in a series-control circuit 24|. A relay 242e is
receiving potential from line 264, and having their
controlled by each water-flow control switch 23|
(see Figur-e 12 for the relation of switches 230
return circuits connected directly to control bus
and 23| to the water-cooling system). The cir
245 which is directly extended to the timers.
cuits of said relays 242a are closed when the flow 70 Certain locking contacts 268 are opened by means
of unloading the stock which opens load switch
of water is established in the cooling system and
|14 which opens relay contact 244 which removes
they in turn close their respective contacts 243
voltage from solenoids 266 permitting spring re
also in the series-control circuit 24|. A relay
set within timers. Motors 269 circuits are closed
243e whose circuit is controlled by the work
piece stock limit switch |14 (see Figures 13 and 75 at normally open contacts 213 when the relays
bypass 234 from the heated water line 233 to the
rail 16 supplies water also to the cooling coil 2||
19
2,408,350
266 are' energized. “On” relays 27| have their
circuits closed by the same contacts 279. Both
the “on” relays 27| and the motors 269, like the
timer relays 266, have a return connection di
rectly to bus 245. “Off” relays 272 are closed
at contacts 273 when motors 269 are cle-energized
which, like the motors 269 and the “on” relays
27|, are subjected to potential by way of con
tacts 274 connecting with the control line 242
which, it will be recalledfderives its potential
from control bus 246. Main contactor relay 275
2O
projects outside of the mouthpiece 96 at a .dis-Y
tance beneath the hood-like door 52. The door
52 is then closed downwardly.
Theact of placing the bar in heating juxtaposi
tion to the coil engages its inner end with the
tip |47 of the push-out rod |45, moving it rear
wardly. This movement carries collar |63 rear
wardly, moving locking arm |75 (see Figures 13
and 14, particularly) rearwardly, and, through
cam arm |75, closes the loading switch |74. This
switch, it will be recalled by reference to Figure 19,
closes and retains closed the circuit of relay 2431
has a circuit 276 derived from control line 242
by way of contacts -277 of relays 27| in series.
which in turn closes its contacts 244 which lie in
The return line connection to bus 245 is by way
the control line 242. Control potential thus be
of the normally open switch 295 controlled by
comes applied to line 242 through the closed con
the furnace door 52. Signal lamps 247 are con
tact 254 of the lock-up heat control relay 256.
nected in parallel with each of the relays 299
Simultaneously, relay 243a opens its contacts 25|
and 275. The furnace door latch-releasing soleso that, should heat control relay 259 become de
noid 299 (see Figure 18) has its circuit 27B from
energized and its now-closed locking contacts 253
the control line 242 to the return bus 245 con 20 be opened, the relay cannot again be energized
trolled by way of contacts 279 of relays 272 in
until the workpiece then in the machine has been
series. An A. C./D. C. rectiiier 289 shown in
removed.
' diagram derives its power from the A. C. bus
The closing of furnace door 52 downwardly to
lbars. 245, 246 over an extension 26| from the con
the dotted-line position shown in Figure 3, en
trol line 242 by way of normally open contacts
gages it with the latch bolt |55 and becomes
282 of the main contactor control relay 275
latched in its closed position, though biased to
which, it will be remembered, also controls con
the open position by spring |94 (see Figure 3).
tact 255 in the circuit 259 of the pilot relay 255.
In moving downwardly, door 52 rocks shaft |95,v
The main contacter itself 283 controls the ap
and through arms 267 closes the three micro
plication of high-frequency high-power current 30 switches 293, 294, 295. These switches appear in
to coil 49 of the furnace, lwhich main contactor
the upper central portion of the diagram of
283 receives its power over D. C. circuit 284
Figure 19. Switches 294 and 295, when closed,
closed by contacts 265 of relay 275. The main
remain closed as long as the door is closed.
contactor contacts v286 are those through which
Switch 293 is adjusted for but momentary con
the high-frequency high-power current is cut
tact during the final passage of the door to full
von and cut on” of coil 49,» or an intervened trans
closed position and is thereupon immediately re
former supplying coil 49 and any associated con
opened. The door 52 has small amount of over
densers.
travel for this purpose, being closed beyond latch
The operation of the machine is as follows:V
ing position and then drawn back by spring |94
Water having been turned onto the water cir
against bolt |95. This backward travel releases
cuits of Figure 12 in advance, water pressure
switch 293, but switches 294 and 295 remain
switch 235 (follow Figures l2 and 19), thermo
closed. Thereby pilot relay 255 is energized over
static switch 239 of the heater 232, »and thermo
its circuit 257, 259 and normally closed contact
static and iiow switches 239 and 23| associated
269 of contactor relay 275, and pulls up its con
with the remaining cooling fluid circuits, are‘all
tacts 26| and 256, locking itself up by the latter
closed and the various associated indicating lamps
through the continuing contact 294 of the group
247 are illumined, showing that they are closed.
