Патент USA US2408361код для вставки
2,408,361 Patented Oct. 1, 1.946 UNITED STATES? PATENT OFFICE 2,408,361 ROTARY TILLER John Peter Bagan, Portland, Oreg., assigner of one-third to Anthony R. Wanasek, Marshfield Oreg. Y Application August 9, 1944, Serial No. 548,706 10 Claims. (c1. en_-41) 2 . Fig. 6 is a left end elevation of the rotaryY This invention relates to a machine adapted for use for plowing or tillingthe soil, grading or levelling the ground, weeding, etc., and is more particularly concerned with the type of machine in which a spirally shaped cutter blade is rotated in contact with the earth surface to be worked, cutter, , Fig. '7 is a section on the line 1-1 of Fig. 2 and Figure 8 is a fragmentary rear view of the rotary cutter showing the overlapping of the blades. ' Y ' Referring to the drawings, l is the platform of the machine which maybe made of wood or serving to cut, pick up, disintegrate and Vrede posit the surface layer of earth. Prior workers, metal. Attached to and forming a part of this recognizing the merits of such a machine have vmade many attempts to provide a practical em 10 platform andV lending strength andrigidity to it are fthe angle irons 2 and 3. Angle iron 2, se bodiment thereof which is capable of operation cured to the front edge of the platform, has one by a relatively unskilled person under varying soil edge projecting downwardly several inches pro conditions. Many difficulties have been encoun viding a baflie which catches earth thrown up tered and as a result no such machine has, up wardly and forwardly by the rotary cutter. 'I‘he angle iron 3 is secured to the platformI parallel to but spaced from the rear edge thereof and to the present time, attained general acceptance and widespread use. f „ ' e A primary cause of the difficulties heretofore encountered in providing a practical machine of has one edge projecting upwardly. The draw frame which is illustrated as a simple V _consists this sort has been the spiral cutter. An object of my invention is to provide a spiral 20 of the side members 4 and 5 bolted to the plat form through the angle irons Y2 and `i andat cutter which eliminates many of the difliculties tached at their front ends to the drawY plate 6. heretofore encountered, such as the tendency of The ends of the platform carry the angle irons the machine to act as a conveyor, moving the 1, ‘I’ at the right endy and 8, 8’ at the left end. earth laterally of the machine so as to produce Angle irons 1 and 1’ and angle irons 8 and 8' 25 ridges and furrows instead of a smooth flat tilled are bolted together through the platform with surface and the tendency `of the machine to moveV the edges of angle irons 'land 8 projecting up laterally. A further object of my inventionis wardly and the ends of angle irons ‘I’ and 8' to provide a simple, easily constructed, inexpen projecting downwardly providing vertical flat end sive, easily operated machine which is relatively free of parts likely to break or function im 30 surfaces to which are secured the end plates 9y and I0. End plate 9 carries the housing II and properly. ' . mounted on the housing II and on the end plate In general my machine consists of a simple I0 are the vertically adjustable wheel supports I2 frame carried on two wheels which supports the and I3 which, in the form illustrated, are de transverse rotary tiller and drive mechanism. signed to be operated .by means of a crank (not Due to the fact that the rotary tiller of my in 35 shown) on rods I2' and I3'. Vertical adjustment vention is balanced so as to be relatively free of of the wheels I4 and I5 determines the depth of a tendency to move the earth laterally or itself ` penetration of the rotary cutter into the ground. to move laterally, it is unnecessary to provide Wheels I4 and I5 may be of any suitable type. special means, such as coulters, to hold theY ma 40 The type illustrated having a relatively wide V-' chine in line or to provide special means to de shaped tread is preferred. posit the earth lifted by the spiral blades in a The housingr Il contains a suitable number of smooth layer.. ^ meshed pinions such as Athree (I6, I1 and I8), A machine embodying my invention and illus the uppermost of which, I6, rotates with the Atrative thereof» is shown in the accompanying 45 shaft I9 which extends through the bearing 20 carried by the plate 9 and the lowermost of which, drawings, in which, I8, rotates with the shaft 22 which is keyed to the Fig. 1 is a top plan view of the machine, shaft 23 of the rotary cutter. The middle pinion Fig. 2 is an elevation of the rear of the machine, I1 merely transmits motion from the pinion IB Fig. 3 is an elevation of the left side of the machine, 50 to the pinion I8. 