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'Sept._ 24, 1946.__
. 2,408,355
Filed Jan. 29, 1942
16- i-
* f1
H407 "I "if
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
/1-9 .
Alfred if. Turnerv
Sept; 24,!1946.
' 2,408,355
Filed Jan. 29, 1942 >
2 Sheets-Sheet‘ 2
I F116;;- I
———— -—
_' _____ ___V__"
3nventor '
r? II. 'lurner I
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
Alfred H..Turner, Collingswood, N. J., assignor to
Radio Corporation 01’ America, a corporation
of Delaware
Application January 29, 1942, Serial N91 438.4565,
5 Claims.
(01. zsoe-ss)
My’ invention relates to vacuum tube. oscillators
on the drawings are for a particular tube. The
for producing, radio frequency energy having
cathode, grid and plate are indicated by the ref
erence characters ll, l2 and 13, respectively.
short wave lengths such. as Wave lengths in the
centimeter wave region.
The oscillator circuit basically is of the well
_It is sometimes desirable to employ triodes or
known “grounded grid” type, although, in ac
cordance with the present invention, the grid I2
other multi-element vacuum tubes rather than
magnetrons or the like for producing very high
frequency energy. Triodes and similar vacuum
tubes have been specially designed for high. fre
is connected through a capacitor I4 to ground.
The capacity of element I4 depends upon the cir
.Astill further object of‘ the invention is to ‘pro
Fig? 2 shows ‘a preferred construction of the
cult and particular tube employed, but usually
quency use, but for some applications it has been
will be somewhere between 14 mmf. and 100 mmf.
found’di?icult to make them oscillate at a high 19 A
grid leak resistor 16 is connected across ca
enough frequency.
" >
Ill. The plate I3‘ is connected to one con
One object of ‘my invention is to provide an im
ductor of a line ll—|8, which maybe tuh'ed'by
proved oscillator tor producing very high. fre
means of a capacity changing element t9 to ad
quencyeuergy- '
15 just the‘ oscillator frequency The cathode II is
A Vfurther object Qf‘th? invention is to provide
connected to one conductor 'of a line 2 |'—22 which
an improved triode Oscillator for. producing high
may be tuned by! means of a shorting bar 23.
frequency energy
vide an improved oscillator of the ‘-‘grounded 20 oscillator QVf'I‘F‘lgJ 1. The cathode,’ grid and plate
terminals of the tube ID are shown at- ll’, 12’,
grid” type.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention,
there is employed a triode so designed as to reduce
and I3’, respectively. The grid terminal I2! is
the edge of a washer-shapedpiece of metal sup
spectively. comprising concentric conductors.
on a metal disc I5 sealed to the upper glass sec
tion. The cathode terminal portion l I’ is a metal
porting the ‘grid and sealed to 'glas-ssections indi
the electron transit time and the interelee-trode
cated as such by the shading.‘ The plate termi
capacitiesto a minimum. The plateand cathode 2.5 nal
plug'l3’ and the plate itself are supported
are connected to two tunable circuits or lines, re
The grid would be grounded if usualpractice were
followed, but it has been found that Oscillations
can be obtained at a higher frequency if the grid 30
is connected through some capacity to ground.
lead is shown at 25. The cathode and the other
side of-rthe cathode heater are connected through
This capacity provides feedback coupling" which
functions in' phase with the ‘feedback through the
plate-cathode tube capacity to maintain high fre
The tunable line 2l—2‘2 comprises two concen
tric cylinders, the outer cylinder. 22 being fastened
at the bottom by bolts 29 to the bottom plate 28
shell forming the tube ~base. ‘One cathode heater
a plurality of‘ parallel lead-s 27 to a metal disc 28.
quency oscillations.
35 and. being fastened at the top in screw-threaded
The invention ‘will be betterunderstood from
relation to a metal cap portion 3|. The inner
the following description, taken in connection
‘21 is supported at the bottom by an out
with the accompanying drawings in which
turned edge soldered to outer disc 28. The upper
Fig. 1 is a circuit diagram of a preferred 'em
edge of cylinder 2|. is slotted to form ?ngers that
bodiment of the invention,
Fig. 2 is a side view, partly in section, of the
oscillator shown schematically in Fig. _1 (the. view
being drawn two times full scale),
40 make electrical contact with the cathode through
the terminal I 1-’.
