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Sept. 24,1946.
A. M. WOLFE
2,408,357
NAVIGATION COMPUTER
Filed July 6, 1944
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INVEN TOR. I
2,408,357
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
' UNITED
STATES
PATENT
OFFICE
2,408,357
NAVIGATION COMPUTER
,
Asher M. Wolfe, Bloomsburg, Pa.
Application July 6, 1944, Serial No. 543,677
16 Claims. (01. 33—76)
1
2
> This invention relates to an improved air navi
solving navigation problems involving relative
movement.
gation computer, and more particularly to a com
To provide a navigation computer that will
puter constructed and adapted to be used in the
solve any complicated dead reckoning problems
navigation of aircraft operating from an aircraft
carrier. While my invention is of particular ad 5 as well as the simple.
To provide a computer that can be used direct
vantage for such purposes, it will be understood,
on maps if desired.
however, that its use is not limited thereto, and
Still other objects and advantages of my in
it may be advantageously employed in solving
vention will be apparent from the speci?cation.
navigation problems generally.
The features of novelty which I believe to be
When operating an airplane from an aircraft 10
characteristic of my invention-are set forth with
carrier, the pilot must be always on the alert for
particularity in the appended claims. My inven
indications of the enemy, in the air, on the sur
tion itself, however, both as to its fundamental
face, and under the water. He must also con
principles and as to its particular embodiments,
stantly watch for any unusual objects on the sur
will best be understood by reference to the speci
face, such as life rafts, boats, and the like.
?cation and accompanying drawing, in which
In addition he must constantly check the in
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a computer in accord
struments indicating the performance of his
own craft.
All this must be done while carry
ing out his orders, which may require ?ying over
considerable distances while out of sight of the
carrier. It is, therefore, vital for him to be at
all times absolutely certain of his own position
and that of the carrier, and to be able quickly to
work out navigation problems, should emergen
cies develop requiring a change in his original 25
flight plan.
His many duties other than navigation do not
permit him to engage in complicated and time
consuming plotting methods for solving naviga
tional problems, with the ever-present possibility
of error due to inadvertence or excitement. - The
navigation which he is required to do while flying
must be done quickly and accurately, and with- v
out interference with his other duties.
With the use of the computer according to my
invention, the pilot is able to solve all necessary
navigational problems easily and quickly, with a
ance with my invention,
Fig. la is a detail section taken on line la-la,
Fig. 1, partly in section, on an enlarged scale, of
one of the joints of my computer,
Fig. lb is a detail View of one of the disks which
may be used,
Fig. 1c is a detail View of one form of pivot I
may use,
Fig. 1d is a detail view of a form of connection
between two arms of my computer,
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the computer of
Fig. 1, partly'in section, and
Figs. 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3d show typical adjust
ments of my computer in solving navigation prob
lems.
In accordance with'my invention, my computer
may comprise a disk l0 preferably, but not nec
i‘ essarily, of transparent material, calibrated in
degrees from true north from 0° clockwise to
360°, and also, if desired, in reciprocals in smaller
?gures (in degrees from true south from 0° to
360° clockwise). Pivotally attached at the center
necessity of laying the problem out in vector form 40 W of the disk there may be provided an exten
on paper.
sile or telescoping arm H calibrated in air speed
Among the objects of my invention may be men
in knots or miles per hour.
minimum possibility of error, and without the
tioned the following:
' To provide a navigation computer particularly
adapted for use by pilots of aircraft operating
Any suitable telescoping arrangement may be
used, such, for example, as is employed in slide
from aircraft carriers, and which will quickly
rules; but for economy of space, weight, and ma
terials, I prefer to provide a channeled member
solve vector problems without requiring the draw
lid of thin sheet, preferably non-magnetic, met
al, or plastic, within which there may be mounted
To provide such a computer which will enable
the calibrated slider I lb.
An indicator may be provided, such as an index
the pilot quickly to visualize the problem, thus re Si)
ducing the possibility of error.
pointer lie on the member Ha, so that as the
arm I l is lengthened and shortened, the true air
To provide such a computer which is simple, pos
ing of vector diagrams.
‘
itive, and reliable in operation, light in weight,
small in size, and inexpensive to manufacture.
