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Патент USA US2408399

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Oct. 1, 1946.
Filed Nov. 3, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Oct, 1, 1946.
m'rEmmL-counusnon ‘ENGINE
Filed Nov. 3, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Oct. 1, 1946.
Filed Nov. 5, 19441
s She’ets-Sheet s
‘Q a” Gm #J
Patented Oct. 1, 1.946
Michel Kadenacy, Summit, N. J.
Application November 3, 1944, Serial No. 561,689
' 9 Claims.
(Cl. 123--51)
the inlet ports to produce a directional effect. As
This invention relates to internal combustion
engines of the two-cycle type in which the fresh
the mass of a single’charge of inlet gases is ac
tuallyyery small, the length of the time during
[charge may enterthecylinder without direc
tional control or may be so directed into the
which the rotational movementof the ,lgasesin
cylinder at the inlet thatrit travels through the
~, such. a charge ‘will, be maintained by . inertia is
' correspondinglyshort. For that reason, the swirl
cylinder with a swirling turbulent movement
along a substantially helical, path. ‘Moreparticu
larly, the invention is concerned with. the pro
vision in such an engine of novel means utilizing
effects produced by the exhaust gases after they
of thegases producedby the action of the inlet}
means decreases in intensity quickly and’ the po
tential energy of the movement is quickly dissi
. pated. Accordingly, if the-shock transmitted'to
‘the gases within_the cylinder through the ex-T
have left the cylinder for creating such aswirling
haust ori?ces asa result of the return movement’
movement of the charge, ifvnone exists, or for
of the exhaust gases, is .not_ directionally con
maintaining or intensifying an existing swirling
trolled, the' application of the shock to the gases
movement. In an engine equipped with the novel
means referred to, the exhaust gases outside the 1.5 within the cylinder‘ will be effective to destroy
‘ any swirling thereof,’ because Yof the great dy
cylinder andv moving toward the latter are caused
namic energy of the returning'exhaust gases.
to impart energy to the gas within the cylinder
"The present invention. is directed to the ‘pro
in such manner as to obtain the desired result
vision in an internal combustion‘ engineof the
and the action of the new meansimprovesthe
quality of combustion with a consequent im 20 two-‘cycle type ofexhaust means so constructed
provement in engine performance. 1
as-to-utilize the dynamic energy of the“ body of
exhaust’ gases. outside‘ the cylinder and ‘returning, >
toward the cylinder to. create-a swirling move
ment of the fresh charge within the cylinder or
. As I have pointed out in various prior patents,
as,. for example,. Patent 2,198,530, issued April
30, l9fi0, when the exhaust gases leave the, cylin
to maintain or amplify an existing swirling move
der .of an internal combustion engineunder'such
conditions that at least ‘part of the gases issue
ment. The new exhaust 'means may take the
form of properly shaped ports opened by the
.as a body at a speed much higher than that ob
piston or by sleeve action or of poppet valves,
taining in ?ow resulting from adiabatic expanbut,‘ in each instance, the construction of the
sion, the gases pass through a cycle of successive
mass movement's. Initially, the body of gases 30 exhaust means is such that a shock may be
transmittedby the returning exhaust gases to.
leaves the cylinder at high speed and a depression
the charge within the cylinder in such .manner
occurs within the cylinder and b'ehindrthe body
that the desired result is obtained. _ The appli
of gases in the exhaust pipe. The inlet, gases
then enter the cylinder and pass through it and
out the exhaust port into the exhaust passage.
The body of exhaust gases then undergoesits
second'movement, which istoward the cylinder
cation. of such shock for the purpose described '
I is highly effective not only because of the large
inlet gases, ‘and, if the exhaust port is; open. at
the time the shock front reaches the (port, the
lence. within the cylinder occursythe turbulence
amount of dynamic energy contained in the re
turning exhaust gases,'but also because of the‘
timing of the transfer of the energy therefrom
and results in the formation of a shock front
to the charge within the cylinder. Thus, .in an.
which} precedes the ‘center of the body.- When
this front reaches theinlet gases that have passed 40 ordinary‘ engine in which the charge‘ is intro
duced under directional control so that turbu
out ofthe cylinder, a shock is transmitted tothe
begins'at inlet opening and tends ‘to die down,
before combustion as aresult of the damping
e?ectof friction and. the action of the piston in
the compression stroke. With the new exhaust
shock will propagate through the gases in the.