The shorting bar 2.3 comprises a ring surround
ing the cylinder 2] and having ?nger-s that make
Fig. 3 is an enlarged view taken on the ‘section
contact therewith and having other ?ngers that
3—3goi'Fi_g. 2, and
45 make contact with the outer cylinder 22. This
Fig.4 illustratesranother embodiment of- the
ring or shorting bar 23 may beslid along the
cylinders 2| and 22 by means of rods 320i in
‘In the several-?gures, like parts are indicated
sulating material extending through openingsin
by like reference characters.
the bottom plate 28.
‘In Big. 1 the oscillator comprises a triode H1 50 The tunable line l'l-l 8 alsocomprises two con,
designed to have every small inter-electrode ca
centric metal cylinders. ‘In the speci?cstructure
pacities C1,‘ C2 and C3. The particular vacuum
tube that is illustrated and described by way of
exampleis the General Electric type ZP446. The
valuesof the tube capacities C1, C2 and C3 given
shown, the cylinders .I1 and 18 are enclosed by a
protective cylinder 33 which is supported at the
bottom by means of a metal cup-shaped mem
55 ber 34 which it engages inscreW-threaded rela
tion. The cup member 34 and the cap member 3i
preferably are also ‘welded or soldered together.
The cylinder 18 of the line l'l--l8 preferably is
a contacting ring 66 and the capacity between the ’
ring 66 and'the end of cylinder 62, the ring and
cylinder being separated by a mica washer 61;
soldered or welded to the cup member 36 and is
given further mechanical support by a surround
ing ring 36 that is bolted to the bottom of mem
ber 34 by several bolts 31, only one of which is
shown in the drawings.
and the cylinder 63 is coupled to the anode ter
minal l3’ by coupling-capacity at the spacing
provided by an insulating bushing 58. The
anode and cathode circuits may be tuned by
shorting bars indicated at- 59 and ‘H, respec
The cylinder 11 is supported from the cylinder
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that I
l8, by mean-5 of studs 38 of insulating material,
have provided a simple oscillator employing a
only one of which is shown, each stud 38 being
comparatively small and inexpensive vacuum
fastened in screw-threaded relation to the cylin
tube that, because of the presence of the capacity
der IR. A spacing washer 39 .of insulating mate
l4 between grid and ground, may be made to
rial is located between the two cylinders H and 18.
oscillate at a higher frequency than is possible
The lower end of cylinder I‘! is electrically con 15 if the plate-cathode capacity C1 alone is depended
nected to both the upper plug portion 13' and the ' upon to provide the necessary feedback.
supporting disc portion I5 of the anode terminal
I claim ‘as my invention:
by means of contacting rings M and (i2, respecl. '
1. An oscillator comprising a vacuum tube hav
tively, having contacting ?ngers thereon. Con
ing a cathode, a control grid and an anode, a
nection" is made from the anode terminal to a
tuned circuit having one terminal connected to
plate voltage source (not shown) through a con
said anode and having the ather terminal con
ductor 43 and through a choke coil 44 and a con
nected through a capacity element to said grid,‘
ductor 46 supported in and insulated from a metal
and a second tuned circuit having one terminal
tube 41.
connected to said cathode and having the other’
The line tuning element I9 is a ‘metal block , terminal connected through said capacity ele-v
containing a circular slot so that it is, in effect,
ment to said grid whereby regenerative feedback "
a. cup that may be moved into the space between
cylinders I’! and E8 to change the capacity be
is provided both by the anode-cathode ‘capacity
As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the capacity id be
tween the tube grid and ground is provided be
minal connected through a capacity element to
tween the inner periphery of vthe cap 3| and
a metal ring or triangular shaped member 5|,
the surfaces of, the two elements being spaced
apart the proper amount by a mica washer 52.