1 machine showing the means for driving the ro tary cutter, ' Fig. 5 is a right end elevation of the rotary 55 cutter, - ' Y . The drive shaft I9 preferably is driven at two or more selected speeds through the transmis sion 25 from the propeller> shaft 26. Propeller shaft 26 extends forwardly and is provided with Fig. 4 is an elevation of the right side of the .means (not shown) for attachment to a power 2,408,361 3 4 source such as a tractor of known type which may be coupled to the draw plate 6 to move the machine and has a power take-off adapted to be coupled to the shaft 26 to rotate it. The pro ute the strain on the free ends of the blades. The opposite ends of the blades are reinforced and supported by the flat knife members 38 and 39 which lie in planes perpendicular to the axis of the rotary cutter. Each blade 34, 35, 3E and 37 consists of a right helicoidal portion 40 adja cent andsecured to the axle of the cutter and an peller shaft preferably is provided with the two universal joints only one of which, 2l, is shown, the other being in front of the clutch 29 which is adapted to slip'w‘hen excessive force‘is applied oblique helicoidal 'portion 4I extending outwardly and thus to protect the rotary cutter and its drive from the right helicoidal portion 40. The rela mechanism against breakage, 30 is a disc mount» . lO tive widths of the portions 4€) and 4I may vary ed on the frame of the machine and set at an' within wide limits, that is, the Width of portion angle and adapted to engage the ground andeut 410 may be equal to or greater than or less than a furrow or clear the way for the lower end .of the width of portion 4|, but generally for soil the housing ||. 3| is a dirt baffle hinged to the’ tillingfpurp'oses theportion 4| is somewhat wider rear edge of the platform I and provided at its 15 than the portion'ïAß in the ratio of 2 to l or lower edge with the endwise adjustable levelling greater. The angle between the two portions bar32. ~' ' ' The rotary cutter, as stated above, comprises the shaft 23, one end of which is keyed to and also may vary. Portion 4B is always perpendicu larto the axis of the cutter, that is, it is always a right helicoid but the portion 4| may depart driven by the shaft §22. The other end is rotat 20 from the perpendicular to the axis of the cutter ably supported by the 'bearing 33 carried by the by an angle from say 10° to about-75°. AAn angle end plate |i3. The rotary cutter as illustrated in of about 30° between ~the line of intersection of Figs. 5,k 6 and '7 comprises four 'balanced cutter the portion 4| with a plane which coincides with the axis of the cutter and a line in said plane sections a, b, c and d mounted on the shaft 23. It is to be understood, however, that the inven 25 which is perpendicular to the axis of the cutter generally is preferred for ordinary soil cultiva tion is not limited to four such sections since any tion purposes. The two portions 40 and 4| of number thereof, i. e. one, two, three, four or more each blade may be integral or they -may be made of such sections may be employed >depending upon the length of rotary cutter desired. The separate from cach other andl welded, riveted or cutter sections are identical and therefore only 30 bolted together. The>v blades may be cast or formed by working' sheet metal. The tips of the one need be described in detail. ' The diameter and ‘length of each cutter `section and the pitch blades may be» rounded as shown at' 42. . of the spiral blades thereof may vary within wide As stated, two', three or more cutter sections limits depending 'upon the size of the machine maybe mounted end to end on the same shaft and the kind‘of Work tobe done. ` For convenience or aX-le.- The adjacent blades of adjacent sec I shall describe a cutter> which I haveïfound to tions should then be set at an angle of 90° to be well adaptedjfor plowing farmland of the types commonly used >for ~ growing corn, wheat and other grain crops, cotton, and Vegetables such each other on the shaft. I « The described -'cutter' construction has many advantages over yrotary spiral cutters heretofore as potatoes. This cutter‘is madel in sections 40 employed particularly-in that iteliminates end about 'V14 inches long and -14 .inches in diameter thrust and'tendency of the machine to swerve and with four sections. Each section comprises from -a straight forward path and the corre four blade members in- two groups, Two of the sponding tendency to transport earthlaterally four blade members 3'4 and ëâ'constituting one of the machine land produce ridges'and valleys group _start at a line around the shaft at an angle is eliminated. While therefissome‘tendency to of ‘180°'fr`om eachothe'r'and extend spirally 180° move the-earth to the middle of each section 3no around the shaft with equal pitch. vThe other objectionable .production` of 'a ridge has been foun‘d to occur inpractice. This probably is due two blade members 3B and 37 constituting the other group start at a >line `on'the shaftadjacent tothe fact that' there are four blades operating the ends of blades 34’and 35 atan angle of"180° from each other but" at an angle of about 90“ 50 on the ground near- the'centerl of each section 14 inches and the'pitch of the blade equal to ‘its a root or stone and thus avoids excessive wear and to the further fact that each sectionis too from'V the ends of blades :i4V andV 35 and extend sh0rt'.to produce -an objectionable. ridge.V ’I‘he around the shaft 180° at'the same ‘pitch which short `sections >also ‘avoid `thel difficulty frequently is the reverse of the pitch of blades‘34 and 35. encountered in plowing or tilling rough ground rI‘he pitches of the blades are suchA that they tend 55 with a. relatively long. rotarylspiral cutter. The ground rarely is ‘so rough orf-uneven that the end to convey earth toward their adjacent ends as thrust ofthe ».oppositelypitchedfblades of each the cutter rotates in Contact_with the> earth to be sectionv do not encounter-»enoughearth substan treated, that is,'in the same angular direction as the wheels ld and l5. As stated, the diameter tiallyvto balance each other. -Moreover, the end of the cutter, that is the distance between the 60 thrust of anyzsingle pairlof