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Патент USA US2408361

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2,408,361
Patented Oct. 1, 1.946
UNITED STATES? PATENT OFFICE
2,408,361
ROTARY TILLER
John Peter Bagan, Portland, Oreg., assigner of
one-third to Anthony R. Wanasek, Marshfield
Oreg.
Y
Application August 9, 1944, Serial No. 548,706
10 Claims.
(c1. en_-41)
2 .
Fig. 6 is a left end elevation of the rotaryY
This invention relates to a machine adapted
for use for plowing or tillingthe soil, grading or
levelling the ground, weeding, etc., and is more
particularly concerned with the type of machine
in which a spirally shaped cutter blade is rotated
in contact with the earth surface to be worked,
cutter,
,
Fig. '7 is a section on the line 1-1 of Fig. 2 and
Figure 8 is a fragmentary rear view of the
rotary cutter showing the overlapping of the
blades.
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Referring to the drawings, l is the platform of
the machine which maybe made of wood or
serving to cut, pick up, disintegrate and Vrede
posit the surface layer of earth. Prior workers,
metal. Attached to and forming a part of this
recognizing the merits of such a machine have
vmade many attempts to provide a practical em 10 platform andV lending strength andrigidity to it
are fthe angle irons 2 and 3. Angle iron 2, se
bodiment thereof which is capable of operation
cured to the front edge of the platform, has one
by a relatively unskilled person under varying soil
edge projecting downwardly several inches pro
conditions. Many difficulties have been encoun
viding a baflie which catches earth thrown up
tered and as a result no such machine has, up
wardly and forwardly by the rotary cutter. 'I‘he
angle iron 3 is secured to the platformI parallel
to but spaced from the rear edge thereof and
to the present time, attained general acceptance
and widespread use.
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A primary cause of the difficulties heretofore
encountered in providing a practical machine of
has one edge projecting upwardly. The draw
frame which is illustrated as a simple V _consists
this sort has been the spiral cutter.
An object of my invention is to provide a spiral 20 of the side members 4 and 5 bolted to the plat
form through the angle irons Y2 and `i andat
cutter which eliminates many of the difliculties
tached at their front ends to the drawY plate 6.
heretofore encountered, such as the tendency of
The ends of the platform carry the angle irons
the machine to act as a conveyor, moving the
1, ‘I’ at the right endy and 8, 8’ at the left end.
earth laterally of the machine so as to produce
Angle
irons 1 and 1’ and angle irons 8 and 8'
25
ridges and furrows instead of a smooth flat tilled
are bolted together through the platform with
surface and the tendency `of the machine to moveV
the edges of angle irons 'land 8 projecting up
laterally. A further object of my inventionis
wardly and the ends of angle irons ‘I’ and 8'
to provide a simple, easily constructed, inexpen
projecting downwardly providing vertical flat end
sive, easily operated machine which is relatively
free of parts likely to break or function im 30 surfaces to which are secured the end plates 9y
and I0. End plate 9 carries the housing II and
properly.
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mounted on the housing II and on the end plate
In general my machine consists of a simple
I0 are the vertically adjustable wheel supports I2
frame carried on two wheels which supports the
and I3 which, in the form illustrated, are de
transverse rotary tiller and drive mechanism.
signed to be operated .by means of a crank (not
Due to the fact that the rotary tiller of my in 35 shown) on rods I2' and I3'. Vertical adjustment
vention is balanced so as to be relatively free of
of the wheels I4 and I5 determines the depth of
a tendency to move the earth laterally or itself
` penetration of the rotary cutter into the ground.
to move laterally, it is unnecessary to provide
Wheels I4 and I5 may be of any suitable type.
special means, such as coulters, to hold theY ma 40 The type illustrated having a relatively wide V-'
chine in line or to provide special means to de
shaped tread is preferred.
posit the earth lifted by the spiral blades in a
The housingr Il contains a suitable number of
smooth layer..