To provide a simple and accurate method of '
speed may be read directly from the indicator.
A screw clamp I id or any other suitable arrange
ment may be provided for securing the arm I l at
2,408,367
3
4
the length to which it is adjusted. The arm II
is preferably, but not necessarily, mounted under
the disk III.
A second arm I2 may'also be pivoted at the
point W for rotation about said point as a cen
ter. This is preferably arranged so that it may
be rotated through 360° and a clamp such as
screw I2a may be provided for securing it to the
rim of disk. III in the particular angular position
will represent the true course. To read the di
rection of point P from point E in degrees, the
navigator rotates disk I4 until the lines I4a
marked on it run parallel with the arm EP (l3).
Then the arrowhead I4b will point to the true
course in degrees from true north.
It will be seen that if the true heading and
air speed remain the same and the wind changes
velocity, as the point E is moved along arm I2 to
to whichv it maybe‘ set. This arm‘ I2 is prefer 10 the new wind velocity, the arm I3 will increase or
decrease in length and the direction of point P
ably calibrated in knots or mlies per hour wind
from point E will change. Similarly, should the
velocity.
.
It is preferable for arm I2 to extend past point
wind change its direction, as arm I2 is rotated to
W and to have the pivot on an offset bracket I2d
the new direction, arm I3 will change corre
as shown in Fig. lc for a reason which’ will bede 15 spondingly.
scribed later.
With the construction so far described, it is
A third arm I3 may be pivotally secured at point
possible to ?nd the true course, knowing the true
P to the outer extremity of arm I I, and to a point
heading as already described, or to find the true
on a sliding sleeve IZb, slidable on the arm 'IZ.
heading and air speed to be maintained for a
The offsetting of the pivot on bracket I2d permits 20 given true course and ground speed. In the latter
sleeve I2b to slide past point W in case point E
case, one would set the wind direction and velocity
should fall directly over point W. A clamp such
?rst, then adjust arm I3 to the direction of true
as screw l2c may be provided for locking the
course by setting disk I4 to indicate true course,
arms against movement of point E after adjust
swing point P until arm I3 is parallel with the
ment. The arm I3, like arm I2, is extensile and 25 lines Ma, and then adjust the length of arm I3
is preferably made in two parts, I3a and I3b, tele
scoping one into the other, and may be calibrated
in knots or miles per hour, and may have an
for ground speed of the airplane. The length
of the arm I I will then represent the air speed of
the airplane, which may be read from the scale
index pointer I3c.
on arm I I, and the angle of the arm I I will repre
The ends of arm I3 may be slightly offset as 30 sent the true heading which must be maintained
indicated at I3e and I3)‘ so that the edge I3d may
to make good the true course, and this may be
read directly from the scale Illa.
permit a pencil mark made against this edge to
lie accurately in the line connecting points E and
If it is desired to solve problems involving a
P. This is desirable for solving wind star prob
surface ship, such as a carrier, as in a geographic
lems. The otherarms II and I6 may have simi 35 sector search to a moving base, relative sector
larly offset ends if desired, and the arm II may
project slightly beyond point P to form a handle
I Id for convenience of operation.
'
Also, secured to the disk III at point-W, and
search, relative square search, ?ctitious ship, etc.,
additional structure will be provided. This may
comprise the arm I5 pivoted at point E to the
sleeve I2b or arm I2 and carrying a sleeve I5a
preferably, although not necessarily, between it 40 having clamp I5b, by which it may be secured to
and the arm I I, and mounted for rotation, I may
provide a second‘ disk I4 preferably, but not neces
sarily, of transparent material, which may be
marked with a number of parallel lines, as at Ma,
and with an indicating arrow, as at IlIb. iThis
disk may also have a drift scale I40 and the let
ters L and R with appropriate arrows, ‘as shown in
Fig. 1b. The two disks Ill and I II and the three
arms II, I2, and I3, are all that is necessary for
solving simple problems.
'
For example, the length of the arm I I may in
dicate the true air speed and the angular position
the periphery of disk III.
This arm will be cali
brated for the speed of the surface ship.