cylinder. As a result, a movement of the gases
in the cylinder will occur,‘ the nature of. the}
means, the period, between the time when the
returning gases impart a shock t9 the gases with
in the cylinder and the combustion time is shorter
7 It is well known to be desirable to introduce
the. inlet gases into the cylinder of a~two-cycle 50 than the time between inlet and combustion so
enginein such manner that the gases travel ' that, in an engine equipped with the new exhaust
means, the time within which the swirl in the
within the cylinder with a generally rotational’
charge resulting from the shock produced by the
swirling movement, because. of, the better com
dynamicenergy of the returning exhaust gases
bustion obtained under such conditions, and the
movement depending upon how the shock ‘is:
transmitted to the gases.~
. .
desired e?ect maybeobtainedby formation of
may be damped is reduced, and accordingly, at
the instant of combustion, the intensity of the
exhaust port into the exhaust pipe, this move
ment continuing until the exhaust gases farther
along the pipe reach the end of their outward
swirl is greater than would otherwise be the case.
For a better understanding of the invention,
reference may be made to the accompanying
movement and begin to return toward the cylin
drawings, in which
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic sectional view of an
der. In their return, the exhaust gases transmit
a shock to the fresh gases which are in movement
engine constructed in accordance with the in
within the exhaust pipe close to the exhaust port
Fig. 2, is a fragmentary hol?-zontal;2 sectional;
view through the: exhaust ports; of. the, engine
and the shock is transmitted through the fresh
gasesand passesthroughthe exhaust, ports. The,,SQ"@liIlec12Qd in accordance, with, the pres
shown in Fig, 1;
Fig. 3 is a schematic developed view of the‘
exhaust ports of the engine to show the Opening ,
ent invention, that it serves to create a swirl in
the gases within the cylinder, if no such swirl
exists,’ or to maintain or intensify any existing
Fig. 4 is a diagram showing pressuresin the 1.5..
The'construction of the exhaust means for pro
exhaust pipe near the port of an engine‘ operat
ducing the desired effect may vary considerably
ing at differentspeeds and also?showilng'the inlet. ‘
and exhaust port areas;
andlthe-engine-shown in Fig. 1 embodies one suit
able-construction. The engine includes a cylin
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 1 of1 another"
der‘ I'O'in which operate, opposed pistons ll, l2.
type of engine embodying the invention;
20 Piston H is connected directly by rod !3 to the
Q‘ Fig;_~6 is a- diagrammatic plan View» of ‘the en
crankarm I~4--_ of; a crankshaft I55.‘ Piston [2* is
gine of‘Figqti'; and
connected byla rod"; l16;to a cross head ‘I 1* mounted‘
5 vFig. 7 ‘is-a view similar to_Fig.;2~of a modi?ed
in» guides- l-8j and; connected- by a- rod, $9 with- a
" '
crank; arm 205 on the crankshaft, which isin'
Q'I‘he curves‘ designated I_, II, III, 'an-d’IV of‘ Fig. 4* 25 opposed: relation-to crank arm l4.
Admission takes‘ place-through‘. conduits 21 in’
internal combustionengine‘an‘cl show the pres;
the1~cy1inder~wall-leadingto ports‘ 22-, and the,
sures inthe'exhaust pipe of suchan» engineat'a
burnt gases are discharged through exhaust ports
point- close ‘to theexhaust ori?ce.v In each-in
23 which vopen into a‘ chamber 24, extending
stance,. the opening ofthe-exhaust, indicated by:
around the cylinder‘ and connected" at: one end;
the point E6,’ precedes-the opening’ ‘of the inlet,‘
to'an'éxhaust pipe 2>5Q The ‘opening, of‘both sets
are ‘typical- ar'ea' timing‘ diagrams‘ of‘ a two-‘cycle
indicated by'the; poi-ntAO, by a’ period; which
inpractice variesbetween 15"—,-25-p of ‘crank travel.
