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406%.‘ 1,
‘33.
|__ BATCHELDER
2,408,404 _
COMPRESSIONAL WAVE TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING APPARATUS‘
Original Filed May 19, 1933 J ‘j .
I:
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Patented Oct. 1, 1946
2,408,404
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘
CDM‘PRESSIONAL WAVE TRANSMITTING
AND: RECEIVING APPARATUS
Laurence Batcheld'er, Cambridge, Mass, assi‘gnor,
by mesne assignments, to Submarine Signal
Company, Boston, Mass, a corporation "ofeDe'l'a
ware
Original application May 19., 1933, ».Serial. .No.
671,870.. Divided and this. application Marchv
13, '1'9'34',v Serial ‘No. 715,349; Renewed‘ Septem
ber 19,1938.
15 Claims.
The present application is a division of my co
pending application ?led May '19, 1933, Serial
No. 671,870, Patent Number 2,380,931.
‘The present invention relates to apparatus for
producing compressional waves and is applica
ble for the production of such waves in air, wa
ter or in other media.
In the present invention the compressional
waves produced are more particularly in the
range of so-called supersonic frequencies, that is,
frequencies which are beyond the audibility of
(Cl. 177-—386‘)
‘In devices employing otherv than piers-electric
means, for instance; in oscillators (‘of "the :mag
netosh'ictive type, itisl possible to use resonant
tubes or rods for driving a sound diaphragm» over
its surface in- the same phase. ‘The dil?cullty',
however, of making the whole diaphragm‘ or plate
to which the rod's- are attached vibrate isalso
present here, ‘and is is usually-observed that‘ the
vibration occurs morevpa-rticularly' at the points
where the > rods 0r tubes, producing the compres
sional wave energy, are attached.
the human ear, although to some extent the pres
I have "also observed that it is quite impossible
ent invention is also applicable to the production
to predict just how‘ such-"plates or diaphra‘gms
of high-frequency compressional or sound waves
which are situated in the upper part of the audi 15 will vibrate and just what ‘load either radiating
or mass load should be considered as belonging
bility range of the human ear and just beyond ‘it.
toleac'h operating unit. In fact, itsappears that
Due to the fact that metals possess great elas
rods or- tubes similarly- attached which before
ticity and that the wave lengths of high fre
hand
had the same ‘resonant frequencies may
quency compressional waves are very short in
well after attaching have other resonant fre
metals, it is di?lcult to assume that the masses 20 quencies. ‘Tl-us fact alone makes it difficult tonb
involved in compressional-wave apparatus of
tain a uniform resonance of all the operating
this type move ‘as masses alone without partak
and seriously ‘handicaps and limits» the
ing in the vibration of the vibrating elements.
In the prior art devices have been used in
available power output, since some ‘units: are op
erating on resonance whileother-un-its are offE
which a radiating surface or area was very large 25 the‘ resonant point.
condition also ‘distorts
as compared with the wave lengthof the sound to
the soundbeam-sinceitis-apt to destroy the. uni
be propagated in the propagating medium and
the radiating surface was vibrated at a plurality
of points in order to produce a- plane wave or ‘a
directed beam of sound or compressional Waves.
Such devices have been usefully employed both in
so-called piezo-electric oscillators and in oscil
lators of the magnetic type.
In supersonic oscillators of the piezo-electric'
type a mosaic of piezo-electric crystals are
mounted between steel plates. The thickness ‘of
the plates together with that of the crystals are
such as to establish a tuning in a direction per
pendicular to the plate surface and, each crystal,
in fact, vibrates that part of the plate where it. is
attached. An examination of this type of. oscil
lator indicates that the whole plate does not
move with the same amplitude and that between
the places Where the crystals are applied the vi
brational energy is sometimes quite small.
In other types of oscillators the same charac
teristics are found and while it is possible to protime some vibration over an entire plate, it has
been found a fact that the vibration is more par
form 'phasevi'bration of the: entire vibrating sur
face.
>
'
In the present‘ system which I have devisedE I
have avoided may -of- these dii?‘culties by construct‘ing-each‘ unit as an independently operat
ing unit and establishing the same resonance
point for each so that they can all operate»- with
the same amplitude in the same phase at the
same frequency; In order" to produce a ?xed
beam of compressional waves it isonly necessary
in‘ the'present system to; have a s-u?i‘ciently large
number or independently operating units posi
tioned or'nested close together vibrating
the
same phase in order to produce a plane ‘wave
whose width in; the propagating medium will-‘be
many times the wave len-gthaof the sound or c0m~
pressi'onal wave produced;
.
