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Oct. 1, 1946.
Filed April 26, 1944
'2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Oct. 1, 1946.
Filed April 26, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
By .1 B. HAYS, JR
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
mesne assignments, to Western vElectric Com- 1
pany, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corpo
ration of New York
Application April as, 1944,_ Serial No. 532.697v '
5 Claims. (Cl.'177--386)
This invention relates to object locating sys
tems and particularly to those systems which de
pend upon the reception of compressional waves
emanating from the object whose location it is
desired to determine.
Heretofore systems of the general nature noted
have-been proposed based upon the binauralief
'fect- of sound» waves impinging upon spaced
microphones. These systems depend to a ‘great
features will be 'more clearly understood from the
following description and the attached drawings
forming a part thereof.
-- -
In the
1 is
va-‘schematic diagram
~ one form}
" '
the invention-having some of the apparatus in
dicated in block form;
I -,
, q
Fig. 2 illustrates a modi?catio - of ,the- system
extent upon human observations such asby not '10
Fig. 3 is a still further modi?cation. whereby
ing the intensity of sound received or by the
lamps are utilized to indicate the condition of the
observation of maximum swing on an electrical
instrument. The objections to such systems‘ are
Figs. 4a, 4b and 4c are simpli?ed vector dia
grams used in explaining. the operation of the
well known and the results obtained by the use
of such systems have not had the accuracy de 15
An object of the invention is the accurate lo
In Fig.‘ 1,.two microphones I0 and,.l0'1 are
illustrated as connected to separate channelsigA
cation of a source of compressional waves.
and B by means of cables H, II’.
Another object of the invention is to compare
the electric currents in two separate channels by
‘understood that in general microphones l0 and
‘ l0’ are ?xed relatively to each other and that
applying them to a common device in such a
manner that the attainment of neutralization
they ‘are non-directional. In experimental use
of the'vequipment thev spacing of the devices “1:,
is sharply de?ned.
H!’ was varied from one foot to twenty feet with
In one'embodiment of the invention, the sys
It is to ‘be
tem comprises two spaced microphones adapted
a spacing
In one embodiment,
of about- eight
‘system wasiused
to receive the same signals. The outputs of the
two microphones are ampli?ed and ?ltered in
individual electrical channels and then applied'to
for submarine object location, devices l0 and. I0’
wereihydrophones, that is microphones designed
tained on an electrical instrument in the output
Each of the channels -''A- and-B comprises an
ampli?er. l2, l2’ and a band-pass ?lter I3, 13'.
The ampli?ers‘, l2‘, l2" may be of any type but pref
erably are the‘ well-known vacuum tube type.
In the embodiment o‘f‘the'system noted'above.
for use under water. The devices were attached
a common detector in phase quadrature. The
to a frame-work adapted to be placed at the bot
sum and di?erence of electric vectors in phase 30 tom of a body of water. " Cables 3| I, H’ led from
quadrature are numerically equal so that an ac
the devices to a shore-installation‘ and were con.‘
curate mid-position or null balance may be ascer
nected to "separate channels.
' "
I '
of the detector.
~ The particular advantage of utilizing electric
currents in phase quadrature is due to the fact
that a slight deviation from the true quadrature
the ampli?ers comprised‘four stages.
condition results in a marked di?erence in the
sum and difference vectors and hence in the in
As illustrated in ‘Fig. 1,5 channel A is provided
dication shown by a meter. In systems using in 40 with a delay network“. No corresponding net
phase or 180 degree out-of-phase vectors the rate
work is included in-channel B." Onesuch delay
of change when the neutralization condition is
network which has been used had a total delay
'of 400 microseconds having-ten ‘steps of which
approached is very small so that the condition
one was continuously variable. As will be read
of true neutralization is difficult to determine and
errors of considerable magnitude are likely to 45 my understood, the amount of delay will depend
upon the hydrophoneq spacing. A single stage of
In the operation of the device, a delay network
in one channel is adjusted until the currents in
the two channels are in phase and the setting of
ampli?cation indicated as tube 'l5_follows the
this network is a measure of the out-'of-phase
‘the output‘ of each stagerl5, l5"isapplied ‘to as
sociated automatic volume controls l6, ‘[6’, re
spectively, adapted 'to' control the gain of ampli
?ers l2 and I2’ as indicated. The function of
condition of the currents received from the mi
crophones and, hence, the angle which the com
pressional wave makes with‘the line joining the
spaced microphones.