293, 294, 295 operated by the door. The sduence
Should any one of these switches be opened due to
'controlling switch 262 which governs the place
the absence of the condition which actuates it,
ment of potential from extension 258 of the con
the associated lamp will be out, showing the oper 50 trol line 242 through contact 26|, to contact 263
ator where trouble may lie. Closure of these
. of the controller, operates continuously, so placing~
several switches results in the closure of the cir
potential sequentially upon a series of furnace
cuits of each of the associated relays 239 and
machines. When the turn of this particular ma
242e, and their closure in turn of their contacts
chine comes in the sequence, contact is made at
229, 243, which in series establish the continuity
253 and potential is carried over line 254 and the
of the preliminary control line 24| which governs
branch 267 to the starting relays 269 of the pair
the heat control or anti-reset relay 255. Inas
of timers 255 which jointly control the heating
much as a workpiece has not yet been placed in
the machine, contacts 25| of relay 24Bit, which
complete the connection of circuit 24| to control
bus 255, are still closed. Relay 259, therefore,
pulls up and locks itself up past contacts 25| by
locking contacts 253. Relay 259 also closes its
Contacts 254, thus conditioning control line 252
of the system to receive potential from control bus
226 by way of the still-open contacts 244 of relay
2450i which is under the control of the workpiece
actuated switch |74.
The door 52 being in the raised position shown
in full lines in Figure 3, a workpiece in the form
of a bar of appropriate cross-section and length is
introduced through mouthpiece 96. Preferably,
cycle of the machine.
These timers are of the well-known Eagle
Signal Corporation type, which, when energized,
operate through a predetermined heating cycle
-period and then automatically close the period.
Relays 266 pulling up, transfer the potential from
lines 267 through contacts 274 of the relays to
terminals 279, from which there are simultane
ously energized the driving motors 269 of the
timers and the extension control relays 27|, the
latter being energized over branches 27m, both
the motors 259 and relays 27| having return line
connections directly to the main control bus
245. Relays 27| through their contacts 277 in
series close the circuit from control line 242 by
way of conductor 276 to contactor relay 275. The
motors 269 start the timers upon their adjusted
in this case, the workpiece is round, and of a
length such that, when its inner end is against the
inner end of the stock gauge |63, its outer end 75
time cycle. Contacter relay 275 reaches control
21
2,408,356
22
bus 245 through the continuingly closed contacts
water pressure operated switch 235 and the like',
255 of the door 52 and is therefore energized. It
pulls up its contacts, opening 255 and thereby
releasing the pilot relay 255 which may not` be
again operated until another cycle is instituted,
thereby releasing the sequence controller from all
connection with the timers of this particular
furnace until the machine has been reloaded.
Relay 215 simultaneously closes its contacts 232
and 235 to the rectifier 289, thereby supplying
direct current to the contacter magnet` 233 and
operating the switch points 286 to connect the
are concerned.
source of power on to the coil 45.
The actual
If the heating cycle be interrupted through any
disorder, through failure of the source or power,
failure of water, or the like, relay 252| and its
associated circuits come into play to require that
the machine be unloaded and again reloaded be
fore it can be again started. This is so because
once relay 253', which is self-locked at contacts
25.3, has been de-energized through removal` of
power from the control buses 245, 246 or through
the. opening of any of the contacts 240, 243, it
cannot again be pulled up to condition the con
trol circuit 242 until the workpiece then in the
heating cycle of the workpiece is thus started
substantially at the very moment that the timers
machine has been removed, thereby opening the
255 are started upon their timing cycle.
workpiece limit switch 14 to de-energize relay
.2.43ct and close its points 25|. The latter are re
This heating cycle continues until motors 269
have completed their predetermined cycle of oper
tained open as long as there is a workpiece in
the. machine. This is simply because as long as
ation. As the motors close their cycle of opera
tion, they operate upon a mechanism not shown 20 a workpiece is in the machine, the` push-out rod
|48 through collar |63 retains rock arm |15 in
here and not necessary to show,` to bring about a
its rearward position against the tension oi spring
movement of contacts 214 away from contact
points 21@ under the control of timer relays 266, -
|82, in which cam |85 retains switch arm |8|
raised and switch |14 closed. Thus an operator
is compelled to notice that a workpiece has been
partially heated andk refrains from replacing it in
the machine until after it has been cooled. Over
258. The break between contacts 214 and con
heating of a workpiece through subjection to one
tacts 21B not only stops the revolution of the
whole heating cycle and after exposure to a frac
timer motors, but also removes potential from
relays 21| which latter, opening their contacts 30 tion of a prior heating. cycle is thus prevented.