blades> is so small opposite edges ofA two blades at the points of their that the Inachineisv notcaused -to move laterally intersection wíth'a plane perpendicular to the from its normal forward path. The. Gutter op erates smoothly and generally maintains a uni axis of the cutter may be, say, 14‘inches and the length of each blade longitudinally of the shaft form depth and consumes power quite uniformly ’7 inches, making the length of the cutter section except when it strikes some obstruction such as diameter, ' ‘ ' Y ’ It is preferable slightly to overlap the adjacent and Vbreakagefof- the driving mechanism. The cutter generally remains l»clear of earth and masses lofr‘vegetation such as `vines even under ends of blades 34| and 35 and blades 36 and 3'! as shown in Figure 8. The overlap, that is `the 70 relatively adverse conditions such as spots of distance, longitudinally o_f the ‘shaft that blades 34 and 35 extend between blades 36 and _31 and veryv wet ground» and heavy growth of vines. vice versa may amountto an inch more or less. instances, although not essential, tov-includedn This overlapping is a desirable but optional feature. It has been found to relieve or distrib the machine a clod breaker consisting of a row I have found it’ to be advantageous in some of teeth similar to the teeth of a harrow mounted 2,408,361 5 between the end plates 9 and l0 and extending downwardlyr and rearwardly in the principal path of the earth thrown rearwardly by the rotary cutter. ~ „ » ~ I It will be nted that I have not provided coulters or other means _for guiding the machine, i. e. for resisting any tendency of the machine to shift sidewise due to end thrust of the rotary 6 shaft `at equal angular distances from each other and a second group of blades of the same length and pitch mounted on theV adjacent portion of the shaft at equal angular distances from each other, the numbers of blades in each group being equal and ‘each blade of the first group being equally angularly spaced between twoV adjacent blades of the second group and the pitches of the tworgroups of blades being opposed to each cutter.V The use of coulters is, of course, not 10 other so that the cutter rotatesœ in contact ~ with earth each group of blades will move earth excluded.y I have shown the >wheels I4 and I-5 as being toward the other group, and the adjacent ends adjustable vertically and have shown means for of the blades of the two groups overlapping each quickly or frequently adjusting the wheels when other longitudinally of theshaft. ~ the machine is in motion. In many instances, 4. A rotary tiller as defined-in claim 1 in which A 15 however, I have found that very little wheel the cutter section comprises a central shaft, a adjustment is necessary.- A given >adjustment first group of spiral blades of the same length may Yserve for an entire ñeld being cultivated and pitch mounted on the same portion of the and may serve for all of the fields of a farm shaft at equal angular distances from each other and for treatments (plowing, cultivating, etc.) at and a second group of blades of the same length different seasons of the year. The provision of 20 and pitch mounted on `the adjacent portion of means for the adjustment of the wheels while the shaft at .equal angular distances from each the machine is in motion or the omission of all other, the numbers of blades in each group being means for adjusting the wheels is, therefore, equal and each blade of the first group being within the scope of my invention. equally angularly spaced between two adjacent While I prefer to provide for operation of 25 blades ofthe second group and the pitches of the rotary cutter at two or more speeds, it'is the two groups of Yblades being opposed to each to be understood that it is within the scope of other so that as the cutter rotates in contact -my invention to omit' this feature as well as with 'earth each group of blades will move earth the use of the slip clutch for protection of the toward the other group, each blade of each group cutter when it strikes an obstruction. Modifica 30 of blades consistingof an inner right Ahelicoidal tion of the frame of the machine, the use of dif portion and an outer oblique helicoidal portion. ferent kinds of wheels and the provision of 5. A rotary tiller as defined in claim 1 in which suitable bearings, universal joints and oiling and the cutter section comprises a central shaft, a greasing means therefor are, of course, al1 with ñrst group of spiral blades of the same length in the skill of a mechanic andare within the « and pitch mounted on the same portion of the purview of my invention. shaft at equal angular distances from each other I claim: ' and a second group of blades of the same length 1. A rotary spiral tiller comprising a frame, and pitch mounted on the adjacent portion of supporting wheels and draft means, a spiral cut 40 the shaft at equal angular distances from each ter mounted for rotation on the frame in a posi» other, the numbers of blades in each group being tion to engage the ground andr means for driving equal and each blade of the first group being the rotary cutter, said rotary cutter comprising " equally angularly spaced between two adjacent at least one section having a central shaft and blades of the second group and the pitches of at least one pair of spiral blades mounted the two groups of blades being opposed to each thereon in predominately non-overlapping rela tionship to each other longitudinally of the shaft and oppositely pitched to move material toward each other when the cutter is rotated so that the forward edges thereof move downwardly as the cutter is moved forwardly, each blade eX tending substantially 180° raround the shaft and the adjacent ends of the blades being equally spaced circumferentially of the shaft and the adjacent ends of blades of opposite pitch alter nating with each other around the shaft. 