^
meshed pinions such as Athree (I6, I1 and I8),
A machine embodying my invention and illus
the uppermost of which, I6, rotates with the
Atrative thereof» is shown in the accompanying 45 shaft I9 which extends through the bearing 20
carried by the plate 9 and the lowermost of which,
drawings, in which,
I8, rotates with the shaft 22 which is keyed to the
Fig. 1 is a top plan view of the machine,
shaft 23 of the rotary cutter. The middle pinion
Fig. 2 is an elevation of the rear of the machine,
I1 merely transmits motion from the pinion IB
Fig. 3 is an elevation of the left side of the
machine,
50 to the pinion I8.
1
machine showing the means for driving the ro
tary cutter,
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Fig. 5 is a right end elevation of the rotary
55
cutter,
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The drive shaft I9 preferably is driven at two
or more selected speeds through the transmis
sion 25 from the propeller> shaft 26. Propeller
shaft 26 extends forwardly and is provided with
Fig. 4 is an elevation of the right side of the
.means (not shown) for attachment to a power
2,408,361
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source such as a tractor of known type which
may be coupled to the draw plate 6 to move the
machine and has a power take-off adapted to be
coupled to the shaft 26 to rotate it. The pro
ute the strain on the free ends of the blades.
The opposite ends of the blades are reinforced
and supported by the flat knife members 38 and
39 which lie in planes perpendicular to the axis
of the rotary cutter. Each blade 34, 35, 3E and
37 consists of a right helicoidal portion 40 adja
cent andsecured to the axle of the cutter and an
peller shaft preferably is provided with the two
universal joints only one of which, 2l, is shown,
the other being in front of the clutch 29 which
is adapted to slip'w‘hen excessive force‘is applied
oblique helicoidal 'portion 4I extending outwardly
and thus to protect the rotary cutter and its drive
from the right helicoidal portion 40. The rela
mechanism against breakage, 30 is a disc mount» . lO tive widths of the portions 4€) and 4I may vary
ed on the frame of the machine and set at an'
within wide limits, that is, the Width of portion
angle and adapted to engage the ground andeut
410 may be equal to or greater than or less than
a furrow or clear the way for the lower end .of
the width of portion 4|, but generally for soil
the housing ||. 3| is a dirt baffle hinged to the’
tillingfpurp'oses theportion 4| is somewhat wider
rear edge of the platform I and provided at its 15 than the portion'ïAß in the ratio of 2 to l or
lower edge with the endwise adjustable levelling
greater. The angle between the two portions
bar32.
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The rotary cutter, as stated above, comprises
the shaft 23, one end of which is keyed to and
also may vary. Portion 4B is always perpendicu
larto the axis of the cutter, that is, it is always
a right helicoid but the portion 4| may depart
driven by the shaft §22. The other end is rotat 20 from the perpendicular to the axis of the cutter
ably supported by the 'bearing 33 carried by the
by an angle from say 10° to about-75°. AAn angle
end plate |i3. The rotary cutter as illustrated in
of about 30° between ~the line of intersection of
Figs. 5,k 6 and '7 comprises four 'balanced cutter
the portion 4| with a plane which coincides with
the axis of the cutter and a line in said plane
sections a, b, c and d mounted on the shaft 23.
It is to be understood, however, that the inven 25 which is perpendicular to the axis of the cutter
generally is preferred for ordinary soil cultiva
tion is not limited to four such sections since any
tion purposes. The two portions 40 and 4| of
number thereof, i. e. one, two, three, four or more
each blade may be integral or they -may be made
of such sections may be employed >depending
upon the length of rotary cutter desired. The
separate from cach other andl welded, riveted or
cutter sections are identical and therefore only 30 bolted together. The>v blades may be cast or
formed by working' sheet metal. The tips of the
one need be described in detail. ' The diameter
and ‘length of each cutter `section and the pitch
blades may be» rounded as shown at' 42.
