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Патент USA US2408408

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Y Oct-1,1946.
1 I w
H. BENVIOFF
'
2,408,407
A, HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS
Filed July 10, 1942 .
VINVENTORI -
BY Hucso BENIOFF
(WM M '
ATTORNEY
‘
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
2,408,407
UNITED ‘ STATES PATENT
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HIGH-FREQUENCY
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2,408,407"
APPARATUS
OFFICE -
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.l-’?ugo .Benioff, Ila-Canada,'.'Caiif., assignor, by.
'
mesne assignments, ‘to Submarine Signal Come .
pany, Boston, Mass, a corporation of Delaware
ApplicationJuly 10, 1942-, Serial No. 450,451 1
.11 Claims.
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1.
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(011315-39)v '
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' The present invention relates to apparatus for
producing ultra high-frequency - electromagnetic
waves and relates-more particularly to short-wave
ment. The» plates I and 2 are supported by insu-i.
lating. discs 5 and 6, respectively, which'at their.
radio transmitters in a frequency range of 150 .,
inegacycles and higher.
‘The present invention is an improvement-oi my
peripheries are held against the clamping cylin-.~
ders ‘I by means of the clamping rings 8v and. 9
which may be held by screws I0 and II to the
copending 7 applications Serial No. 362,434, ?led
clamping cylinder, ‘which ‘screws may bev spaced
around the rings. Centrally~located and 'sup-f
October 2v3-,l940,-,serial;No. 391,153, ?led April 30,
1,941,} and‘ Serial. No;1432,293, ?led February 25,v
ing disc I2. Theelements Sand 6 and I6 may.__‘
ported by the cylindrical ring ‘I is a thin insulat
1942; ~» In thelast oi-these- applications a spark; 10 all .be of mica orfsome. other suitable material hav-~
tank circuit is shown in which there‘is used two‘
ing highinsulating qualities.v (The disc l2, which
centrally located therein.
isrcent‘rally spaced between the innersurfaces of’
the plates I and 2, has .a'centrally- located perfo-.
closelyspaced plates with thesparking electrodes
The present invention relatesto' the‘same gen
ration I3 into which the points-of the electrodes 3'
9 oral apparatus and v?nds its chief improvement 15 and '4 may slightly project; The plates l and .2
and advantage in that a greater'amount of power
may be mounted and held tofthe mica discs 5 and.
can be more'readily handled "than 'in the .former'
6 by means of suitable shortscrewsv I4, 14' and.
embodiment.» In the present application a direct
I 5, I5, although any other suitable means for at_--v
current polarizing voltage is employed which, it
taching the plates‘ to‘the- discsv 5 and 6 may be
appears, prevents a premature discharge across 20 employed. The plates I and 2_make good electri-‘
the sparking electrodes’ and permits the voltage.
cal contact with rearwardly projecting members
between, plates‘ to rise to a higher value before
(‘I and I8 which maybe formedas a part of the.
breakdown of the gapwith a resulting storage‘ of
conducting‘cylindersv I9 .and 20, respectively. The
increased amount of energy‘for liberation during
~elements I1 and I8‘ are also of highly conductive
the. discharge of the gap.. .t .. . .
l
material. .Thewhole system, comprising the cyl
_ The presentinvention is "further simpli?ed in
inders I9 and 29, theconnecting elements ‘ll and
that in this form it is unnecessary to provide aux-.
I8, the plates I and 2 withtheir projecting elec-1
trodes 3_and 4, forms both the spark tank circuitl
iliary sparking electrodes.
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' A further advantage obtained in the present
invention is that the resonant oscillatory circuit
and
I Within'the.
the radiating
cylinders
circuit.‘
I9 and 20,
. ._respectively,
- - ~ '
__ are.
I
is coupled more ef?ciently to the radiator and that
telescopic cylindrical elements» I94 and 20'v which,
may be extended beyond theledge of’ the. cylinders-I
I 9 and 20 to increase the e?fective antenna length‘;
the radiator functionsmore ef?cientlyin the radi
ationof electromagnetic power.