2. A rotary tiller as defined in claim 1 in which the cutter section comprises a central shaft, a ñrst group of spiral blades of the same length and pitch mounted on the same portion of the shaft at equal angular distances from each other and a second group of blades cf the same length and pitch mounted on the adjacent portion of the shaft at equal angular distances from each other, the number of blades in each group being equal and each blade of the iirst group being equally angularly spaced between two adjacent blades of the second group and the pitches of the two groups of blades being opposed to each other so that as the cutter rotates in contact with earth each group of Iblades will move earth other so that as the cutter rotates in contact with earth each group of blades will move earth toward the other group, and flat knife members perpendicular to the central shaft and overlying 50 'the remote ends of the blades. 6. A rotary tiller as defined in claim 1 in which the cutter section comprises a'central shaft, a first group of spiral blades of the same length and pitch mounted on the same portion of the 55 shaft at equal angular distances from each other and a second group of blades of the same length ' and pitch mounted on the adjacent portion of the shaft at equal angular distances from each other, the numbers of blades in each group being equal 60 and each blade of the first group being equally angularly spaced between two adjacent blades of the second group and the pitches .of the two groups of blades being opposed to each other so that as the cutter rotates in contact with earth each group of blades will move earth toward the other group and the length of each blade longi .tudinally of the shaft being about equal to its radial dimension. '7. A rotary tiller comprising a frame, support- ` ing wheels and draft means, a spiral cutter mounted on said frame for rotation in contact toward the other grou . with the ground and means for rotating said 3. A rotary tiller as defined in claim 1 in which cutter, said cutter comprising at least one sec the cutter section comprises a central sha-ft, a tion having a central shaft, a group of at least first group of spiral bladesV of the same length two blades of the same length and pitch mounted and pitch mounted on the same portion of the 75 7 2,408,361 onfthe` same vportion >ofthe shaft and equally 8 moves forwardly, said cutter comprising a hori spaced from each other, a second group of at least zontal shaft and a plurality of cutter sections two spiral blades of the Asame length and pitch each consisting of four spiral blades of equal mounted on the adjacent portion of the shaft length and pitch mounted on the shaft, the pitch andequally spaced from each other, the numbers UX of the blades being substantially equal to their of blades in >each group being equal and the blades outer diameters, eachgblade consisting of an in-A of one group being of the same size but of equal ner right helicoidal portionr and an outer oblique and opposite pitch to the blades of the other helicoidal portion, the latter being inclined at an group, the adjacent ends of each group ofv blades acute angle with the shaft toward the direction overlapping each other longitudinally of the shaft that the spiral blades will move material when and -each blade of each group being equally rotated in the direction deiined, a pair of said spaced between two adjacent blades of the `other blades being of the. same pitch and equally spaced group, each blade of each group consisting of an from each other on one portion of the shaft and inner right helicoidal portion and an outer a second pair of saidV blades being of the same oblique helicoidal portion.' , 15 pitch and equally spaced from each other on the 3; A rotary tiller as defined in claim 7 in which adjacent portion of the shaft, the pitch of the eachv section has four blades and the pitch of ñrst pair of blades being opposite to that of the eachY blade is substantially equal to its outer second two> blades sothat each pair of blades diameter. tends to move material toward the other when 9; A spiral tiller as defined in claim'? in which 20 the cutter is rotated in the direction speciñed, each section has four blades each of which en each blade being of such a pitch as to extend compasses about 180°»of the circumference of the substantially 180° around the circumference of shaft and has a pitch substantially equal to its the shaft, the adjacent ends of each pair of blades outer diameter. , overlapping each other along the shaft and being 10. A spiral tiller comprising a frame, sup 25 equally spaced around the shaft and the remote porting wheels and draft means, a spiral cutter ends of each blade being supported by flat knife mounted for rotation on said frame in Contact members lying in planes perpendicular to the with the ground and means for rotating the same shaft and covering said ends of the blades. in >such a direction that the forward edges of the blades of the cutter move downwardly as the tiller JOHN PETER BAGAN.