My invention is susceptible of many modifica
211, open the circuit of the relay 215, which in
tions of its various component. parts and their
turn opens its contacts 282, 285, removing po
coacting inter-relationships andV organizations.
tential from contaotor 283 and cutting off power
For example, the heating coil itself may be vari
from coil 48 at switch points 286, thus closing the
accurately-timed heating cycle for the workpiece.
ously modified. I show in Figure 10 one' such
modification in which the rails T6 comprise each
The movement of contactors 214 against points
two tubular devices welded together in the radial
Z13 at this close of the heating cycle places po
plane~ whereby to giveV them greater radial depth
tential on relays 212. These close their contacts
and stiffness. The retaining clasps 19 and the
219 in series, completing circuit 218 to the door
latch solenoid 2GB (see Figure 18 again), releas 40 ñns 8|! arev in turn welded to the radially inner
such tubular sections. Cooling water is passed
ing the door 52 which thereupon flies to its open
through both of the tubular sections. It may
position shown in full lines in Figure 3, opening
be passed down one such tubular section and re
its controlled contacts 254, 205. If either timer
turned by the other, or it may be passedV through
fails for any reason, the operation of the remain
them in parallel as may be desired (suchv con.
ing timer is such as to open the main contacter
nections not beingV shown). This organization
and interrupt the heating at the proper time.
of the work-supporting rails permits a greater
Thereupon the heated workpiece may be re
depth of heat insulating segments 14 and, of
moved simply by pushing downwardly on foot
course, connotes a larger diameter of coil relative
pedal |54 (see igures 1,v 2,` 3, 13, and' 14). This
actuates cylinder |58 to rock crank |54 about its 50 to the diameter of the workpiece, (the latter
shown in Figure l0 generally in dot-and-dash
axis |55 to engage the upper end of the crank
lines).
with collar m3 on push-out rod |48, therethrough
In this description I have described timers 265
to push the workpiece axially outwardly. Simul
as chronometrically-operatedl devices.
They
taneously, it may be grasped in suitabletongs and
might equally well be thermometric-timing de
55
removed for placement in the forging machine
vices actuated after that length of time required
cr other instrumentality used to treat or form it.
to heat the workpiece to a determinate tempera
Upon the removal of the workpiece the load
ture through» a photocell responsive device of any
and into engagement with contacts 213, without
any wise aiTecting the energization of relays
25@ which remain locked up through contacts
switch |14 is opened, de-energizing relay 243e,
well-known type.
opening points 244, and removing potential from In connection with the laminated iron utilized
control line '.242 and unlocking timer relays 265 60 in the magnetic` circuit in extension of the axis
at contacts 258. Until relays 255 are unlocked
of the workpiece, one form of this core has been
the timers cannot be started upon a new cycle.
described. The best distribution of heat inthe
All during the heating cycle, the various sig
end of the workpiece (and it is an aim of this
nal-indicating lamps 241 are illuminated to show
65 laminated iron to secure better distribution of
that each instrumentality of the controls of a
heat in the end of the- workpiece) I conceive» to
machine is functioning properly. Should any one
be had when the diameter of the engaging end of
of them not be functioning properly, the corre
the core is less than the diameter ofthe work
spending lamp 241 is extinguished and an oper
piece, by substantially about twice the skin> depth
ator will know precisely where the trouble is to
of current penetration in the workpiece. A di
70
be found. The same, of course, is true at. any
ameter of the engaging end of core about two
time during the operation of the machine, and
thirds of the diameter of the workpiece is be
before the heating cycle is instituted, insofar as
lieved by me to be a, good proportion. Thus two
those instrumentalities in operation before doors
importantY advantages ofthe inclusion ofthe core
52 are closed are concerned, as, for example,
where those thermostats 235Y closing switches 23|, K 75 are conîoined, the collecting of the coil flux and
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