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Патент USA US2408407

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Oct], 1946.
_ v ‘
H, BENIOFF '
2,408,405
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 23; 1940
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR'
Huyo genie/7‘ ‘
ATTORNEY
_
2,408,405
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT’ OFFICE
2,408,405
I
I
v
ELECTRICAL APPARA'i‘US
Hugo Benio?", La Canada, Cali?, assignoiy
mesne assignments, to Submarine Signal Com
pany, Boston; Mass, a corporation of Delaware
I I Application October 23, 1940, Serial No. $621342
1
9 ‘Claims. (01. ash-s7)‘
2
The" present invention relates to short wave
transmitting and receiving systems particularly
with spark circuits and» electromagnetic waves of
the bases of the cone there are provided circular
the‘ order of one'meter or less. I
[4 of tungsten or other suitable alloy or metal,
shape and having
these points being conical
recesses 9 and ill with center projecting ?anges
H and’ I2 on which are mounted points‘ [3 and
f
Circuits of this type'offer di?iculties principally
. an angle of approxir'nately
60°.
_
because of the limitationsjin geometric dimen
sions that are necessary to‘ keep the natural wave
length of the apparatusjshort; It may be gen‘
erally stated that the larger the‘ geometrical di
Electrical con
nections from‘ the generator for the spark po-‘
tential are made tothe' cones l and 2 at conven
ient and desirable points. I
_
The‘ receiving device; as-indicalted inFig. -2_', com
mensions of such a device’are, the longer thewave 10
length will be at the resonant frequency. It is"
prises two metallic conical-l elements [5' and [6‘
similar to the" cones“ l‘
2-‘ except that they are
also essential in such devices‘, in order to transmit
joined together in a'éentral section-v I-T. Qtherwise
a substantial power, to provideas much storage
the two cones have opppsédteses‘ l8 and I9 and
capacity in" the‘ condensers‘of the oscillating sys
tem; ' .Such?increase' in condenser capacity must, 15 are‘ provided at a‘ point nea the outside with
a hole in which there i's'vscreweda; stud: ZVhaVin'g
however, be" compensated by a decrease in the‘
inductance or the" circuit in" order to‘maintain the
fre‘guency and wave length at' the" desired values:
In" addition to’ these features" it is: also neces-"
sary' to' provide‘ the-correct" type‘ of spark gap‘
v a detector element‘ 2|? of silicon, gia-lena- or other
sinner’ mater-inset
20
Theseie'atures work for an» increased power and
'
I
a a
Without’ further describing the‘ merits of‘ the
invention‘, the‘ present invention will be described
mounted
in- a" position opposite to the‘ detector-Va wire 23
insulated ironji" the; cone‘ I76,¥- the‘ wire >213‘ being
adjustable soithat itjinay be positioned at chosen
points‘ over“, the" surface of the detector ‘element
2|‘. nach- qr?-thelcopegeienients >|;_2, is and [6
so‘that' a maximum‘ breakdown voltage may be
obtained and‘ rapid quenching may be effected.
efficiency in the transmitting’ circuit.
arec'ess‘ at?the ens-or the
stud. On the opposite cone Hi there?
25
in connection with the drawings“ below illustrate‘
has a long'_dimension of‘ substantially a half wave
length in the material at the resonant frequency
of thee-seine
.
U
_
H
by
v
,_
Iii-thespar _‘ oscillator showniinjthe ?gures just
ing the same.
In the; drawings-Fig. 1} shows a vertical sec- '
ti'on through the transmitting unit; Fig. 2’ shows
a'vertical-section’through‘the receiving unit; Fig.
30
described: thglfrsquenw. QT: oscillation, is: Sum‘
ciently " high; so thatthereds‘ very’, little current
penetration- internally of the‘ metallic structure.