of portsis controlled by'thevpi-ston-s, and-'theinlet
ports may be? arranged‘ tangentially, so, that the
incoming gases will-swirl’ downwardly: through
Alfso,__the exhaust closing,‘ indicated? by EC, occurs
beforethe inlet' closing.‘ indicated by AC. T'The 35 the‘ cylinder with‘ a rotational movement that-is
points-K‘, L,_'_M', andiN‘onthecurves I‘, II, III; and
IV, "respectively; iiidicate the instants-i when» the
exhaust- gas'es inj theirret-urrr - movement through
ports‘ are similarly-arrangedso that; upon the,
return movement of the exhaust‘ gases-through
the vsame" inne'a'oh case, curve '1' represents 'a low
ing ‘movement in‘ the same sense as- that of the
clockwise when viewedfrom; above. The exhaust,
the, exhaust‘pipefhave reached'the exhaustv port
the? exhaust pipe, the shock- transmitted thereby’
andjjzthe‘ positions" of" these‘ pointsv in terms‘ of’ 40 to’ such ofthe-inlet gases as have passed-‘through
crankshaft travel; depend‘upon-"the speed‘ of‘ the
the cylinder into‘v the'pipe; passes through the;
engine and‘ the‘ formation‘ of the exhaust: pipe;
1S] thereby; directed so as to
Assuming: that. the vexhaust pipe construction“ is‘
impart - to the gases- wi-thin the cylinder ‘a, swirl;
engine speed, with the crankshaft? traveling
gases entering; ‘through the inlet, ports.
result, the" shock 'ma-intai'ns; the swirl‘ existing‘
within the cylinder, and; under proper conditions;
through a relatively'small- angle before the gases:
return to the exhaust- port; and‘the- otherv curves"
represent successivelyf higher speeds.v Curve- E1,
will- intensify that‘ swirl,‘ because ' of‘ the great
dynamic energy? in ‘the; returning‘ exhaust gases
shows the magnitude of the area of 'theopening"
cfifthe exhaust ports relative to the angularposig
tionj ofthe"crankshaftyand' curve A ShOV-VS‘th‘Qi
magnitude ofthe‘ area of the ‘opening of the inlet
ports relative ‘to the angular‘ ‘position, of the;
crankshaft; From these U curves,‘ it‘, willbe- seen‘;
that in the‘ ‘cases ' represented " by, curves I‘ and’: II, 55.
' the shock produced"
the returning gas will;
have, free. access to the-interior of; the cylinder,
port, isfully open. In the case represented’ by
curve III, the shock will. arrive at the exhaustv 60"
port, asindi'cated by the point Mywhile the port;
greatest effect on the gases within the cylinder.
Inthecase shown by‘ curve IV, the exhaust port
is closed before the shock reachesitn as indicated‘
at N;
"Itwill be understood that‘ in an engine con-f
structed~ in accordance, with the disclosure of'my
chamber Mfremote from the exhaust pipe, Willi.
begin; to; open'between, 2}’: and 5.°‘of crank’ angle
since the points“ K and L occur while the exhaust
is closing, so that'the shock may not have ,its,
transmitted-in the form of the shock;
Whenya'single; exhaust pipe is‘ used; as shown
in Fig. 2-,, and‘the exhaust ports are, disposed en-y
tirely- aroundsthe cylinder; it; isadvisable to place,
the ports so that the ?rst'port a at the‘ end’ of"
before the'last- port-*1‘ of; the series,’ the actual lead“
offthe ?rst‘ pOrtdependingj on the speed of the
engine. The arrangem'entdescribed’ is illustrated‘,
inFig; 3',’ inwhichit will be seen. that the upper
end-s'of-the parts from atol', inclusive, are suc
cessively lower, sothat the pistonfstarts to- open ,_
port a ahead‘ of-‘port b and ‘so, on throughout the‘
series: Bythusopening port, a- ?rst, the gasesvat
rest; within chamber, 24‘ will start to'movethrough'.
the chamber with the opening; Of the port, and,
the movement through the chamber, towardfth‘e.