‘When lit-is desired; to produce a directive beam
of sounder ‘compressional waves whose direction
can be controlled or varied, this may berdone-by
vibrating lines or groups-hf‘ individually spenting units with proper phase-differences, it being
preferable under such conditions to have them-'
ticularly produced opposite the places where the
vibrational energy is applied. This gives evi 50 dividuallyoperatingunits-relatively point sources
so that each point ‘in the medium may have the
dence of the fact that in high frequencies there
right vibrational phase.
is diiiiculty in making a plate act as a diaphragm
and the tendency is for it simply to act as a
transmitting ‘medium.
Figure I shows a fragmentary section through
the oscillator showing the rows. of oscillating ele—
55 ments; Figure 2 shows a sectional view oi the
2,408,404
modi?cation shown in Figure 1 taken on the line
2-2 of Figure 1; Figure 3 shows a perspective of
a detail'f‘ofi the same ‘modi?cation; ., Figure-i 4“
shows a‘further modi?cation on the same type of
view as indicated in Figure 2; Figure 5 shows a .
section along the line 5-—5 of Figure 4; and Fig-"
ure 6 shows a fragmentary perspective of a de-.
tail of the same modi?cation.
4
from each other and the wave length of the
sound to be generated, a beam effect will be ob
tained.‘ In the modi?cation shown in Fig. 1 the
units’v themselves may be mounted in a large base
5 plate 90 to which they are held by means of the
.
In the present application which is a division
screws 9|.
The units may individually be made
watertight by providing the plates 14 and 15 and
also the radiating end ‘II with a proper groove 92
in which the gasket 93 might be placed to prevent
water from entering into and around the coil.
of the applicant's copending case, as stated above, w ‘This watertight gasket can also serve to center
the structure more particularly described vand
and space the radiating unit 1I so that no side
claimed is one in which a group of long flat
plates make up the radiating unit. These may
be assembled together very closely with the center
lines of the units substantially a half wave length
apart or even less or they may be made some- '
what wider in construction, depending upon the
ways motion will be present. A row of screws
94 is provided at the end of each unit so that the
units may be ?rmly clamped both at the top and
_
along the sides.
In the unit
' shown in Figs. 1, 2
and 3 a s'olid'structure is illustrated.
In Figs.' Ll, 5 and 6 part of the structure is lami
particular method in which it is desired to.op-.. . nated. In this modi?cation the end-radiating
erate the units. Where the units are wider than
element’ I00 and the strip IOI may be built up
a‘half wave length, each individual unit tends _ of a series of laminations which are held tight at
tobecome directive and therefore such a con
the top by a bolt I05 passing completely through
struction should not be used unless it is desired
the whole group of laminations or this element
to'transmit a beam in a direction normal to the
in itself may be of a solid structure. The lower
surface, of. the radiating units. Regardless of
which type may beiemployed, the-principles set
forth in the presentconstruction apply to the
operation of the elements as long ?at plates op
end of the strip IUI is clamped between clamping
plates I02 and I03 which are firmly screwed to
gether by means of the screws I04.
The coil I00 corresponding to the coil ‘I6 of
erated by strips that are resonant with_the plates . Fig. l is encased by a cover built up of laminations
longitudinally in the direction of the width of the 30 I01 which are held together by means of the stay
,
,
rods I08, I08, etc. The laminations I0'I are built
The invention is illustrated in Figures 1, 2 and
up in groups between which are the supporting
3. In Fig. 1 the magnetostrictive element com
members I09, I09, etc., through which the rods
prises an elongated strip ‘I0 which has a radi
I08 also pass making _a substantially rigid struc
ating unit ‘H made integral with the end thereof.
ture and uniting the laminations together in
35
The, radiating unit ‘II is elongated, as indicated
plates equivalent to the side plates ‘I4 and ‘I5 of
in Fig. 3, and may be constructed with inclined
Fig. 1. The members I09 extend downward below
strips.
shoulders 12. The magnetostrictive strip ‘I0 may
be provided with slots ‘I3 as indicated by the
dotted lines in Fig. 2. The lower end of the strip
‘I0 is held ‘between similar magnetizable plates
‘I4 and ‘I5 _made up of C-shaped- laminations and
thus when assembled are recessed to contain the
coil ‘I6 which, as indicated in Fig. 3, is elongated
and surroundsthe strip ‘I0. At the lower end of
the plate, there is provided a plurality of ?at
head screws ‘I1 which pass ,fromione plate into
the opposite plate and thereby clamp rigidly the
end of the magnetostrictive strip 10. This fur _
the laminations and rest in corners in the clamp
ing blocks I02 and I03 to which they are held
by means of the screws H0. The end radiating
element I00 may be covered by means of a rub
ber cover III which may be cemented to it and
also cemented to the casing H3 at the shoulder
, IIll. As will be seen in Fig. 4, the oscillator is
; built up of a number of parallel units in which
the radiating elements run substantiallyparallel.