.
of the spiral blades thereof may vary within wide
As stated, two', three or more cutter sections
limits depending 'upon the size of the machine
maybe mounted end to end on the same shaft
and the kind‘of Work tobe done. ` For convenience
or aX-le.- The adjacent blades of adjacent sec
I shall describe a cutter> which I haveïfound to
tions should then be set at an angle of 90° to
be well adaptedjfor plowing farmland of the types
commonly used >for ~ growing corn, wheat and
other grain crops, cotton, and Vegetables such
each other on the shaft.
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The described -'cutter' construction has many
advantages over yrotary spiral cutters heretofore
as potatoes.
This cutter‘is madel in sections 40 employed particularly-in that iteliminates end
about 'V14 inches long and -14 .inches in diameter
thrust and'tendency of the machine to swerve
and with four sections. Each section comprises
from -a straight forward path and the corre
four blade members in- two groups, Two of the
sponding tendency to transport earthlaterally
four blade members 3'4 and ëâ'constituting one
of the machine land produce ridges'and valleys
group _start at a line around the shaft at an angle
is eliminated. While therefissome‘tendency to
of ‘180°'fr`om eachothe'r'and extend spirally 180°
move the-earth to the middle of each section 3no
around the shaft with equal pitch. vThe other
objectionable .production` of 'a ridge has been
foun‘d to occur inpractice. This probably is due
two blade members 3B and 37 constituting the
other group start at a >line `on'the shaftadjacent
tothe fact that' there are four blades operating
the ends of blades 34’and 35 atan angle of"180°
from each other but" at an angle of about 90“
50 on the ground near- the'centerl of each section
14 inches and the'pitch of the blade equal to ‘its
a root or stone and thus avoids excessive wear
and to the further fact that each sectionis too
from'V the ends of blades :i4V andV 35 and extend
sh0rt'.to produce -an objectionable. ridge.V ’I‘he
around the shaft 180° at'the same ‘pitch which
short `sections >also ‘avoid `thel difficulty frequently
is the reverse of the pitch of blades‘34 and 35.
encountered in plowing or tilling rough ground
rI‘he pitches of the blades are suchA that they tend 55 with a. relatively long. rotarylspiral cutter. The
ground rarely is ‘so rough orf-uneven that the end
to convey earth toward their adjacent ends as
thrust ofthe ».oppositelypitchedfblades of each
the cutter rotates in Contact_with the> earth to be
sectionv do not encounter-»enoughearth substan
treated, that is,'in the same angular direction as
the wheels ld and l5. As stated, the diameter
tiallyvto balance each other. -Moreover, the end
of the cutter, that is the distance between the 60 thrust of anyzsingle pairlof blades> is so small
opposite edges ofA two blades at the points of their
that the Inachineisv notcaused -to move laterally
intersection wíth'a plane perpendicular to the
from its normal forward path. The. Gutter op
erates smoothly and generally maintains a uni
axis of the cutter may be, say, 14‘inches and the
length of each blade longitudinally of the shaft
form depth and consumes power quite uniformly
’7 inches, making the length of the cutter section
except when it strikes some obstruction such as
diameter,
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It is preferable slightly to overlap the adjacent
and Vbreakagefof- the driving mechanism. The
cutter generally remains l»clear of earth and
masses lofr‘vegetation such as `vines even under
ends of blades 34| and 35 and blades 36 and 3'!
as shown in Figure 8. The overlap, that is `the 70 relatively adverse conditions such as spots of
distance, longitudinally o_f the ‘shaft that blades
34 and 35 extend between blades 36 and _31 and
veryv wet ground» and heavy growth of vines.
vice versa may amountto an inch more or less.
instances, although not essential, tov-includedn
This overlapping is a desirable but optional
feature. It has been found to relieve or distrib
the machine a clod breaker consisting of a row
I have found it’ to be advantageous in some
of teeth similar to the teeth of a harrow mounted
2,408,361
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between the end plates 9 and l0 and extending
downwardlyr and rearwardly in the principal path
of the earth thrown rearwardly by the rotary
cutter.