“ The invention together with other objects
delay network in the channel. ..In channel B a
corresponding stage ‘is indicated at l5". ' "Partof
‘ the volume'control devices is to maintain the
and .
outputsignals .from the channels substantially
constant. As will appear later it is not required
that the amplitudes of the signals in one channel
be equal to the amplitudes of the signals in the
other channel but it is desirable that theoutput
of each channel be maintained substantially con
The vmain part of the output :of stage l5 in
channel A ‘is applied to the input ‘winding of
transformer l1 and the main part of the output
of stage IB’ of channel B is applied to the input 7-10
winding of transformer I1’.
A capacitance-resistance network comprising
capacitances C and C1 and resistances R‘ and ‘R1
between the sum and diiference vectors will show
a marked swing even when the vectors are only
slightly out of quadrature.
Referring again to Fig. 1, sound or compres
sional waves emanating from a source remote
from hydrophones I0 and ID’ will impinge upon
them. "If ‘the source is not in the direction of the
perpendicular bisector of the line joining hydro
phones Ill and I0’ the waves will arrive at the
hydrophones in out-of-phase relation.
The currents from the hydrophones are ampli
?ed in ampli?ers I2 and I2’ and then are im
pressed on ?lters‘ I3 and I3’. These ?lters in one
case'passed'alband from 2 to 10 kil-ocycles and in
is associated with the output iwinding-of‘tra'ns
former I‘! to provide a +45 degree phase shift (at 715 another ‘case passed a band from 1.5 to 3 kilo
cycles. The "frequency of the waves from the
the mid-band frequency) in the currents in chan
scurceto be located and the response character
nel A. The mid-point of the output winding of
istic of the hydrophones determine the band and
transformer "is connected to the common ter
the band widths of the ?lters.
minal of resistances R and R1 by conductor-‘I38;
A capacitance-resistance network comprising
capacitance 1C’ and resistance. :R' is associated
with "the output winding of transfonner Hf to
From ?lter l3 in channel A the currents are
impressed on delay net-work l4 and this network
is adjusted. ‘until a zero reading is obtained on
:meter '25 which indicates that the delay [circuit
has been adjusted to the point where the currents
band frequency) in the currentgof channel B.
TheYtwo-networks 'just notedfprovide a 90 .de 25 in the two channels are in phase at {the inputs
to transformers 'l 1 and I1 '.
gree dilferen'cein phase :between the currents in
.As noted above, partlof the outputs of stages [5
the two channels.
Band 115' are impressed upon automatic volume
A conductor '19‘ connects conductor l8 .to the
control devices'lB and 1:6’ which‘control they gain
common terminal of resistance R’ and capaci‘
.30 otfam'plifier‘s l2 and l:2.'. .Anysati-sfactory volume
‘tance C’ in‘cha'nneLB.
control device may ‘be utilized so no details ‘of
The amplitude balance indicator of the “phase
'theseldevices are shown.
detector” comprises two tubes 20 and 21, the :grids
The main part 10f the :outputs of stages 15 'and
of-which‘are [connected through capacitanc‘es C
+5’ are impressed on transformers VI"! and l'i'.
and (:1 respectively, to the ends or the output
winding of transformer H. The cathodes of the .35 The-output winding of transformer 17 is con
nected to the grids of tubes 28 and 2| in push-pull
‘tubes ‘are ‘connected ‘:tlnvou'gh- resistances "22 and
relation, that is, the voltages impressed on the
lirespectively; to‘zgrozmd while'the anodes of the
grids from transformer H are equal numerically
‘tubes are connected-to a "source of positive po
‘but l80'degrees out-of—phase.
tential 2'4. iSource'M also provides biasingypo
With the connection #9 from the common ter
‘t'ential-ffor'the grids of the tubes.