other terminal connected through said capacity
element to said grid whereby said capacity ele-'
of said tube and by said capacity element.
tween them. The tuning cup I9 is supported on
2. An oscillator comprising a vacuum tube hav-.
an insulated rod 48 which is supported in screw 30
ing a cathode, a control grid and an anode, a
threaded relation in a disc 49 fastened into the
tuned anode circuit having one terminal con
end of the cylinder l8.
nected to said anode and having the other ter-.
said grid, and a tuned cathode circuit having one
terminal connected to said cathode and having the
ment is common to said anode and cathode
The grid terminal I2’ is connected to the ring -_ circuits
to provide regenerative feedback which
5! through a, contacting ring 53 having contact 40
aids that provided by the anode-cathode capac
ing ?ngers thereon. The resistor I6 is con
ity of said tube.
nected between the ring 5| and the cap 3|.
3. An oscillator comprising two pairs of con-'
The ring 5! is supported by the bolts_3'| which
ductors which are isolated from each other by a
extend through the tab portions extending from
partition of conducting material, a vacuum tube
the ring. Insulating bushings 54 prevent
having anode, cathode and control grid terminals,
grounding of ring 5i; they also provide ‘the
said anode terminal being connected to one con
proper spacing to hold the washer 52 and the
ductor of one of said pairs, said cathode being
contacting member 53 in place but,_at the same
connected to one conductor of the other of said
time, permit member 53_ to move laterally a slight
amount when a tube is inserted whereby it will 50 pairs, the other conductors of said pairs and said
be aligned for better contact.
The specific oscillator illustrated in Fig. 2 is
designed to oscillate at 3,000 megacycles (10
centimeters). The frequency is determined prin
cipally by the line l1~—l8 as tuned by the cup [9
and to a less extent by the line 2l—-22, the posie
partition being conductively connected to each
other, and means for capacitively coupling said
grid terminal to said partition whereby there is
provided additional regenerative feedback cou
pling to aid the coupling provided by the anode
cathode capacity of the tube.
4. An oscillator comprising two pairs of con
centric conductors which are positioned end-to
end along a common axis, a centrally apertured
tion of the shorting bar 23 on the line 2l-22
not being very critical. Since the line 11-48
would be too short for convenient mechanical
portion of conducting material separating said
construction at such a high frequency if made 60
two pairs and connected to one conductor of each
a quarter wave length long, it is made three
of said pairs, a vacuum tube having anode and
quarters of a wave length long in the example
In Fig. 4 there is shown an embodiment of the ‘
cathode terminals at opposite ends and having a
control grid terminal positioned intermediate the
invention in which the outer cylindrical member 65 other tube terminals, said anode terminal being
connected to the other conductor of one of said
6! which forms part of the tuned cathode circuit
pairs, said cathode being connected to the other
surrounds the other cylindrical members 62 and
conductor of the other of said pairs-and means
03 that form the tuned anode circuit. In this
construction the cylinder 62 functions as one '
side of each tuned line. or tuned circuit and also
functions as a portion which isolates the two
for capacitively coupling said grid terminal to
said partition whereby there is provided addition
al feedback coupling between said pairs of con
tuned circuits.
5. An oscillator comprising twov pairs of con
The cylinder BI is connected to the cathode
centric conductors which are positioned end-to
terminal I!’ by contacting ?ngers 64; the cylin
der e2 is coupled to the grid terminal l2’ through 75 end along a common axis to form a tuned anode
circuit and a tuned cathode circuit, a centrally
apertured portion of conducting material isolat
ing said tuned circuits and connected to one ter
minal of each of said tuned circuits, a, vacuum
tube having anode and cathode terminals at op
posite ends and having a control grid terminal
positioned intermediate the other tube terminals,
said anode terminal extending through said aper
ture and being connected to the other terminal
‘of said tuned anode circuit, said cathode termi
nal being connected to the other terminal of said
tuned cathode circuit, and means for capaeitively
coupling said grid terminal to said partition
whereby there is provided additional regenerative
feedback coupling from said anode circuit to said
Cathode circuit.
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