Oct. 1, 1946.. > V \ D. M. CAPANOLI NOW BY JUDICIAL CHANGE OF NAME ' D. M. CAPPAN 2,408,371 ' COWLING FOR AIRPLANES Filed Nov. 8, 1944' 2 Sheets-Sheet I a 0.G0 ouo-a oococ 41 1740/0’ M62529”? Od- 1,.1946-, D. M. CAPANOL] , I 2,408,371 NOW BY JUDICIAL CHANGE OF NAME ' D. M. CAPPAN ‘ ‘ ' COWLING FOR AIRPLANES - " Filed Nov." 8, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 6 -' ' _ ___________.______ ' -. _ ___V___ g- > - l _ ‘ ,_ | m o mull!!!’ __._____1_ 0 0 - o ____ o _____ o o ‘_ ________ $1 “a; 2,408,371 Patented Oct. 1, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE COWLING FOR AIRPLANES David M. Capanoli, now by judicial change of name David Marino Cappan, Hibbing, Minn.v Application November 8, 1944, Serial No. 562,475 1 Claim. (Cl. 123-171) ' 1 2 usual radial air-cooled engine (not shown) and is forwardly and downwardly curved to reduce the This invention appertains to improvements in a cowling structure for airplanes, and has for one of its several objects to provide an improved means for regulating the air flow through the cowl engine drag to a minimum, and a substantially cylindrical cowling portion l2, extending rear wardly from the annular portion to which it is of an air-cooled airplane engine; said means functioning in a manner to effectively eliminate secured by rivets or the like it. The cowling por tion I2 is preferably made up of a plurality of the drag on the airplane, and the resultant loss rectangular metal panels l4, arranged in edge to in the power of the engine, that is of common edge abutting relation and, as best shown in Fig occurrence in the use of the radially adjustable ?ap, 0r louvre type of air ?ow control means, 10 ure 5, these edges of each pair of adjacent panels are secured in that relation, by rivets or the like which is currently employed on certain makes of l8, to an underlying track structure. airplanes. Each track structure is comprised in a metal Another object of the invention has to do with plate 26, disposed immediately beneath the abut the» provision of a number of parallel tracks about the trailing edge of a ring cowling, the tracksex 15 ted edge portions of adjacent cowling panels M, and a second metal plate 22 that is formed to tending axially rearwardly from the cowling edge provide a centrally disposed, longitudinally ex and supporting longitudinally movable shutters, tending, inverted U-shaped portion 24, which ‘has which normally close the air flow outlet space its cross correcting wall, together with the met provided between the trailing edge of the engine cowling and the leading edge of the cockpit cowl 20 al plate 20, secured to the cowling panels by the ing, or the like edge of an accessory cowling if rivets i8. With this arrangement, portions 26, one be interposed between the engine cowling and the cockpit cowling, the movements of the shut ters being controlled through a suitable mecha nism from the instrument panel of the airplane. plate 20, to form longitudinally extending chan of the plate 22 at opposite sides of the U-shaped portion 24, are spaced from like portions of the nels therebetween. [Secured to each of the op posed iaces of the spaced portions of the plates 250V and 22, by rivets or the like 28, is a strip of I With these and other objects and advantages in view, the invention resides in the certain new and useful combination, construction, and ar ?ber or the like 30. A shutter 32, of a selected gauge of sheet metal, range of parts, as will be hereinafter more fully described, set forth in the appended claims, and 30 illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which: ' Figure l is a side elevation of the nose of a ' Corsair type of airplane and showing the cowl structure and air flow regulating means, in ac cordance with the invention; . Figure 2 is an enlarged, fragmentary, trans verse section through the cowl structure and showing a portion of the interconnected operat ing mechanism for the shutters; is vslidably supported in ‘the opposed channels of adjacent pairs of the tracks and, to this end, has each of its longitudinal edge portions engaged between the opposed ?ber strips 30, which pre vent metal-to-metal contact and also air leakage about the edges of the shutters, when the latter are in air flow cutoff positions. As best shown in Figure 4, the rearwardly directed end of each shutter 3'2 is provided with an outwardly, acutely, angled portion 34, which acts not only to de?ect 40 the air stream about the cowling 12 away from otherwise possible ingress through the air flow Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional detail, taken outlet'at the rear of the latter, but also tends through the line 3—3 on Figure 2, looking in the to cause-a partial vacuum at the outlet that direction of the arrows; acts to accelerate the air flow through the cowl Figure 4 is a fragmentary, longitudinal section, taken through the line 4—4 on Figure 3, looking 45 ing and its discharge rearwardly therefrom. Un derlying each of the shutters 32, is a sheet metal in the direction of the arrows; plate 36, which is centered thereon between the Figure 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view of edge portions engaged in the track channels, and the cowl section. has its rearwardly ‘directed end bearing against - Figure 6 is a view of the transmission device 5,0 and secured to the under side of the shutter, as used in actuating mechanism of the shutters. by rivets or the like 40, and its forwardly di Referring to the drawings, wherein like char rected end upwardly and forwardly angled, as acters of reference denote corresponding parts in the several views, the invention, as it is exem pli?ed therein, is comprised in a front annular cowling portion III, which is placed around the 55 at 38, with the forwardly angled portion secured thereto, by rivets or the like 42. The rearwardly directed end of the completed cowling I2 is spaced 2,408,371 3 4 , from the opposed end of an accessory or cockpit cowling A and the tracks bridge this space and have their rearwardly directed ends secured to rection of motor operation, and projected from the latter, by rivets or the like 44. rection of motor operation. Thus, when moved rearwardly on the tracks, the shutters 32 