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It will be nted that I have not provided
coulters or other means _for guiding the machine,
i. e. for resisting any tendency of the machine
to shift sidewise due to end thrust of the rotary
6
shaft `at equal angular distances from each other
and a second group of blades of the same length
and pitch mounted on theV adjacent portion of
the shaft at equal angular distances from each
other, the numbers of blades in each group being
equal and ‘each blade of the first group being
equally angularly spaced between twoV adjacent
blades of the second group and the pitches of
the tworgroups of blades being opposed to each
cutter.V The use of coulters is, of course, not 10 other so that the cutter rotatesœ in contact
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with earth each group of blades will move earth
excluded.y
I have shown the >wheels I4 and I-5 as being
toward the other group, and the adjacent ends
adjustable vertically and have shown means for
of the blades of the two groups overlapping each
quickly or frequently adjusting the wheels when
other longitudinally of theshaft.
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the machine is in motion. In many instances,
4. A rotary tiller as defined-in claim 1 in which A
15
however, I have found that very little wheel
the cutter section comprises a central shaft, a
adjustment is necessary.- A given >adjustment
first group of spiral blades of the same length
may Yserve for an entire ñeld being cultivated
and pitch mounted on the same portion of the
and may serve for all of the fields of a farm
shaft at equal angular distances from each other
and for treatments (plowing, cultivating, etc.) at
and a second group of blades of the same length
different seasons of the year. The provision of 20 and pitch mounted on `the adjacent portion of
means for the adjustment of the wheels while
the shaft at .equal angular distances from each
the machine is in motion or the omission of all
other, the numbers of blades in each group being
means for adjusting the wheels is, therefore,
equal and each blade of the first group being
within the scope of my invention.
equally angularly spaced between two adjacent
While I prefer to provide for operation of 25 blades ofthe second group and the pitches of
the rotary cutter at two or more speeds, it'is
the two groups of Yblades being opposed to each
to be understood that it is within the scope of
other so that as the cutter rotates in contact
-my invention to omit' this feature as well as
with 'earth each group of blades will move earth
the use of the slip clutch for protection of the
toward the other group, each blade of each group
cutter when it strikes an obstruction. Modifica 30 of blades consistingof an inner right Ahelicoidal
tion of the frame of the machine, the use of dif
portion and an outer oblique helicoidal portion.
ferent kinds of wheels and the provision of
5. A rotary tiller as defined in claim 1 in which
suitable bearings, universal joints and oiling and
the cutter section comprises a central shaft, a
greasing means therefor are, of course, al1 with
ñrst group of spiral blades of the same length
in the skill of a mechanic andare within the « and pitch mounted on the same portion of the
purview of my invention.
shaft at equal angular distances from each other
I claim:
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and a second group of blades of the same length
1. A rotary spiral tiller comprising a frame,
and pitch mounted on the adjacent portion of
supporting wheels and draft means, a spiral cut 40 the shaft at equal angular distances from each
ter mounted for rotation on the frame in a posi»
other, the numbers of blades in each group being
tion to engage the ground andr means for driving
equal and each blade of the first group being
the rotary cutter, said rotary cutter comprising " equally angularly spaced between two adjacent
at least one section having a central shaft and
blades of the second group and the pitches of
at least one pair of spiral blades mounted
the two groups of blades being opposed to each
thereon in predominately non-overlapping rela
tionship to each other longitudinally of the shaft
and oppositely pitched to move material toward
each other when the cutter is rotated so that
the forward edges thereof move downwardly as
the cutter is moved forwardly, each blade eX
tending substantially 180° raround the shaft and
the adjacent ends of the blades being equally
spaced circumferentially of the shaft and the
adjacent ends of blades of opposite pitch alter
nating with each other around the shaft.