The“ capacity‘ inithe‘ system‘ iorfth'e‘ storage of
3 shows an isometric‘ projection of the‘ trans-1
electrostaticfenergy is made‘ up“ of the‘ capacities
nutter; Fig. 4 shows-a‘vertical section through an-'
between the‘ two con-esv lj and 2 most otwhich
other‘ form of the transmitter; Fig. 5 shows an
isometric pro-jectionjvof the device a section of 35 is concentrated between'thei opposing surfaces 1
and" 8. [The inductance- of the system isalso de
which is shown} in Fig. 4/; Fig. 6 shows-the cir
cuit diagram- of the generator for the spark p0‘ ,
tentialyFig; '7 shows in 'cross section" another
form of spark generato?Fig. Sshowsan isometric
projection of the device, a‘ section‘ of which is 40
shown‘ in" Fig‘. 7‘; Fig. 9‘ shows the apparatus of
Figs: 7 and‘ 8- as used in‘ a radiating horn; and
Fig‘. 10 showsithe electrical'circuit diagram for the
apparatusof Figs. _7 and 8; v
a
_
pendent upon‘ the’ geometric vcon?guration of the
conicar elenient‘rs‘and it may. be stated that with
larger cones‘of the" same'shape the inductance
ofn'th'e system incr'e se‘s accordingly. “Other forms
of spark oscillators shown in] other ?gures’have a
greater‘ capacity with the sameiwave length and
in thesecases‘ ‘ the geometrical con?guration _, of
'the‘osc'illatoij hav‘ejbeen“ changed to‘ increase the
In Figs. 1, 2‘an'd 3 both the receiver and‘ trans 45 capacitieso‘f ' the" circuit relative’ to‘ their induct‘
rnitter are of substantially the same external
' In'Fig’s.'4‘andb‘thei‘eisfshown'a“form of spark
shape‘; The’transmitter comprises‘ two cone ele
ances!
.
U
.
_.,.
,,
transmitter‘w/ Qhis'iadaptableto be enclosed‘so
ments' l‘ and 2’ which may have‘ rounded‘ ends as
indicated at 3,‘ and 4. These cones Awhichyare of
that the’spark'itselfin?ght
6 which are of suitable insulating material. These
mounting elements 5 and. 6 fit snugly in slots
with" opposed
in‘ a bath of oil
metal‘ are supported by mounting'elements 5 and 50 or a‘ chamber off-gas;-v airo'r' partial’ vacuum. _ “In
or groovesin‘the'sides ofthe cones and space the
parallel opposing bases 1 and 8 of the cone a
this case the elements'_‘ 25; and is: are? provided
s’e surfaces 21* and 287witli'c'ene
tr'al‘. circular‘, rebess'et'l- portions‘ iéf; and‘ 30" having '
peripheral; grooves inwhichj a5 cylinder‘ or ring- 3|
desired‘ distance apart. In'the center portion’ of 55, o'f- Amphenoliy Bakelité glass 071"‘: other insiil'ating
2,408,405
3
4
material is snugly positioned to form a chamber
32 within the ring. At the center of this cham
the spark electrodes. Therefore, the vertical ad
ber each conical metallic element 26 has a me
63 increases or decreases the conical gaps ‘I?
justment, as viewed in Fig. 7, of the cones 62 and
tallic insert 33 and 34 set therein with tungsten
spark points 35 and 36 at the center thereof op
posed to one another. The elements 25 and 26
Ch
and 18.
Since in the high frequency apparatus of the
present nature the currents and charges are con
?ned to the metallic surfaces, the conical gaps
‘H and 18 act like dielectrics of a condenser and
to each other by means of the U-shaped bracket
it will be seen that for a comparatively short cone,
31 having supporting branches 3B and 39 on which
the elements 26 and 25 are respectively mounted. 10 alarge capacity is obtained between the cylin
drical element ‘I0 and the cones 62 and 63. While
The supporting arms 38 and 39 are made of in
the theory of operation is perhaps not completely
sulating material as, for instance, Amphenol, or
understood, this construction promotes better os
Bakelite, similar to that used forv the ring 3.! . The
may be supported and held in positions relative
conical frustum 25 and 26 may be an aluminum.
compound as, for instance, duraluminum or some
cillating ei?ciency at very high frequencies.
other similar type of metal, if desired.