Arm I6, similar to arms II and I3, may also
be provided, pivoted at points S and P, and this.
arm may comprise a pair of extensile, telescop~
ing members Ilia and Hit) and may be calibrated
in miles per hour or knots. The point S is made
adjustable along arm I5 by means of sleeve I50
and a clamp I5d may be provided for holding
50 the adjustment.
Preferably, the connection be
tween arms I5 and I6 at point S is made “quick
detachable” as by ball I5e on arm I6, engaging
spring socket I5)‘ on sleeve I50. This is necessary
for certain adjustments, as for instance when
of the arm the true heading in degrees from true
north, the length of arm I3 the ground speed, the
angular position of arm I3 the true course, the 55 the airplane’s course is the same as the surface
length from W to E on arm I 2 the wind velocity,
ship’s, when arm I3 would otherwise strike or
and the angular position of arm I2 the, wind di
jamat point S. It is desirable that the arms
rection.
‘
I3 and I6 be so arranged that parts I31) and
If the pilot knows his true heading and his true
I61) be able to slide in parts I3a and I5a beyond
air speed, and the wind direction and velocity, 60 the pivot points E and S respectively as indicated
he can quickly determine his true course and
in Fig. 1d.
'
ground speed, as follows: He will ?rst set the
To set the surface ship’s course, the disk I4
arm I2 to the angular position of the wind di
will be rotated until the arrow Mb points to the
rection on scale I M, and lock it in position by
ship’s course, clamp I 522 will be loosened, and the
clamp I 2a. The point E will then be moved along 65 arm I5 rotated about point E until it is parallel
the arm I2 and set for the wind velocity. He will
to the lines Illa. It is then clamped in position.
then adjust the length of arm I I to read true air
The point S will then be adjusted along arm
speed, and tighten the clamp I Id to hold the arm
I5v until it is at the position of the surface ship’s
I I in adjusted length, Then he will swing point
speed, and then clamped in position. Then the
P until the angular position of arm I I corresponds 70 angular position of arm I6 will represent the
to his true heading as shown by scale vI 0a.
direction of relative movement, and the length
The length of ‘the arm I3 will then represent
of arm IS the speed of relative movement. The
the ground speed of the airplane and may be
former may be read from scale Illa by rotating
read directly from pointer I30 off the scale on the
disk I4 until the lines on it are parallel to arm
arm I3. The direction of point P from point E
I6, and the latter read from the scale on arm I6.
2,408,857
6
ing from W to E, and if that is done, then the
arm I3 will represent the true heading and air
speed instead of true course and ground speed,
Under some conditions it'may be desirable to
disconnect sleeve I5a from the rim of disk I0,
and to clamp it at the end of arm I2. This may
be easily and quickly done by providing an ex
tension on the clamp I2a of approximately the
and the arm II will then represent the true
course and ground speed.
A solution of a typical problem involving an
airplane and a surface ship will now be given,
explaining the use of my computer.
is necessary if the surface ship’s’course is the
Suppose a relative sector search is to be made
reciprocal of the wind’s direction, in order to
10 from an aircraft carrier. The position of the
let arm I5 fall directly over arm I2.
carrier may, for example, be at 0800, latitude 41°
It will be observed that the arms II, I3, and
4' north, longitude 52° 4’ west, course 160°, speed
I6 are all pivoted at the common point P. Any
25 knots. The pilot's orders are to depart from
shift in point P circumferentially will change the
carrier at 0800, search a relative sector from 60°
direction of all three arms, and the length of
the arms I3 and I6 when arm II is locked at 15 to 90° for 120 miles, returning to carrier; ?ight
level 2,000 feet, true air speed 110 knots, temper
I‘Id. If arm‘II is unlocked at “it, any move
ature 45° C., wind from 034°, force 20 knots.‘
ment of point P in a radial direction will change
The pilot must determine, from the data given,
the length of arms II, I3, and I6, and the di
the true heading to be maintained, speed of rela
rection of arms I3 and I 5.‘ Some typical ad
J'usted positions of my computer, as used in solv 20 tive movement, true course, distance covered,
and ground speed for each of the three legs of
ing navigational problems, are shown in Figs.
the search, and the time for making each turn
3a to 3d inclusive, and it will be noted that in
required to fly the course.
every case shown in these figures there are two ,
Since the back leg of the search will always be
triangles having one side common. These tri
angles may lie one within ‘the other, may partly 25 flown ?rst, the pilot will solve for the back leg
?rst. This may be done by ?rst setting the arm
overlap, or may be without overlap.