It should be noted that in this modi?cation
as well as in the structure shown in Figs. 1, 2 and
3 that the individual units are long as compared
nishes a clamping mass for the magnetostrictive . 50
. with the wave length of the wave transmitted in
strip 10 which vibrates in its vertical dimension
as shown in Fig. 1, and has a resonance of vibra
tion normal to the e?ective radiating plane of
the unit ‘H.
The plates ‘I4 ‘and ‘I5 have upper projecting ,
poles ‘I8 shaped to conform‘ to the inclined sur-_
face 13 underneath the top of the radiating ele
ment ‘I I. In this manner the complete magnetic
path for the coil 16 is through the strip 10 about
the surrounding plates ‘I4 and ‘I5 and returning ,
the propagating medium, and the length of the
unit itself may be of a di?erent order of magni
tude than the wave length of the transmitting
wave.
It should also be noted that the effective radiat
ing length of the whole oscillator may also be
many times the wave length of the wave trans
mitted, in which case a considerable number of
I individual units will go to make up the entire os
through the small air gap at the sides and under 60 cillator.
In Fig. 6 is shown a perspective view of the
neath of the radiating plate ‘I I.
modifications shown in Figs. 4 and 5. In this view
The units indicated in Fig. 1 are ‘in themselves
the structure at the end of the oscillator is more
independent and may preferably .be made of con
clearly indicated. It will be noted that the cor
siderable length many times the wave length of ‘65 ner which ?ts at the end of the last laminated
the compressional wave which it is desired to_
group is composed of two pieces I I5 and I I6 which
generate in ‘the sound-propagating: medium.
are themselves unjoined, being held to the lami
Each of theserunits maybe arranged to form--v
nated structure by means of the stay rods I08 as
parallel successive rows and a greatnumber‘of
the units maybe used so that the horizontal _div-’
men‘sion of the device may be many times-the
wave length of the sound produced in the propa
gating medium. In such‘ an arrangement each
unit will be e‘ vertically disposed vand if they are
independently eXGitQQI
upon
ences'depending
explained above.
'
Having now described my invention, I claim:
'
_
1. Means for producing a beam of compres
sional waves comprising a plurality of parallel
elongated plates having magnetostrictive strips
7 . attached to the same, means including said mag
desired [phase di?er-~
the distance ‘of the units 75 netostrictive strips for vibrating said plates at the
5
desired frequency, means clamping said strips: at
the ends opposite the plates, said strips being
tuned to resonance for the desired frequency of
vibrations transverse to the long dimension of
the strip.
2. Means for" producing a ‘beam of compres
sional waves comprising a plurality of ‘parallel
6
netic material including said clamping means for
completing the magnetic circuit from the end of
the stem to the cross piece of the T, and al-soft
rubber diaphragm covering the radiating surface
of the unitary device.
‘
7. Means for producing a beam of compres
sional waves comprising a plurality of 'wave ‘radi
elongated radiators having magnetostrictive
ators associated together in a unitary device, each
strips‘att'ached to the same, means including an
radiator having a vibrating unit having a T'
energizing‘ coil and said’ magnetostrictive strips 10 shaped section, a coil surrounding the stemfthere
for vibrating said plates at the desired‘ frequency,
of, means clamping the lower end of vthe-stem of
a plurality of elongated‘plates positioned parallel
the T, said means’ including means of magnetic
to said strips and having projecting elements at
material external of the coil for completing-the
the ends thereof, said plates being composed of
magnetic‘ circuit to' the top cross piece of the T
magnetic material and‘ serving "as the return ‘mag 15 and means between the ends of the cross piece-cf
netic path for the flux passing‘ through the mag
closure
the T and
of the magnetic‘
coil and means
positionto-the
complete
T-s'haped
netostrictive strips to. provide. clamping surface
at ‘the lower ends of said‘ stripsfeach of said strips
being tuned to resonance for said desired vibra
8. Means for producing a beam of compres
tions normal to said radiators.
20 sional waves comprising a plurality of parallel
piece.
3. Means for producing a beam of compres
sional waves comprising a plurality of parallel
'
-
elongated plates, said plates being arranged side
by side with their surfaces forming a continued
plane surface, strips of magnetostrictive mate
strips attached to and vibrating the same, an
rial attached to and supporting said plates, elec
elongated coil surrounding each of said strips, 25 tromagnetic means surrounding each of ‘said
a plurality of elongated plates of magnetic ma
strips for energizing the same, each of said plates
terial positioned parallel to said strips and hav
being free to vibrate as a single piston element.
