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Patented Oct. 1, 1946 '
2,408,381
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' ’ UNITED _ STATES
PATENT
*oF'FicE
2,408,381
I, __ ‘7 V
f, tREVSILIENT FILAMENTS
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7
Frederick G. Dodge, La Vale, MtL, assignor to 001- ,
l anese Corporation of America; a corporation of
Delaware
.
No Drawing. Application October 6,1943,
Serial No.‘ 505,165
7 Claims. (Cl. 8-431)
2
removed from the ?laments, they are then im-‘
mersed in water at an elevated temperature. The
This invention relates to’ the preparation of
arti?cial ?laments having a basis of cellulose
acetate, or other organic derivative of cellulose,
?laments are maintained in the Water bath for a
which ?laments are substantially permanently
orim'ped and highly resilient, and which possess a
'An object of my invention is to provide a proc
short time after which the Water is removed and
the treated ?laments are dried with heated air.
This treatment effects a marked change'in the
character of the ?laments In place of their
ess for the treatment of arti?cial ?laments hav-'
‘ing ‘a basis of cellulose acetate or other organic
ments are 'now permanently crimped or crinkled
voluminous or lofty structure.
,
‘
originally smooth and straight structure, .the ?la
derivative of cellulose whereby said ?laments may 10 and possess a full and elastic hand ‘substantially
similar to that possessed by wool. Furthermore,
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be permanently crimped.
the ?laments are far more resilient than prior .to
treatment and recover their original voluminous
' Another object of my invention is to provide a
process tor the treatment of cellulose acetate or
other organic derivative of cellulose ?lamentary
structure even after the prolonged application of
materials to render the latter more resilient and 15
to impart thereto a voluminous structure.
, Other objects of my‘invention will appear here
pressure.
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,
.
Any suitable liquid medium having a softening
action on the cellulose acetate ?laments may be .
employed. Examples of such liquids are aqueous
solutions of ethyl alcohol, containing from 50 to
Filaments having a basis of cellulose acetate or
other organic derivative of ‘cellulose in staple 20 95.5%‘ of vthe alcohol, aqueous, solutions of ace
tone containing from 20 to 80% of acetone, and
?berform have been'found to possess excellent
aqueous solutions of acetone containing ethyl
insulating characteristics when employed in the
and/or methyl‘ alcohol, for example, those solu
manufacture of comforters, sleeping bags and like
tions containing from 10% to 40% of acetone and
articles. Continuous arti?cial ?laments having a
basis of cellulose acetate or other organic deriva 25 from 10 to 50% of ethyl and/or methyl alcohol.
Solutionscontaining ethyl ,alcohol, acetone or
tive of cellulose differ from materials such as cot
methyl alcohol together with organic ' liquids
ton and wool in that the arti?cial ?laments are
which do not exert any softeningor swelling ac
relatively smooth. They do not possess a crimped
inafter from the followingdetailed description.
or crinkled structure, such as‘vthat found in
naturally, occurring ?bers such as wool, which
30
tion on the cellulose acetate ?laments suchvyas
benzol and‘toluol, xylol or. paraf?nichydrocar
bons may also be employed. Preferably, We em
ploy aqueous solutions of . ethyl alcohol contain
quently, when the ordinary arti?cial ?laments
ing from 7.0 to 90% by volume of the alcoholas
the. treating ‘medium.’ The alcoholic solutions
[having a basis of vcellulose acetate or other organic
derivative ‘of cellulose are subjected to prolonged CC may beat a temperature of from 65 to 110° F.
during treatment and the ?laments may be main
pressure, ‘as, for example, in a sleeping bag, they
structure is largely responsible for the character?
isticv hand or fullness of said materials. ‘Conse
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tend to become matted and upon release of the
' tained therein for from‘ 5 to 60 seconds. _When
pr'essure'do ‘not fully'return, to their original
employing aqueous solutions of ethyl alcohol, the
temperature is preferably about 90°F. and the
voluminous state.‘ This matting causes the dead
air. spaces in said arti?cial ‘?lamentary mate 40 ?laments are usually maintained therein for about
30 seconds. Following this treatment, the excess
rials to be reduced in volume and the latter grad
liquid is removed in any convenient manner, such
ually lose some of their insulating properties
which, of course, is a'de?nite‘ disadvantage which
The moist ?laments are removed from the cen
tends seriously to restricttheir usefulness.
as, for examplecentrifuging.