the tubes 62 in a rearward direction to move the shutters to closed positions, in the reversed di Also, it will be obvi ous that in the use of these longitudinally slid close the spaces between the bridging portions of the tracks and between the cowlings l2 and A, thereby preventing air ?ow through the cowling parts [0 and I2. In the closed positions of the able shutters 32, there can be no drag effect on airplane travel by the same and, consequently, no undue bu?eting of the airplane by air turbulence, or loss in power developed by the engine, such shutters 32, the upwardly and rearwardly angled 10 as occurs when the pivoted type of shutters, i. e., end edge portions 34 thereof overlie the for- ?aps, are employed. It is well known that air wardly directed end of the cowling A. craft engines are subject to high operating tem The shutters 32 are to be simultaneously oper ated to either open, or a partially open, and closed peratures, particularly during engine check, take off, and climb, and these high temperatures can positions, through the medium of a suitable 15 only be controlled by the use of shutters or ?aps mechanism, e. g., a system of interconnected to regulate air flow over and about the engine, screw jacks, which are driven by a shaft 46 from a ' prime mover, such as an electric motor (not . the regulation being governed by observations of the engine instruments for the best operation shown), that is to be controlled from a toggle setting. Without reducing these high tempera switch or the like (not shown) on the instrument 20 tures by such controls of the air ?ow through the panel in the cockpit of the airplane. As shown in Figures 2 and 6, the shaft 46 is preferably in the form of a length of ?exible shafting which leads from its connection with the shaft of the cowls l0 and I2, detonation will set in and cause engine failure. Proper cooling of the engine cylinders depends not only upon the degree of opening of the shutters or ?aps, but also upon the motor to a power transmission gear train, con 25 speed of the airplane, and it has been determined sisting of meshing gears 52, 54, and 56, that are that, with the use of the instant longitudinally enclosed within a housing 48, the latter being adjustable shutters 32, a greater nicety of regu supported from an I-beam 50 that is made cir lation of the air ?ow is to be had, with a more cular to conform to the interior circumference economical fuel consumption and an increase in of the cowling I2. The annular beam 59 is lo 30 the power developed by the engine. In the cated toward the front end of the cowl l2 and known aircraft, employing the pivoted type of has a bracket 58 bolted, as at 60, to the rear side ?ap control for the air now over and about the of its connecting web, to support one end of a jack engine, full opening of the flaps has been found assembly. to be very impractical, by reason of the drag Each jack assembly is comprised in a pair of 35 caused by the pressure of the air stream, passing telescopic tubes 62 and ‘Ill, the tube 62 opening rearwardly over the outersides of the cowls l0 into a gear casing 64, at its forwardly directed and i2, on the combined areas thereof and, with end, and the tube ‘:0 terminating, at its rear out such opening, the cooling down of the engine wardly directed end, in an attaching eye 12, is ineffective to prevent over-heating and engine which is engaged on a pivot pin 14, carried in a 40 failure;' whereas, the present slidable type of bracket 15, that is secured on the under side of shutters can be fully opened, without any such the reinforcing plate 36, of a shutter 32. The results. gear casing Ed carries an attaching eye 66, which Having thus fully described my invention, it is is engaged on a pivot pin 58, that is carried in to be understood that any and all changes in the bracket 58. The bore of the tube 10 is screw ’ design, construction, and arrangement of parts threaded and. engaged by a screw threaded jack thereof, may be resorted to, without departing rod or shaft 18, which is keyed to a worm gear from the scope of the appended claim. 88 and journalled in the walls of the casing 64, I claim: ' the worm gear being meshed with a worm 82, that is also journalled in the casing 64. The elements 82, of each of the jack assemblies, are intercon nected by lengths of ?exible shafting 84, except for those of the two jack assemblies nearest the opposite sides of the transmission housing 48, the worm elements of which are connected by shorter lengths of ?exible shafting 86 to the gear 56, within the transmission housing; the gear 52, of the power transmission, being connected to the ?exible shaft 46, leading from the prime mover. From this description, it will be apparent to those skilled in aviation that, with the prime mover taking the form of a reversible motor and under the control of a reversing switch on the instrument panel of an airplane equipped with this improved cowl construction, the shutters 32 may be readily opened and closed, or partially so, at the will of the pilot, the jack tubes 10 being simultaneously retracted inwardly of the tubes 62, to move the shutters longitudinally of and to ward the forward end of the cowl l2, in one di 70 In combination with an engine, a front annular cowling encircling said engine, a substantially cylindrical cowling extending rearwardly in con tinuation of said front cowling, said cylindrical cowling being made up of a plurality of arcuate sections, a cockpit cowling rearwardly of and spaced from the rear end of the cylindrical cowl ing, oppositely channelled track elements under lying the adjacent side edges of said sections and secured thereto and extending across the space between the rear ends of the sections and the cockpit cowling, and arcuate shutters slidable in said track elements to close and open said space to regulate the air flow through said cowl ings, said shutters being of sheet metal and each joined at its front edge to the adjacent portion of a plate clearing said track elements and also including a portion angularly spaced from the shutter and attached at its rear end to the shut ter, and jack units each pivotally secured to the plate of a shutter and simultaneously operated. DAVID M. CAPANOLI.