ing portions projecting therefrom near the ends
9. Means for producing compressional waves of
towards said strips, said projecting portions serv~
high frequency comprising a rectangular elon
ing to provide clamping surfaces and said plates 30 gated plate, a strip of magnetostrictive material
elongated
radiators
having
magnetostrictive
serving as the return magnetic path, means co
operating with said plates for clamping the lower
ends of said strips thereto, each strip being tuned
supporting said plate substantially along the mid
dle of the same, an elongated coil positioned about
said strip, a plurality of side elements of mag
to resonance for vibrations normal to the radia
netic material, said elements being provided with
tors and each coil adapted to be independently 35 extending ?anges extending over the top and bot
connected to a separate supply source.
tom of said coil and furnishing at the bottom end
4. Means for producing a beam of compres
sional Waves comprising a plurality of parallel
a clamping surface for the bottom of said mag
netostrictive strip and means clamping said plates
elongated magnetostrictive strips having radiat
and strips together at the bottom end thereof.
ing means on a corresponding long edge of each, 40
10. Means for producing compressional waves
- and being tuned to resonance for vibration nor
of high frequency comprising a rectangular elon
mal to the radiating means, elongated coils each
gated radiator, magnetostrictive means for driv
surrounding one of said strips, a plurality of elon
ing said radiator, means forming an enclosed cas
gated plates of magnetic material having portions
ing about said magnetostrictive means, said
projecting at the ends thereof and completing a 45 means providing a surface extending in the same
return magnetic path for said coils enclosed by
plane as said radiator and means carried between
the plates and said projecting portions, means
said radiator and said casing for producing a
clamping the strips between plates at one set of
watertight joint between the same.
projecting portions and means holding said plates
11. Means for producing compressional waves
together in parallel relation.
50 of high frequency comprising an elongated rec
5. Means for producing a beam of compres
tangular radiator having one side flat and the
sional waves comprising a plurality of parallel
opposite side tapered to form a V-shaped section,
magnetostrictive strips elongated in one dimen
means forming a groove at the side of said radia
sion and resonant to the frequency desired to
tor, means for driving said radiator simultane
be produced in the width dimension, said strips 55 ously over its whole length, magnetic means form
having radiating means ?xed on a corresponding
ing a casing about said driving means, said means
edge of each, and being tuned to resonance for
being provided with a groove opposite said groove
vibrations normal to the radiating means, an
in said radiator and means extending between
elongated coil surrounding each of said strips, a
said grooves for providing a water-tight joint
plurality of elongated plates of magnetic mate 60 Within said casing.
rial having a recessed portion shaped to conform
12. In a means for producing a beam of com
on one side to the contour of said coil and fur—
pressional waves, a radiating element having a
nishing a return magnetic path for the ?ux gen
T-shaped section formed of a plurality of T
erated by said coil and passing through said strips,
shaped laminated strips having means binding
means including said plates for clamping the 65 said strips into said T-shaped section, coil means
strips ‘between said plates at the ends thereof and
for impressing magnetic ?ux through the stem of
means holding together said plates in parallel
said
T-shaped element, a plurality of substan
relation.
tially C-shaped laminations of magnetic mate
6. Means for producing a beam of c0mpres~
rial encasing said coil means and positioned to
sional waves comprising a plurality of wave radi 70
form
pole elements for a magnetic circuit, ~the top
ators associated together in a unitary device, each
and bottom horizontal portions of the 0 being
radiator having a vibrating unit having a T
positioned at the lower part of the stem and at
shaped section, a coil surrounding the stem there
the cross bar portion of the T strips and means
of, means of magnetic material clamping the
for
holding said laminations in position adjacent
lower end of the stem of the T, means of mag 75 said strips.
9,408,404
13. In a means for producing a beam of com
eluding means of magnetic material providing a
magnetic ?ux path having a pole face adjacent
pressional waves, an elongated radiating‘ surface
the radiating element at the top of the strip.
having magnetostrictive strip means formed as a
15. Means for producing a beam of compres
part thereof running substantially the length of
sional waves comprising a group of parallelly
said surface, a plurality of C-shaped magnetic
arranged elongated radiators, strips of magneto
pole elements positioned at the sides of said strip,
strictive material each supporting one of said
a coil surrounding said strip, the top and bottom
radiators, means separating said radiators one
portions of the C projecting over the coil and
from the other providing surfaces opposed to one
means for holding said pole elements in position
another, said means also having a surfacev in the
10
against said strip at the lower end.
extension of the same plane as the radiators
14.‘In a means for producing a beam of com
themselves and means supported between said
pressional waves, an elongated radiating element
radiators and said separating means for main
having magnetostrictive strip means extending
taining the surfaces of said separating means
substantially the length thereof and positioned
and said radiators that are opposed to one another
symmetrical to the section of the radiator, coil 15 free from contact with each other.
means surrounding said magnetostrictive strip
and providing electromagnetic ?ux for the same,
LAURENCE BATCHELDER.
means for clamping said strip at the bottom in
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