2. A rotary tiller as defined in claim 1 in which
the cutter section comprises a central shaft, a
ñrst group of spiral blades of the same length
and pitch mounted on the same portion of the
shaft at equal angular distances from each other
and a second group of blades cf the same length
and pitch mounted on the adjacent portion of
the shaft at equal angular distances from each
other, the number of blades in each group being
equal and each blade of the iirst group being
equally angularly spaced between two adjacent
blades of the second group and the pitches of
the two groups of blades being opposed to each
other so that as the cutter rotates in contact
with earth each group of Iblades will move earth
other so that as the cutter rotates in contact
with earth each group of blades will move earth
toward the other group, and flat knife members
perpendicular to the central shaft and overlying
50 'the remote ends of the blades.
6. A rotary tiller as defined in claim 1 in which
the cutter section comprises a'central shaft, a
first group of spiral blades of the same length
and pitch mounted on the same portion of the
55 shaft at equal angular distances from each other
and a second group of blades of the same length
' and pitch mounted on the adjacent portion of the
shaft at equal angular distances from each other,
the numbers of blades in each group being equal
60 and each blade of the first group being equally
angularly spaced between two adjacent blades of
the second group and the pitches .of the two
groups of blades being opposed to each other so
that as the cutter rotates in contact with earth
each group of blades will move earth toward the
other group and the length of each blade longi
.tudinally of the shaft being about equal to its
radial dimension.
'7. A rotary tiller comprising a frame, support- `
ing wheels and draft means, a spiral cutter
mounted on said frame for rotation in contact
toward the other grou .
with the ground and means for rotating said
3. A rotary tiller as defined in claim 1 in which
cutter, said cutter comprising at least one sec
the cutter section comprises a central sha-ft, a
tion having a central shaft, a group of at least
first group of spiral bladesV of the same length
two blades of the same length and pitch mounted
and pitch mounted on the same portion of the 75
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2,408,361
onfthe` same vportion >ofthe shaft and equally
8
moves forwardly, said cutter comprising a hori
spaced from each other, a second group of at least
zontal shaft and a plurality of cutter sections
two spiral blades of the Asame length and pitch
each consisting of four spiral blades of equal
mounted on the adjacent portion of the shaft
length and pitch mounted on the shaft, the pitch
andequally spaced from each other, the numbers UX of the blades being substantially equal to their
of blades in >each group being equal and the blades
outer diameters, eachgblade consisting of an in-A
of one group being of the same size but of equal
ner right helicoidal portionr and an outer oblique
and opposite pitch to the blades of the other
helicoidal portion, the latter being inclined at an
group, the adjacent ends of each group ofv blades
acute angle with the shaft toward the direction
overlapping each other longitudinally of the shaft
that the spiral blades will move material when
and -each blade of each group being equally
rotated in the direction deiined, a pair of said
spaced between two adjacent blades of the `other
blades being of the. same pitch and equally spaced
group, each blade of each group consisting of an
from each other on one portion of the shaft and
inner right helicoidal portion and an outer
a second pair of saidV blades being of the same
oblique helicoidal portion.' ,
15 pitch and equally spaced from each other on the
3; A rotary tiller as defined in claim 7 in which
adjacent portion of the shaft, the pitch of the
eachv section has four blades and the pitch of
ñrst pair of blades being opposite to that of the
eachY blade is substantially equal to its outer
second two> blades sothat each pair of blades
diameter.
tends to move material toward the other when
9; A spiral tiller as defined in claim'? in which 20 the cutter is rotated in the direction speciñed,
each section has four blades each of which en
each blade being of such a pitch as to extend
compasses about 180°»of the circumference of the
substantially 180° around the circumference of
shaft and has a pitch substantially equal to its
the shaft, the adjacent ends of each pair of blades
outer diameter.
,
overlapping each other along the shaft and being
10. A spiral tiller comprising a frame, sup 25 equally spaced around the shaft and the remote
porting wheels and draft means, a spiral cutter
ends of each blade being supported by flat knife
mounted for rotation on said frame in Contact
members lying in planes perpendicular to the
with the ground and means for rotating the same
shaft and covering said ends of the blades.
in >such a direction that the forward edges of the
blades of the cutter move downwardly as the tiller
JOHN PETER BAGAN.
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