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‘~ ‘I’ have now discovered,however, that arti?cial 45 trifuge after the solvent treatment and are then
placed in a water bath at a temperature of 60 to
?lamentary‘ materials having a basis of cellulose
acetatev or ‘other organic derivative of cellulose,
and particularly ?laments in staple ?ber form,
212° F.", preferably about‘ 150 to 160° F. for‘ 1 to _5
seconds. ‘Atthefend of this period the ?laments ,
may be treated so as to impart a substantially
are removed from the water bath, centrifuged I
permanent crimped or crinkled structure thereto. 50 to remove as much water as possible, and are then
dried with hot air. Any‘ ‘convenient method of
In ‘accordance with the novel process of my in
vention, ?lamentary materials having a‘ basis ‘of . drying is suitable. The ?laments may vbe dried,
for example; by being placed upon screens ‘or
cellulose acetate are immersedin a liquid medium
racks and entered into a chamber through which
having at least a softening action on'the cellulose
acetate ?1am'ents,"and, after the excess liquid-is 55 hot air is 'circulated,'or the ?lamentsmay ‘be.
2,408,381
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therein without departing from the spirit of my
invention.
The expression “swelling agent” as employed in
placed in a rotary drier in which they are tumbled
about while hot air passes therethrough. During
the drying operation, the air may be at a temper
ature of 68 to 300° F.
The ?laments may be treated while in a con
(.1
tinuous ?lamentary form but preferably they are
converted into‘ relatively short‘ staplelengths, for
example from 3 to 6 inches in length, beforebeing.
treated.
The ?laments may be prepared in any con-
Having described my invention, what I desire
to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Process for the production of voluminous,
venient manner well known to the art suchas by
permanently crimped arti?cial staple ?bers,
which comprises. immersing relaxed, unstretched
andv una-ssoc‘ratedv dry-spun staple ?bers, having
dry-spinning or wet-spinning operations; Pref
erably, we employ ?lamentshav-ing; a basis of an.
organic derivative of cellulose which. aresprepared
by dry-spinning operations. A particularly valu
able product is obtained when I employ those dry
the appended claims is to be construed as includ
ing within its scope substances which not only
have a swelling effect on the organic derivative
of cellulose but which may‘ also‘ have a, solvent
action thereon.
15 a basis of arr. organic derivative of cellulose and
prepared. from ?laments spun without any ten
sion being exerted thereon, in an aqueous liquid
medium containing a water-soluble swelling agent
having at least a softening action on the organic
tion as, for example, those ?laments prepared" in
accordance with the process of U. S. Patent No. 20 derivative of cellulose, removing excess liquid
spun ?laments which are not subjected to any
tension or draw-down during the spinning opera
2,290,929‘.
from the. staple ?bers,_ immersing. thevstaple. ?bers
The ?laments; may be. of; any con
venient; denier; excellent results being achieved
with ?lamentsiof 1.5 to 30. denien;
In. order further to illustrate my invention but
Without being limited. thereto, the following ex. 25
ample is given.
Example
inv water at atemperature of about. 150 to 1:609
B1,, removing the water from. the staple: ?bers
and drying the staple. ?bers, whereby voluminous,
permanently crimped staple. ?bers are produced.
2. Process for the production of voluminous,
permanently crimped. arti?cial. staple. ?bers,
which. comprises immersing relaxed, unstretched
and unassociated dry-spun staple fibers, having
Cellulose acetate.- ?laments. are: dry-spun with.
out. tension or: draw-down». employing. a' solution of 30 a basis of cellulose. acetate. and prepared from
?laments spun without any tension. being ex
cellulose acetate. in acetone containing: about 25 %.
erted. thereon, in. an. aqueous liquid. medium. con
by weight oiicellulose; acetate. and: 7 5% by weight
taining a water-soluble swellingv agent having
of 95/5. acetone/water; The ?laments. are spun
so as.to. be. approximately 6 denier per ?lament".
The continuous ?laments are then cut into staple
?ber' in‘ any‘ convenient manner in which the
?bersarefrom 3.to. Binchesinl'ength.
at. least a. softening. action. on. the cellulose- ace.
tate, removing. excess. liquid from the staple?bers,
immersing the. staple. ?bers in water at. a. tem
perature of about. 150. to. 160?’ F., removing; the
water from the staple ?bers and drying thestaple
After‘ beingv suitably opened» and loosened up,
?bers; whereby voluminous, permanently crimped
the) ?bers, in. the formv of a bundle, are‘ dipped
staple ?bers are. produced;
into a solution containing 80% by volume of com 40
3. Process for, the production of». voluminous;
pletelydenatured ethanol‘ and’ 20%1 by volume of
permanently crimped arti?cial- staple; ?bers;
which comprises immersing relaxed, unstre-tched
and. unassociatedl dry-spun staple: ?bers, having
water, maintained at 90° F., for 30lsecond‘s; The
treated ?bers are removed from thesolution and
the- excess liquid‘ is removed.- by centrifuging.