minal of resistance R’ and capacitance C’ to con
A meter .25 which is preferably of the center
.ductor 1-8 which connects the mid-point of the
.zero ‘typemis connected between the cathodes ‘of
output winding of transformer I’! to the common
terminal of resistance R- and R1, the voltage of
Before proceeding with a. description ‘of the op
oration-of the system ‘of ‘Fig. 1, reference is to be .45 channel B .is combined with “that in channel A
at the grids of tubes '20 and 2|. It is, therefore,
made ~to Figs. 4a and 4b which illustrate that a
obvious-that the meter 2-5 indicates the numerical
small departuregfrom the ‘quadrature relation of
[or-amplitude difference between thesum- of the
vectors :gives'a'marked “difference between their
:voltages in the two channels and-the difference
In Fig. do one vector is illustrated as Vs and ~50 10f the voltages in ‘the two’ channels. Since the
provide a —45 degree phasesiiift. v(at the ‘mid
this maybe considered to ~.represent the voltage
of the current in channeLB-after ritsrrphaselshif-t,
while Va may be considered .torepresent the volt
resistance-capacitance net-works associated with
thecutput windings-of transformers l1 and ii’
shift the phase of the. voltage :in channel ;A +45
degrees (at the mid-band frequency) and shift
.age of ll'h?'lClll‘IE?li‘iIl-Qh?H-HB]. A rafter itsgphase
shift. It should 'be noted ‘that Va and VB are. not 55 thephaseof the voltage inchannel B-——45 degrees
(at the mid-band frequency) , the meter-'25 reads
.of thesamemagnitude and this has ‘been done to
.zero' when these voltages are .90 degrees out-of
illustrate that the electrical quantities .in the two
phase which indicates that at the input to trans
channels may be unequal butthat their .sum and
former-‘5412mm I?’ the voltages inrthe' two chan
difference are equal numerically. _
The Sum of vectors VA and VB .is shown as :
Vase and-the difference of. the vectorsisshown
:as Visas. That VA+B and VA-B‘ are-equal .is .ob
vious from Fig. 4a andthis fact is well known .to
those skilled in the art.
.In Fig. 4b the vectors are not in true .quadra
:is shown byvadnawing Vie at slightly
nels arerinephase.
_ -
7 As indicated above, the waves-impressed on the
. hydrophones l0 and it’ are only in-phase when
thee-source of waves is :on the perpendicular bi
sector of the'line joining the hydrophones. For
.any other location of the source of the waves
there will be a difference in phase of the waves
impressed .on the .hydrophones and this difference
in phased-s a measure of the angle between the
vectors ‘is-shown at v'n-se-eand-v-the vdillierence is
perpendicular *bisector 10f the line. joining the hy
shown at V's-a3. .Arcs1of acirc'les drawn-with 'V'Ae-B
and ‘V’ahsa'sradii and'with O as the. c‘enter'sh ow :10 drophones andYtheV-line joining themid-point of
suchl-ine with “the source of the ‘waves.
- - l
that‘ the ‘difference 'in‘magnitude {of the sum :and
The. function of delay circuit M is. tobring-the
differencefvectors, AV’,"is quitepro'nounced‘cven
voltages in the two channels into ‘phase. The
though departure .f-romtrue rquadrature :‘relation
sle‘ss :than .90 ‘degrees {to V‘ ». The sum of :these
:of 'V'azand V'B is very slight. ‘Hence an electric
meter ‘which l-indicates
amount of delay or the readings. of the delay
samplitudexditferenc? 715. circuit whenmeter 32.5 .readsazero is, therefore,
cathodes while'resistances B5 and 66 provide leak
paths for the grids. Resistance 51 with _' its
a measure of the angle at which the waves strike
the hydrophones. If the phase detection were
done without the use of the 90 degree phase
shift the balance point of the detector would be
a reading of maximum meter de?ection instead of
null. The rate of change of meter reading near
the balance point for a small difference in phase,
between the signal voltages is much less for a
maximum type of indication than for the null.
adjustable contact 68 provides a control of the
balance between tubes BI and 62. Source 69
provides a sufficient bias on the tube grids to
normally maintain the tubes 6| and 62 ‘non
conducting. Source 69 also provides anode poten
tials for the tubes.
In the ‘anode circuit of‘ tube 6! is the winding
a relay 10 having an'armature ‘H and contact
Accurate determination of the balance point is
arms 12 and 13, and in the anode circuit of tube
therefore more di?icult. However, as pointed out
52 is the winding of a relay 14 having an armature
in connection with Figs. 4a and 4b when a 90
‘i5 and contact arms 16 and 11.
degree phase shift is employed, the rate of change
in approaching neutralization is large and the
Three lamps 18, ‘I9 and 80 are associated with
contacts of the relays and sources of elec
meter readily indicates a slight departure from; 15 the
trical energy 8|, 8|’ as shown,v to operate in-a
“mixer” circuit is
manner to appear hereinafter.
In Fig. 2 a modi?ed form of
Before proceeding further with the-‘arrange
used. That part of Fig. 2 to they right of dotted
ment of Fig. 3; reference should be made to Figs.
1ineIX+-X may be substituted for that part of
the circuit of Fig. 1 to the right of dotted line 20 4b and 40. As explained in connection with-Fig.
4b if the vectors are not 90 degrees out-of-phase
X-Xof Fig. 1.