I2 to the wind direction 034° and setting point E
Wind stars may also be worked with my com
to the wind velocity. Arm I5 will then be ad
puter. To facilitate this, I prefer to frost the
justed for the course of the carrier, 160°, and the
center of the disk III in the circle I0b so that
a pencil mark may be made upon it. I may also 30 point S will be set at the speed of the carrier.
The length of arm H will then be set at true
attach a small tab I Ie of frosted plastic or other
same thickness as disk I0. Other ways in which
this may be done will be readily apparent. This
air speed, 110 knots, and. the angular position of
material to arm I I so that the compass variation
may be'written on it, for convenience in correc
arm I 6 will be set for the direction of relative
movement, 60°. With this setting the length’ of
tion of true heading to magnetic heading or vice
versa.
‘
_
,
The following is an example of how a wind
star problem is worked with my computer:
While ?ying on a true heading of 061° at a true
35 arm I3 will then be the ground speed, 94 knots,
Cus. 75°, and the angular position of arm II the
true heading, 685°.
~
When the course and speed of the carrier, the
wind direction and velocity, the true air speed,
and the direction of relative movement, which
are known, are set, the ground speed, 94 knots,
may be determined by reading the scale on arm
air speed of 125 k. the pilot notes a drift of 14°
R. To set this up he swings arm II (or W-P)*
until it reads 061° on scale I0a of disk I0 and
adjusts the length of arm I I to true air speed
I3; the true course, 75, by reading the angular
of' 125 k. He then revolves disk I4 until IIIb
position of arm I3 on scale Illa through the use
reads061° or the parallel lines (Ila) run paral
of disk I4; the true heading 68.5", from the anlel with arm II. Then since the drift is 14° R,
gular position of arm II; and the speed of rela
he moves disk I4 to the right for 14” or the point
tive movement between airplane and carrier, 95.5
er III) to 075° (061°+14°=075°). Then he ad
knots, may be read from arm IS. The time for
justs point E of arm I3 (E-P) until it is paral
making the turn to the second leg of the course
lel to the lines on disk I4 and draws a line along
edge I3d of arm I3 on the frosted area of disk 50 is determined by dividing 120 miles by the speed
of relative movement, and is 75.5 minutes.
III. He repeats the above operation for the fol
The distance covered on this leg is ground
lowing two headings:
True heading 121", true air speed 125 k., drift
True heading 001", true air speed 125 k., drift
61/2° R.
From the above operation he will have three
lines drawn on the frosted area of disk I0. These
three lines will all cross and establish a point.
From this point to W will be the direction the
- wind is blowing and the distance from this point
to W will be the velocity. The wind in this case
is from 340'’ with a velocity of 30 k.
speed multiplied by time, and is 118 miles.
To solve for the second leg, it is ?rst necessary
55 to ?nd the true course and distance of this leg
and true heading. This is found, in the case
given, to be 164° and the distance 7'7 miles. In
setting the computer, since wind direction and
velocity, true air speed, and surface ship’s course
and speed are unchanged, it is only necessary to
swing point P until arm I6 has the angular posi
tion of the direction of relative movement of the
second leg. The new direction, 165°, and speed
of relative movement, 97 knots, ground speed,
In a relative square search a relative wind 65 122 knots, and true heading, 156°, may now/be
must be determined. For this purpose the radius
of disk III extending to point IAb will preferably
be calibrated in terms of relative wind velocity.
In working problems involving relative wind, the
disk It may be revolved until the radius to point
Ilb lines up with points W and S.
In the above disclosure I have. explained the
problems with the wind plotted up-wind; that is,
from E to W. The problems, however, may be
read'as before, and the time, 38 minutes, for
making the second turn obtained.