From the. centrifuge- the. ?bers are placed in a
water bath at a- temperature» of 1-5'0- to» 1360‘? FL
and held therein for about 5 seconds‘. After be
ing removed from the water‘ bath, the fibers are
a basis of. cellulose. acetate. and prepared. from
?laments. spun. without. any tension. being. exerted
thereon, containing from 70. to 90%. by volume
of‘ ethyl’ alcohol, removing excess liquid vfrom
the staple ?bers,v immersing the staple ?bers in
centrifuged again- to remove as‘ much’ Water as
possible; and are dried in- a rotary drier with‘ air '
water at..a. temperature. ofv about 150. to. 160° F.,
removing; the water from the staple ?bers, and
at about 200°‘ F; The staple ?ber treated ‘ini'thi's
drying. the staple ?bers, whereby voluminous;
manner" is observed‘ to have lost the soft and
typical hand- of cellulose acetate" ?bers and now
possesses a- harsh, voluminous and- resilient hand
permanently crimped staplev ?bers are produced».
4... Process. for the. production‘ of voluminous;
greatly resembling that of" wool; The?bersare
substantially permanently crimped and‘even' after
being subjected to an appreciable pressure fora
considerable period of‘ time,,.the ?bers resume
their. original lofty character and form when
60
the. pressure isremoved.
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While. our invention. hasbeenmore particularly
described in connection with the. treatment of
arti?cial ?laments. having, a.v basis. of cellulose
acetate, it may be. employed in connection with.
thetreatment. ofI ?laments haying ab'asisoflotherl
organic. derivatives of. cellulose. for example, cela
Iul'ose, esters such as. cellulose, propionate ‘and. col
lul‘ose. butyrat’e, mixed esters such as. cellulose
acetate-propionate and cellulose. acetateebutyr
ate, and cellulose ethers. such as ethyl‘ cellulose
andbenzyl cellulose.
It is to be understood that. the foregoing de.- '
tailed. description is. given. merely byway of ‘illus
permanently crimped arti?cial;v staple ?bers;
which. comprises: immersing, relaxed, unstretchecl
and unassociated. dry-spun. staple. ?bers, having
a basis. of; cellulose acetate and- prepared: from
?laments spun with-outrany tension‘ being exerted
thereon, containing from 7.0 to 90%
volume
of. ethyl‘ alcohol: for, from“. 5. to '60v seconds, re
moving excess.- liquid: from’ the. staple ?bers; im~
mersing the staple- ?bers in water at.-.a'~.tempe1r
ature of about 150F139 1.60%‘
for‘froirr 1 to: 5
65 seconds,. removing. the. water from the. staple
?bers: anddry-ing the staple‘?lbersh whereby; vole
uminous, permanently crimped staple ?bers. are
produced».
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5-. Process. for: the- production 0st voluminous;
70 permanently crimped; arti?cial. staple: ?bers;
which. comprises immersing, relaxed" unstretched
and‘unassociated' dry-spurt staple ?bers, having
a basis ofv cellulose acetate-.- and prepared‘ from
?laments. spun- without . any tension being: exerted‘
tration. and that» many variations may vbe‘ made 75 thereon, containing from 7-0: to 90% by volume
2,408,381
of ethyl alcohol f0r_from 5 to .60 seconds at a
temperature or. 65 to 110‘? F., removing excess
liquid from the staple ?bers, immersing the
staple ?bers
Water at a temperature of about
e-v
‘- the staple ?bers and drying the staple ?bers,
whereby voluminous, permanently crimped staple
, ?bers .are produced.
_'7.*Process for the production of voluminou
150 to 160° FylfOI' from 1 to 5 seconds, removing ' ' permanently, crimped arti?cial staple ?bers,
vwhich comprises immersing relaxed, unstretched
the water from the staple ?bers and drying the
and unassociated dry-spun staple ?bers, having
staple ?bers, whereby voluminous, permanently
a basis of cellulose acetate and prepared from
crimped staple'?bérs are produced.
6. Process forth'e production of voluminous,
?laments spunriwithout any tension being exerted
lwhich comprises immersing relaxed, unstretched
and unassociated dry-spun staple ?bers, having
' of 90° F., removing excess liquid from the staple
permanently T‘crimped arti?cial staple ?bers; 10 thereon, containing 80% by volume of. ethyl
alcohol ‘for about 30 seconds at a temperature
' a basis of cellulose acetate and prepared from
?laments spun without any tension being exerted
thereon, containing,80% by volumeof ethyl ‘al
?bers, immersing the staple ?bers in water at
a temperature of about 150 to 160° F. for about
5 seconds, removing the water from the staple
cohol from 5fft6f 60 seconds ‘at a temperature
of 65 to 110151‘v iizfremoving excess liquid from
?bers and drying the staple ?bers, whereby
voluminous, permanently crimped staple ?bers
the staple ?be'rs_,_; "mmersing the staple ?bers in
are produced.
water at a temperature of about 150-to 160°, F’.
for about 5 seconds, removing the water from 20
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a
FREDERICK G. DODGE.
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