- >
there‘is a marked diiference,»AV', between the
As will beseen the arrangement of Fig. 2 uti
vector sum V’A+B and the vector difference V'A'—B.
lizesr the single’ vacuum tube phase inverter in
Also if the phase diiference is less than 90 degrees,
place of the transformers l1 and H’ of Fig. 1.
Corresponding parts of Fig. 2 are given the same 25 as shown in Fig. 4b, the vector sum is greater
numerically than the vector difference.
indicia as in Fig. 1.
If, however, the phase di?erence is greater than
As in Fig. 1 resistance-capacitancenetworks
90 degrees, as shown in Fig. 40, it is seen by
CR and C'R' cause a +45 degree phase shift
inspection that the vector sum V"A+e is smaller
in channel A and a —45 degree phase shift in
numerically than the vector di?erence V’ 'A-B by
‘channel B respectively (‘at mid-band frequency).
an amount AV".
, f
The voltage of channel A is applied to the grid of
Referring again to Fig. 3 and assuming that
tube 35 in a manner well understood in the art.
the sum'of the voltages in the two channels is
The voltage from tube 35'is impressed on the
applied to tube 6| and that the di?erence of the
grids of tubes 31 and 38 through network 36.
Tubes 31 and 38 are in push-pull relationship 35 voltages in the two channels is appliedto tube
62, then when the voltages are less than 90 degrees
as regards the output of tube 35, that is, the
out-of-phase, the sum is. numerically the larger
voltages applied to the grids of tubes 31 and 38
theyvoltage applied to the grid of tube 6! is
are equal numerically but 180 degrees out-of
large enough to overcome the bias ‘and the tube
phase. A resistance 39 connecting the cathodes
of tubes 31 and 38 has associated with it a mov
able contact 40 which is connected to ground 4|
through conductors 4'2, 43 and 44 whereby a high
degree of balance between tubes 31 and 38 may
be attained.
becomes conducting.
Current, therefore, ?ows
from source 59 through the winding of relay 10
thereby energizing the relay. Armature ‘H is
moved out of contact with arm 12 thereby extin
guishing white light 719 and into contact with'arm
The voltage of channel B is applied in parallel 45 13 closing an obviousycircuit'from source 8| to
light green lamp 18.
' ‘ ,
to the grids of tubes 41 and 48, that is, the volt
When the voltages in the two channels ‘are
tages applied to these grids are equal numerically
more than 90 degrees out-of-phase, the bias of
and in-phase.
tube 62 is overcome and it becomes conducting.
The anodes of tubes 38 and. 41 are connectedv
together by conductor 49 and the anodes of tubes 50 Relay ‘I4 is thereby energized and armature ‘I5
is moved out of contact with arm 16 and into
31 and 48 are connected together by conductor
contact with arm 11. If at this time armature 1|
50. The combined output voltage of tubes 38.
is in contact with arm 12, the white lamp 19 is
and 41 is applied to the grid of tube 20 and the‘,
extinguished. When contact is made between
combined output voltage of tubes 31 and 48 is
armature 15 and arm 11 an obvious circuit is
applied to the grid of tube 2i. The voltages
completed and red lamp 80 is lighted.
applied to the grids of tubes 20' and 2| are obvi
Therefore, when green lamp 18 is lighted, it
ously the sum and di?erence of the voltages in
that the voltages in the two channels
channels A and B, the difference between which
are less than 90 degrees out-of-phase and when
is indicated by meter 25.
The operation of the arrangement of Fig. 2 is 60 the red lamp 80 is lighted it indicates that the
the same as that of the arrangement of Fig. 1
and the description of the operation need not be
' Fig. 3 illustrates a further modi?cation of or
addition to the arrangements of Figs. 1 and 2 to
assist in the adjustment of the delay circuit to
determine the direction of the wave source.
indicated, two 3.-electrode vacuum tubes GI and
62 are associated with or may replace meter 25
and are so connected that the grid of tube 6|
may have impressed upon it the sum of the volt
ages in channels A and B and the grid of tube
62 may have impressed upon it the di?erence of
the voltages in channels A and B. Capacitances
63 and 64 provide a path between the grids and
voltages in the two chanels are more than 90 de
grees out-of-phase.
When neither tube 6| nor tube 62 is conducting,
armatures ‘II and 15 are in the condition shown,
that is, in contact with arms 12 and 16 respective
ly, and the white lamp is lighted over an obvious
circuit from source 8|’ indicating that the volt
ages in the two channels are 90 degree out-of
phase which in turn indicates that the delay cir
cuit I 4 of Fig. 1 has been so adjusted as to indi
cate the direction of the source of the waves im
pinging on hydrophones l0 and ID’.