The third leg may be solved for in the same
way, by swinging point P until arm I6 reaches
270°, the given direction of relative movement
for the third and last leg. From arm I3, true
course is found to be 259°, and ground speed 123
knots; from arm I I true heading is 266, and from
arm I6 speed of relative movement is 130 knots.
plotted, down-wind; that is, with the wind blow 75 Knowingthe distance to the point'of intercep
2,408,357,
7
8
tion with the carrier to be 120 miles of, relative
movement, the time of the last leg is found to be
55.5 minutes and the time of interception 10:49.
an adjustable point on said secondarm, said third
arm carrying a scale indicating speed.
5. A navigation computer comprising, in com
- It will be apparent thatthe method which I»
bination, a compass rose, a?rst arm and a sec
employ makes a vectorial solution, but the vec~. 5 ond arm pivotally secured for rotation to the
tors are, not lines, but the arms ll, I3, l6, I2, and
center of said compass rose, a third arm piv
I5, and since these are all connected at the
otally connected between the outer end of the
proper points and: arranged .in proper relation to
?rst arm and an adjustablev point on the second
each other, there is no possibility of error due
arm, a fourth arm having one end pivotally se
to incorrect‘ laying out of .the vectors, as in a 10v cured to the connection between the second and
solution worked out on paper, or in the length
third arms, and a ?fth armhaving one endv piv
While I have shown and described certain pre
ferred embodiments of my invention, it will be
otally connected to the connection between the
?rst and third arms, and its other end pivotally.
connected to an adjustable point on said fourth
understood that modi?cations and changes may
be made without departing from the spirit and
scope thereof, as will .be clear to those skilled in
tensile, and all of said arms carrying speed
of each arm or vector since it is read direct. .
the art.
>
arm; said ?rst, third, and ?fth arms being ex
indicating scales.
. 6. The combination claimed in claim 5, with
,
I have particularly pointed out and distinctly
means for locking the adjustment of one or more
claimed the part, improvement, or combination 20 of the following: the length of the ?rst arm, the
which I claim as my invention or discovery, and
angular position of the second arm, the point of
in the speci?cation II have explained the princi
connection of the third and, fourth arm to the
ples thereof and the best mode in which I have
second arm, the angular position of the fourth
contemplated applying those principles so as to
distinguish my invention from other inventions
I claim:
a
-
.
,
arm, and the point of connection of the ?fth
arm to the fourth arm.
‘
7. A navigation computer comprising, in com-_
1. A navigation computer comprising, in com.
bination, a compass rose, ?rst and second arms
bination, a. compass rose, an extensile arm piv
pivotally secured to the center of said compass
rose for rotation, third, fourth, and ?fth arms
otally secured for rotation to the center of said
compass rose, said arm being provided with a 30 pivotally secured together tov form a triangle hav
scale indicating speed, a second arm pivotally
ing one vertex pivotally secured to the outer end
secured to the center of said compass rose for
of the ?rst arm, and a second vertex secured to
rotation, said second arm carrying a scale indi
an adjustable point on said second arm, the
cating wind velocity, and a second extensile arm
length of all three sides of said triangle being ad
pivoted atone end to the outer end of the ?rst
justable, and the length of the ?rst arm and of
two arms of said triangle being adjustable inter
extensile arm and at the other end to an adjust
mediate their pivot points.
,
able point on said second arm, said third arm
carrying a. scale indicating speed.
8. A navigation computer comprising, in com
2. A navigation computer comprising, in com
bination, a compass rose, ?rst and second arms
bination, a compass rose, an extensile arm piv 40 pivotally secured to the center of said compass
otally secured for rotation to the center of said
rose for rotation; third, fourth, and ?fth arms
compass. rose, said arm being provided with a scale
pivotally secured together to form a triangle
indicating speed, a second arm pivotally secured
having one vertex pivotally secured to the outer
to the center of said compass rose for rotation
end of the ?rst arm, and-a second vertex secured
and having means for?xing its'adjusted angular
to an adjustable point on said second arm, the
position, said'second arm having a scale indi
length of' all three sides of said triangle being
cating wind velocity, and a second extensile arm
adjustable, and the ?rst arm and two arms of
having one end pivoted to the outer end‘of the
said triangle being extensile.
?rst extensile arm and the other end slidably and
9. A navigation computer comprising, inv com
pivotally mounted upon said second arm, said
bination, a compass rose, ?rst'and second arms
second extensile'arm carrying a scale indicating
pivotally secured to the center of said compass
speed.