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, The applicant believes, but he is not certain,
. and adjust for tuning of the system; These.tele-'
from studies and tests of-the present invention 35 scopic cylinders. I 9% and 20"‘maybe omitted where.
that after the discharge across thespark gap, the
the antenna length is de?nitely- determined and.
oscillatorycircuit establishes itself ‘with the op-~
no tuning adjustment is required.
‘ ' ..
_
posed plates as a capacity and-the radiators ex
tending therefrom as resonant quarter wave
Initially the voltage is built up between
plates l and 2 until a breakdown occurs in
length elements forming a one-half wave length 40 region between the electrodes 3 and 4 and
radiating system. 7
. V
perforation I3 in the disc l2. The electrodes
, Other constructional features and advantages
will be more- fully appreciated and’ understood."
from the description contained in the speci?cation below when taken in connection with the 45
drawingd'in which Fig. 1 shows aicentral section’
through the apparatus and the operating wiring
diagram connected therewith, and Fig. 2 shows
an end View. of the apparatus shown in Fig.1.
In'Figl the apparatuscomprises .two opposed
conductive plate members I and 2 with centrally.
with the points of the electrodes in actual align
spaced apart’ a distance determined by the maxi-3
mum available potential atbreakdown. ,As ‘an.
illustration in one case with breakdown occurring.
with 21,000 volts between plates, the spacing was‘
.050 of an inch for the point electrodes. . Before.
the breakdownoccursthe. energy is storedup in'
the tank circuit with extreme stresses occurring
between ‘the plates ‘I and 2. Breakdown of the
50
located electrodes preferably‘ of tungsten or other .
suitable material 3 and limounted and projecting I
from the opposing ‘sur‘iacesi'of‘the plates ‘I and 2
the
the
the
are
spark releases energy stored in the-capacity of
theetank circuit and sets up oscillations. in the‘ I
tank circuit which is coupled with the antenna,’
thus providing means for radiating power.
Under normal conditions there is present. in.‘
the gap enough ions to bring about a breakdown‘
2,408,407
3
4
ing sheet positioned midway between the faces of
said two plates, said insulating sheet having a
perforation in alignment with said electrodes.
between the sparking electrodes 3 and 4 at rela
tively low voltages. By the use of a direct cur
rent polarizing voltage the free ions remaining
2. In an ultra short wave oscillatory spark
in the gap after discharge are cleaned out, thus
increasing the potential at which discharge oc- 5 circuit, in combination, two ?at plates spaced
with their face surfaces in closely opposed rela
curs. This polarizing potential must be direct
tionship with each other, electrodes centrally
current or timed low frequency pulses of a suf
positioned in opposing relationship .on said plates
and-facing Ieachrother, means comprising insu
impulse potential is built up to a peak in the 10 lating discs attached to the backs of said plates,
an insulating sheet positioned midway between
neighborhood of 20,000 volts between the plates,..
the
faces of said two plates, said insulating sheet
an initial application of 500 to 2500 volts D. CI
having. aperforation in alignment with said elec
will sweep the space between electizodesmfreezofi.”
trodesand means supporting said insulating discs
such ions. By this means a voltageconsiderahly
higher than that which could normallyjbemaine- 151, and isheetsin‘ para-Her positions with each other.
3'..An.ultra.-sliort. wave oscillatory spark cir
tained may be reached betweemjheel'ectrodes
cuit comprising-two flat plates spaced with their
before a breakdown occurs. The mica disc l2
facesurfacesirrc-losely opposed relationship with
which is centrally located betweenzplatessl'iandri
each other, electrodes centrally positioned in op
=2 prevents breakdown at points other .thansthe.
gap in the space between. the plates due to stray ' 20 posing relationship on said plates and facing each
other, means insulatingly supporting said plates
ions not. removed by the direct current poten
in'sai’d'position'» and'acondncti-ng'shell ‘supported
tial‘; ThB.‘thlGkI’iESS"Of the micaplate should‘
?cient value.to effect the desiredcleaning .out,
of the space .betweemthe‘electrodes: . Wherethe
to the ‘backrof ‘i each of ‘said ‘plates iii-‘conducting
preferably ' be ‘ small‘ ' compared’ to the“ spacing
relationship therewith; saidv conducting shell hav-'
The circuit for .operatingtheioscillator' includes 25 ing a<longitudinal dimension adjusted for the
desired resonance in the oscillator-circuit.