The generating circuit for generating the po
. It should also be observed that the potential
varies continually across the gap and in the
' transient phenomena of the spark discharge, the
tential necessary to provide a train of. sparks
at the desired frequency is shown in Fig. 6. In
wave‘rapidly progresses from the spark gap elec
trodes 60 and 6! outward in the direction of
this case a Tesla type transformer with a thyra- '
the elements of the cone. In this Way the out
ward ends 19 and 8D produce radiation in the
shape of a ring emanating from the ends of the
gap. For this purpose the cones 62 and 63 are
tron tube in place of spark 49 with primary 4| and
high voltage secondary G2 is used, the output be
ing across the secondary 42 to which the tank
circuit may be connected.
The primary circuit is completed through one
of the condensers C1, C2 or C3 and one of the re
. made one-half wave length long in the struc
ture not in'air. The form shown in Figs. 7 and 8
is preferably used in the horn Bl of Fig. 9 in which
the tank spark oscillator is positioned with the
sistances R1 to R5, inclusive, by proper connec
cone axis AB transversely positioned in the end
tions of the switches 44 and 45. The condensers
of the horn. In this position the radiation from
C1, C2 or C3 are charged by the direct current high
potential source indicated at 46 the negative end 30 the tank circuit will be in'the direction of the
axis of the horn indicated by the line CD.
of which is grounded and the positive end con
Having now described my invention, I claim:
nected in parallel to one end of all the resist
1. A short wave spark tank circuit oscillator
ances. The condensers are discharged by means
comprising a pair of metallic cones having
of the thyratron tube 47 the grid of which is
aligned axes and arranged with the points facing
biased by the battery 48 in series with a trigger
each other, conductive means having a surface
ing oscillating source 49 which may be sinusoidal
surrounding the conical surface of said cones
peaked or saw-tooth in shape or whatever form is
opposed and spaced near thereto and insulating
most desirable:
means supporting said cones and said means.‘
The output of the secondary 42 of the Tesla
2. A short wave spark tank circuit oscillator
coil may act as the power source 50 in Fig. 10 40
comprising a pair of metallic cones of approx
which, as indicated in the ?gure, supplies power
imately 60° solid angle and arranged with the
preferably through two spark gaps 5| and re
points thereof facing each other, conductive
sistances 52 to the main tank circuit formed by
means surrounding said cones forming an air
the cones 53 and 54 at the apex of which are the
g'ap betwe'enthe surfaces of said means and said
pointed electrodes 55 and 56. The gaps 5| may
cones and means insulating said cones from each
' in some cases be omitted. The type of tank cir
cuit shown in Fig. 10 is more completely illus
other and said conductive means.
3. A short wave spark resonant tank circuit
tratedin Figs. '7, 8_ and 9. In Figs. 7 and 8 the
two spark electrodes 60 and 61 are preferably con
structed of tungsten or other metal or alloy with
points formed in a 60? cone as a‘continuation of
the‘metallic cones 62’ and 63, ‘respectively. The
cones 62 and 63 are made preferably of dur
aluminum or copper, silver or a plated metal,
and have 'a solid angle of about 60°. These'cones ,
are each provided with cylindrical end portions
64 and 65, respectively, in which are grooves or
slots 66 and 51 running diametrically across the
cylindrical ends. These ends 64 and 65 are
supported each by the U-shaped brackets 68 and 60
69 made of insulating material preferably Am
phenol which was previously mentioned. Sur
rounding the cones 62 and 63 is the conductive
shell ‘m which is slotted lengthwise at the sides
as indicated by the dotted lines ‘II and 12 in’ 65
Fig. 7 to receive the side arms ‘I3 and 14 of the
bracket 69, and 75 and 16 of the bracket 58. As
each bracket 68 and 69 is held tightly to the cyl~
inder 10 by the tight-?t of the arms ‘l3, ‘l4, l5
and 76 of the bracket, this construction permits
the proper adjustment of the sparking points in
position with respect to one another. It should
I also be noted from Fig. 7 that the cylinder 10 is
formed as a ?gure of revolution by the revolution
of the half section about the vertical axis through 75
oscillator. comprising means forming a pair of
opposed metallic surfaces providing capacity for
said ‘resonant circuit having a pair of opposing
electrodes projecting centrally from said surfaces,
one from each'surface, the inductance of the me
tallic path around the surfaces with the project
ing electrodes as the center and said capacity
providing the tuning and resonant frequency
of the oscillator, and means insulating said me;
tallic surfaces from each other.