This invention is particularly adapted for use
in determining the bearing of an underwater
sound source with respect to a given reference
point,“ where; the. sound; source. may he; a;- ship's
propeller for example‘.
The inven-tiommaybe' carried out. in other spe
- _ v 37.- A; system: 101: determiningthe direction. of a
source of wave energy, comprising. two spaced re
ceiversadapted to translate; said wave energy into
ci?c ways/than. those herein set forth. without de- '
electrical energy. a; transmission channelior ‘
panting. from. the spirit and essential characteris
tics; oi the: invention. and theI present embodi‘
each of. said receivers respectivelyi a, manually
adjustable delay network in. onepoi said. channels, '
ments: are,v therefore, to be. considered in all. re
spects as illustrative and not restrictive-and all
means for relatively shifting‘ the‘ phases of the
voltages ‘in, said‘ two: channels to‘ a substantially
changes coming within the meaning.- and the
90 degrees: Outmf-phase- condition, means com:
equivalency'range- Oithe: appended claim'skzare in-' is prising-a. pair of triodes each having its cathode
tended tnshe embracedltherein;
connected, through». a. resistor to: ground foncom
What. is: claimed is:
bining the out-of-phase-voltages to’ obtain sum
1. A system for. indicating, the“ direction oi an
and di?erence voltages, and means connected
object from: which; Wave; energy emanates, com
prising/spaced- receiversadapted tcr translate said .
wave energy’ into: electrical energy, arr/electrical
across; the- cathode‘terminals of; said. resistors for
visually comparingvthe a-mplitudes'oi said sum ‘
and difference voltages.
_4‘=. A system. [for Ideterm-iningithev directionlof a
channel for each of‘ saidl'receivers; respectively;
I means forproduci'ngaphase ‘shift of’submantially
. source oi wave energy, comprising two spaced re
QQF-deg'rees between‘ the signal‘ voltages in said ‘ ree
'ceivers adapted. toptranslate said wave energy‘ in
spective'channels; means- for combining sali‘d'si‘g‘j
torelectri-cali'energy, a transmission channel for '
' nal‘ voltages: to obtain sum and di?erence- vectors,
each of‘ said receivers respectively, (meanslinone
of, said channels for. producing 7a.. +45; degrees
phase-shift of thevoltages ingsaid channel, means
said last means com-prisinga pair" of electron
tubes each ‘including a control‘grid', a cathode,
in the OthBI'fQf said channels‘for producing, a, ——45
andianhanode, and‘ circuit means for connecting
both control grids to said'phase shift‘me'ans, each 25 'degrees;phaseyshift-of. the. voltages in said other
anode to the other; and each cathode to the other
through a ‘pair ofv serially connected’ resistors
whose common-.- jun'ction. point/is at, ground po
tential, and‘ means. for‘. variably’ delaying. trans.
I mission in one of said channels' »
channel, and means for detecting the; relative
magnitudes-i of the‘ sum and . difierence "vectors
of the; voltages. in said; channels-- after- the phase
shift; of such voltages, said last‘ means including
$.31) a-pai-I: of serially connected.» resistors whosead
2- A. system for, determining the direction of
asource of waverenergyp'comprising twocspaced
receivers adapted; to translate said wave energy
into electricallenergy; any electrical channel for
each of said receivers respectively” means for
bringing. the-signal. voltages in said channels. into ‘
phase,.means for shifting, the phases-oi thevolt- ' '
ages in. the channels. toaQQ degrees out-‘of-phase
relation, means comprising a. pair of electron
tubes,-. each. including a, cathode, connected
through a resistor to; ground for. combining the
outeof-phase voltages to- obtainsum and di?er
ence voltages, and. means connectedacross- the
cathode terminals of said resistors for comparing
the amplitudes of said sum'and. difference volt
jacent. terminals areat ground. potential, and
means connected across “the opposite ‘terminals'of
said;~-resistors for indicatingjthe relative: magni
‘lights. ofv different colors, means for energizing one
of said lights,- when said voltagesum exceeds in
amplitude said. voltage (difference; means foren
ergizingi another of: said, lights; when; said? volt
age- diiT-erence exceeds inamplitude said voltage
sum, and means for. energizing. the-third of. said
lights when the. amplitude: of said: voltage sum
equals the amplitude of said voltage di?eren-ce,
such vectors.‘
'5; A; system in accordance with claim. 32in
which said comparing means.’ comprises» three
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