exhaust, pipe will have been established'by the
time that port lbegins- to open: When the exhaust,
Patent 2,144,665‘, issued January 17, 1939, to take
advantage ofthe effect of-dischargingthe exhaust 70,1 gases are in return movement through the ex“;v
gases as a mass at extremely high speedg'the ‘de
ha'ust pipe, the shock transmitted, to the inlet
pressionleft within the cylinder by such discharge
gases within- chamber» 24" will cause .a reverse;
may be, utilized to‘ introduce the fresh charge,’
Ifjthe-l conditions are correct, the incominggases
will travel through the cylinder and pass out the“
movement of those gases andv some of ‘the-inlet"
gases which have previously-issued from thepor'tsi‘
iwil‘l return therethrough‘ and‘ enter the cylinder‘
‘I’ 2.1m an‘: internal combustion-engine of theitwo
cycle: type" having a cylinder and inlet means for
admitting fresh gases‘ into the cylinder, exhaust
ports forv the escape vof exhaust gases ‘constructed
and operated'ltddirect the shock, imparted to
the fresh gases within the cylinder byf'exhaust
tangentially. ~ The‘ shcc'kv and the return ‘move
ment ofvv the inlet gases‘willfassist- in effecting
rotational movement‘ of the‘gases inthe cylinder.
The engine illustrated‘ in Fig. 5 includes cyl
inder '26 vin which operates a‘pist'on 21. Inlet
gases areadmitted to pipe ‘28 leading to chamber
29 vfroirl‘which ports 30-1ead to-the interiorof the
gases‘ outside thecylinder in»v their returnimove
ment toward-the cylinder,‘ tolcause the ' shockfto
cylinder. The vexhaust of the‘ gases is controlled
produce a ' ' enerally‘ rotationalmovement ' of the
by poppet valves 3| in-‘the cylinder head. Four
such- valves may be provided, vand gases ‘issuing 10 fresh-gasses:
{13. In an internal‘combustion engine
.' < of thes two
through- valves 3 la, andv "3 l b ; escape‘ through a
chamber 32,7 while gas‘es'issuin'g‘ through-valves
'BIc'and 3 Id' escape througlfia chamber 133.: ' With
. the arrangementishown;the» shockitransrnitte'di to
the?gases in thelchambers 32, 33 by the exhaust
and .exhaust" means for" the escape of ' exhaust
gases =moving ‘back toward the cylinder will be so
directed by the arrangement of the exhaust valves
gases constructed and operated to- direct the
shock, imparted to the fresh gases within the cyl
inder by exhaust gases outside the cylinder in
their return‘movement toward the cylinder, to
as to impart to the gases within the cylinder a
movement ' counterclockwise
I when
viewed from above. The inlet ports in such an
produce a rotational movement of the fresh
gases which is the same in sense as that produced
_ engine are, preferably, tangentially arranged so
as to cause the incoming inlet gasesto swirl in
the same direction.
cyoletype having a cylinder, thelcombination ‘of
‘inletmeans for admitting freshygases into the
cylinder and 'ope'ratingto cause the gases to travel
'withiniithe‘cylinder with‘ a- rotationalnmovement,
, by the inlet means.
In some engines,it may be desirable to provide
two exhaustpipes, and in that case, the arrange
ment may be as shown in Fig. 7. The exhaust
ports shown in that ?gure are arranged in two
groups, designated 34 and 35, and ports 34 lead
4. In an internal combustion engine of the two
cycle type having a cylinder, the combination of
inlet means for admitting fresh gases into the
cylinder and operating to cause the gases to
travel through the cylinder with a rotational
movement, and exhaust ports for the escape of
.to a chamber 36 connected to an exhaust pipe,
while ports 35 lead to a similar chamber 31 con 30 exhaust gases so constructed and operated to di
rect the shock, imparted to the fresh gases within
nected to another exhaust pipe. The ports are
, the cylinder by exhaust gases outside the cylinder
- arranged tangentially and in such relation to the
in their backward movement toward the cylinder,
inlet ports that the shock passing through the
to produce a rotational movement of the fresh
exhaust ports will maintain the swirl imparted to
35 gases which is the same in sense as that produced
the incoming gases by the inlet ports.
by the inlet means.