an impulse transformer‘ T1; the *primary'of which
4'; In‘ an’ ultra short wave-Y oscillatory spark cir
is'energizedby a. gaseous"tube""2l‘*wh'ich has ‘a
cuit’; in'combinationj, two flat plates spaced‘with
cathode, anode and ‘control electrode. A triggere
their face-surfaces in closely opposed‘ relation
ing'impulse maybe impressed ‘between the oath
betweerrrplatesr
ode'and the control electrode‘ in'a‘ manner simi- 30 ship ‘:w-ith-eacli‘ other, electrodes- centrally‘ posi
tibned in opposing? relationship’ on said plates
and‘ facing ‘each' other, means iinsulatingly sup
porting
said plates in said-position; an insulating"
condenserxCiis charged'from a source 22 through‘
sheet‘ positioned midway between‘the faces‘ of
a'resis'tor R1‘ when the ‘thyratrontif is in 'a'non
condu'ctingtconditiont . When the gaseousptube 35 saidtLtwo-plates; said’ insulating sheet having a
perforation- in ' alignment with said electrodes,
21 'isxendered conduct'r‘ng'b'y ‘the-action of the
and’ ‘means providing a direct'current ' potential
triggeripulse'on'its ‘grid; the :ch'arge'on' C'z passes
between ‘said'plates for sweeping‘out the free ions'
through 'the‘primarywf the transformerTi in
lar. to ‘that ‘described 'inrmy copen'ding': applica
tiomSerial‘ 'N'o; 432,293‘referred‘to above. The
to “prevent " a‘premature discharge between said ‘
the form; of ‘a‘sh'ortipulse: The output of ‘the
secondary is‘ impressedl'upon the ‘plates of'the 40 electrodes.
51? In an ultra shortwave 'oscillatory'spark cire
cuit, in' combination, two ?at'plates spaced with.
chosen as to charge the plates-in a.few. microe
theirface surfaces in closelyopposed ‘relationship,
seconds; Chokeslal‘aarme?ective. at the 'oscil-'
with eaclr other, electrodes ‘centrally positioned.
lator frequency" (which may,;. for "instance; be
600"megacycles)'. Ch‘okes'23. are oijhigher‘ in- 4 in"v opposingrela'tionshipon‘ said plates and fac
tank'circui't. . Theconstants'of thecircuit‘ ‘are vso
ing each other, means insulatingly ‘ supporting
ductan'cerandi ‘are effective‘ at . charging impulse;
saidi ‘plates in said position and: means providing.
frequencies. In order-.to be. effective .at ultra
high" frequencies the windingsv of "L2 are wound of.
a‘di'rect current potential between said: plates for.
removing ions to, prevent apremature discharge
very ?ne wire on a core;.of ‘smallldia'meter; and
with appreciably spaced?turns'. There ‘is als'oin 50
the. circuitlwith" the itransforrrreiwaw condenser '03
acrossithe‘ terminals ofjwhich the'direct polariz-v
ing Tvoltage '24""is applied." This "polarizing-volt‘
between said electrodes;
‘
6.~'~'An ultra shortwaveoscillatory, spark cir
cuit-comprisingtwo-?at plates spaced witl'rth‘eir.
face-surfaces-irrcloselyopposed relationship with
each other, electrodes centrally positioned in op
age/is ‘applied ‘through a ‘high resistance
The ‘source 24 maybe applied through‘the whole 55 posing?‘ relationship on said plates‘ and facing.
each- other; means 'insulatingly supporting said.