'
'
'
4. A shortwave spark'resonant tank» circuit
oscillator comprising means forming apair. of
opposed metallic surfaces providing capacity for
said resonant circuit having a pair of opposing
spark electrodes projecting centrally from said
surfaces, one from each surface, the inductance
of the metallic path around the surfaces with the
projecting electrodes as the center and said
capacity providing the tuning and resonant fre
quency of the oscillator, means insulating, said
metallic surfaces from each other, andv means
forming a chamber enclosing said spark elec
trodes.
"
’
5. A short wave spark resonant tank circuit
oscillator comprising means forming a pairof op
posed metallic surfaces providing capacity for
said resonant circuit having a pair of opposing
2,408,405
5
spark electrodes projecting centrally from said
surfaces, one from each surface, the inductance
of the metallic path around the surfaces with the
projecting electrodes as the center and said
capacity providing the tuning and resonant fre
quency of the oscillator, means insulating said
metallic surfaces from each other, means form
ing a chamber enclosing said spark electrodes,
said chamber having means increasing the-break
downlvoltage therein.
projecting electrodes as the center and said
capacity providing the tuning and resonant fre
quency of the oscillator, means insulating said
metallic surfaces from each other, and means
forming a chamber enclosing said spark elec
trodes, said chamber being ?lled with oil.
8. A short wave spark resonant tank circuit
oscillator comprising means forming a pair of
opposed metallic surfaces providing capacity for
10 said resonant circuit having a pair of opposing
6. A short wave spark resonant tank circuit
oscillator comprising means forming a pair of op
spark electrodes projecting centrally from said
surfaces, one from each surface, the inductance
posed metallic surfaces providing capacity for
of the metallic path around the surfaces with the 1
projecting electrodes as the center and said
said resonant circuit having a pair of opposing
vspark electrodes projecting centrally from said
surfaces, one from each surface, the inductance
of the metallic path around the surfaces with the
projecting electrodes as the center and said
capacity providing the tuning and resonant fre
quency of the oscillator, means insulating said
metallic surfaces from each other, and means
forming a chamber enclosing said spark elec-i
trodes, said chamber being partially exhausted
of air,
'7. A short wave spark resonant tank circuit
oscillator comprising ‘means forming a pair of
opposed metallic surfaces providing capacity for
said resonant circuit having a pair of opposing
spark electrodes projecting centrally from said
capacity providing the tuning and resonant fre
quency of the oscillator, and means insulating
said metallic surfaces from each other, said
means forming said opposed metallic surfaces
having an axis of symmetry of substantially a
half wave length at the frequency to be trans
mitted or received.
9. A short wave spark tank circuit oscillator
comprising a pair of metallic surfaces of revol
ution having aligned axes and arranged within
small ends facing each other having spark elec
trodes at their apices, conductive means having
a surface surrounding the surfaces of revolution
opposed and spaced near thereto and insulating
means supporting said surfaces and said means in
surfaces, one from each surface, the inductance 30 saidv opposed and spaced relation to each other.
HUGO BENIOFF.
of the metallic path around the surfaces with the
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