'
>
'
Y
Y
3. A navigation computer comprising, in com
bination, a compass rose, a telescoping arm piv
rose for rotation, third, fourth, and ?fth-l arms
pivotally secured together to form a triangle hav
ing one vertex pivotally secured to the outer end
otally secured for rotationv to the center of said
of the ?rst arm, and a second vertex secured to
compass rose, said arm ‘being provided with‘a
an adjustable point on said second arm to form
scale indicating speed, a second arm pivotally se
a pair of triangles having one side common, the
cured ‘to the center of said compass rose for rota
length of all three sides of both said triangles
tion, said second arm having a scale indicating
adjustable, and two arms of each triangle
wind velocity, and a second telescoping arm hav 60 being
being extensile.
ing one end pivoted to the outer end of the ?rst
10. A navigation computer comprising, in com
telescoping arm and the other end adjustably and
bination, a compass rose, an extensile arm piv
pivotally mounted upon said second arm said sec
otally secured for rotation to the center of said
ond telescoping, carrying a scale indicating‘speed.
4.- A navigation computer comprising‘, in com 65 compass rose, said arm being provided with a
bination, a compass rose, a ?rst arm comprising
two parts slidable on each other and pivotally se
cured for rotation to the center of said compass
rose, said arm being provided with‘a scale indi
cating‘ speed,‘ a second arm. pivotally-‘secured to
the center of said compass rose for rotation, said
second arm carrying a scale indicating. wind ve
locity, and a third arm comprising two parts
slidable on each other pivoted at one end to the
outer end ofthe ?rst arm and at the other endto
scale indicating speed, a second arm pivotally se
cured to the center of said compass rosefor rota
tion, said second arm carrying a scale indicating
Wind velocity, a second extensile arm pivoted at
one end to the outer end of‘the ?rst extensile
arm and at the other end to an adjustable point
on, said second arm, ‘said-third arm carrying a
scale; indicating speed, and a disk pivotally se—'
cured-to the center ofsaidcompass rose for ro
- tation,,said disk being- provided- with a pointer,
2,408,357
9
10
and a plurality of lines thereon parallel to said
nected between the outer end of the ?rst arm and
pointer.
an adjustable point on the second arm, a fourth
arm having one end pivotally secured to the con
11. The combination claimed in claim 10, in
which said disk is of transparent material.
12. The combination claimed in claim 10, in
nection between the second and third arms, and
a ?fth arm having one end pivotally connected
to the connection between the ?rst and third
which said compass rose is of transparent ma
arms, and its other end pivotally connected to
terial having a center frosted area.
an adjustable point on said fourth arm; said
13. The combination claimed in claim 10, in
?rst, third, and ?fth arms Ibeing extensile, and
which said disk is of transparent material and
10 all of said arms carrying speed-indicating scales,
carries a wind velocity scale.
and the second arm having means at its outer
14. A navigation computer comprising, in com
end to which the fourth arm may be secured.
bination, a compass rose, an extensile arm piv
16. A navigation computer comprising, in com
otally secured for rotation to the center of said
bination, a compass rose, an extensile arm piv
compass rose, said arm being provided with a
scale indicating speed, a second arm pivotally 15 otally secured for rotation to the center of said
compass rose, said arm being provided with a
secured to the center of said compass rose for
scale indicating speed, a second arm pivotally
rotation, said second arm carrying a scale indi
secured to the center of said compass rose for
cating wind velocity, and a second extensile arm
rotation, said second arm carrying a, scale indi
pivoted at one end to the outer end of the ?rst
cating wind velocity, and a second extensile arm
extensile arm and at the other end to an ad
pivoted at one end to the outer end of the ?rst
justable point on said second arm, said third arm
extensile arm and at the other end to an ad
carrying a scale indicating speed, the connection
justable point on said second arm, said third arm
at the disk end of one of said extensile arms be
carrying a scale indicating speed, at least one of
ing quick detachable.
15. A navigation computer comprising, in com 25 said extensile arms having its pivots o?set in line
with one edge thereof.
bination, a compass rose, a ?rst arm and a second
ASHER M. WOLFE.
arm pivotally secured for rotation to the center
of said compass rose, a third arm pivotally con
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