In the engines above described, the exhaust
5. In an internal combustion engine of the two
port closes before the inlet port, while in other
cycle type having a cylinder, the combination of
engines, the exhaust remains open longer than
inlet means and exhaust means for the cylinder,
the inlet. In engines of the second type, the
effect of the shock produced by the exhaust gases ~10 each of said means including a group of ports
through the cylinder wall, the ports of both
in their return movement toward the cylinder is
groups having tangential arrangements in the
greater than in engines of the ?rst type. In en
same sense with reference to the cylinder, and
gines of the second type, therefore, it is much'
said exhaust means operating to insure that ‘a
more important to prevent the shock from im
swirling movement will be imparted to the fresh
pairing or destroying the swirl of the inlet gases
charge within the cylinder by the shock trans
and, with the new exhaust means, the effective
mitted to the charge byexhaust gases outside
range of, speed of such engines is increased.
the cylinder in their return movement toward the
In the preferred application of the invention,
cylinder, said swirling movement being in the
the engine will include inlet ports which exercise
a directional control over the inlet gases so that 50 same direction as that imparted to the charge as
they will travel through thev cylinder with‘ a swirl
ing movement. The exhaust ports of the engine
will thenbe so arranged that the shock trans
mitted to the inlet gases in the cylinder by the
exhaust gases in their return movement toward
the cylinder will be so directed as to maintain
or intensify the swirl within the cylinder. How
ever, if the inlet ports are not so constructed as ,
it enters‘the cylinder through the inlet ports.
6. In an internal combustion engine of the two
cycle type having a cylinder, the combination of
inlet means admitting gases into the cylinder, ex
haust means including ports in the cylinder wall,
a'chamber extending around the cylinder and in
communication with the ports, and an exhaust
pipe leading from the chamber, the exhaust means
being so constructed and operated as to direct
to produce a'swirl in the fresh charge within the
cylinder, the provision in the engine of the new 60 the shock transmitted to the gases within the
cylinder by exhaust gases outside the cylinder in
exhaust means produces a useful effect in that
their backward movement toward the cylinder,
the shock produced by the returning exhaust gases
will set up a swirl in the charge and combustion
to cause a rotational movement of the gases with
will thereby be improved.
in the cylinder.
7. In an internal combustion engine of the two
cycle type having a cylinder and a piston, the
combination of inlet means admitting gases into
two-cycle type havinga cylinder and inlet means
the ‘cylinder, exhaust means including ports in
for admitting fresh gases into the cylinder, ex
the cylinder wall arranged in a circumferential
haust means for the escape of exhaust gases con
structed and operated to direct the shock, im 70 series, a chamber encircling the cylinder at the
1. In an internal combustion engine of the '
I claim:
parted to the fresh gases within the cylinder by
exhaust gases outside the cylinder‘ in their re
turn movement toward the cylinder, to cause the
shock to produce a generally rotational movement,
of the fresh gases,
ports and in communication with the ports, and
an exhaust pipe leading from one end of the
chamber, the exhaust ports being formed to direct
the shock transmitted to the gases within the cyle
inder by exhaust gases outside the cylinder‘ in
their vbackward;.movement-»tawemdz thez- cminden to
must aaseslautsidesthe cylinder.intheinbaekwand
thegcylinderi and the parts being: arranggdi to: be
openedzsuccessivem by; the‘- pistom begimling?-ith
their-port farthest, alonggthgchamhenfrom.- therexv
meyement-utqwam the,» cylinder-Liam eausea rota:
tionrwlz movement- Qithe; sases?-witmn thgrcxlindan
9) lmaniinternalrcommwtimenginesqtthettwo
cycle type havingawlinderi,
eombinati011: 9f
ha-ust, pipe;
inlvt; mews tmnadmittina. gase '
cause; a; rotationali movement of, thegas?s- within
8; In aninternal combustinn engine; of-lthetwrot
cycle: type; having» avcylirrdem the combinatiom of
inletmeansiadmitting, gases intQ'the1Qy1-inde1tmx?
g-muns-i.andaseparamexhamtpinesiion-eae s:.
haust means including ports in the cylindetwau,
21.; pairs‘ 0f: chambers; each: extending pant; way
anti} operated as H)? dimcttthqvshoek transmitted
to) gases, within, the;v cylinder by; Qxhaust'gases
oft-valves’! the-*Yav1§/?€Sf°i;the;grQlip?vbQing?tr'lfang?d
around“ the cylinder; and-Erin; communication: with
outsidewthe- cylinder" in; their» return: ~ mpvement
part; of: the;
and! anywexhaust; pipgi ‘leading
t?watrd thqtey-linderi tn» cause a; .tatignaillmove
ment;otthegasasiwithinztha minder;
iromz each chamber; the; exhaust means. being"; so
constructed and; operated: as tQ-~_direct¢the;1sh0ck 15
transmitted _- ta: gasesav within‘ the, cy1inder:~-hy;~ex
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