period ot'operati‘onasidesiredxand the impulse
plates“ in 'sai'dposition, a ‘conducting ‘shell sup
voltage generated-by" the ~transformer Ti willbe
porteditothe
back’ of each'of' said plates in con
superimposed upon this‘ polarizing voltage during‘
ducirig' relationship‘ therewith, said conducting
the‘ charge‘ of'the‘tank circuit. The action of
the“ polarizing voltage‘ is‘ suchiithat 'upon dis; 60 shell ‘ having a longitudinal ' dimension adjusted .
forith‘e desired resonance in: the oscillator cir
charge'zof the tankcircuit a normal uniform volt
cuit, and means providing a direct‘ current poten
age isquicklyiprovided across'the' space between
tialabetween said plates for sweeping out the free
the' plates, thus‘icausin'g ‘the .- positive ions re
ions after'a discharge has-occurred betweenv said.
maining in" the'space to travel to" the’ negative‘
electrodes.
plate 'and'the negative‘ ions to travel 110 the .posi-'
7.’ An: ultra short wave oscillatory spark circuit
tiveplate. This red'ucesthe. number :of' ionsgi'n
comprising two'flat' plates spaced with their face;
this‘ space;
Havingnow describedjmyinvention, I claim:
‘
I; In an..ultra.short wave oscillatory spark cir-
cuit,. in .combination,. twoi ?atplates spaced with. 70.
their‘ .tacesurfaces in closely... opposed. relation.
ship,,with each’. other, electrodescentr'ally. posi
tioned in opposing._.relati'onship_ on, saidplates.
and facing each‘ other, means insulatingly-sup
surfaces-inv closely‘ ‘opposed relationship with
each' other; ' electrodes centrally'positioned“in"op=
posing irela‘tion‘ship on" said "plates and ‘ facing
each other; means " insulatinglY. ‘supporting _ said
plates in" said position, .a conducting: shell‘ ‘sup;
ported to the backof each of saidplates in con
ductinglelationship therewith,‘ said ‘conducting;
portingjsaid platesin sai'd'position. and‘ an insulate 7'5 shell‘ 'havingj'a- longitudinal" dimension adjusted‘
2,408,407
for the desired resonance in the oscillator circuit,
said conducting shell having a diameter substan
tially as large as the diameter of said plates.
8. An ultra short wave oscillatory'spark cir
cuit comprising two flat plates spaced with their
face surfaces in closely opposed relationship with
each other, electrodes centrally positioned in op
posing relationship on said plates and facing each
other, means insulatingly supporting said plates
in said position and a conducting shell supported
to the back of each of said plates in conducting
having a perforation in alignment withsaid elec
trodes.
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, 10. An ultra short wave oscillatory spark cir
cuit comprising _. elements providing two closely
spaced surfaces in opposed relation to each other,
electrodes centrally located on and projecting to
wards one another from said surfaces, means in
I sulatingly supporting said elements in said posi
'tion and a conducting shell supported to the back
of each of said elements in conducting relation
ship'therewith, said conducting shell having a
relationship therewith, ' said conducting shell
longitudinal dimension adjusted for the desired
having a longitudinal dimension adjusted for the
resonance in the oscillatory circuit.
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11. An ultra short wave oscillatory spark cir
desired resonance in the oscillator circuit, said ‘
cuit comprising elements providing two closely
conducting shell having a diameter substantially
spaced surfaces in opposed relation to each other,
as large as the diameter of said plates, said shell
electrodes centrally located on and projecting to
being supported to said plates at the central sec
wards one another from said surfaces, means
tion of said plates.
insulatingly supporting said elements in said po
9. In an ultra short wave oscillatory spark cir
cuit, in combination, means providing two closely 20 sition, and a conducting shell supported to the
back of each of said elements in conducting rela
spaced surfaces in opposed relation, vwith each
other, electrodes centrally positioned on and pro
jecting towards each other from said opposing
tionship therewith, said conducting shell having
surfaces,
resonance in the oscillatory circuit, said shell
means
insulatingly » supporting said
plates in said position and a mica sheet positioned
in the space midway between said surfaces and
extending parallel to the same, said mica sheet
a longitudinal dimension adjusted for the desired
having a diameter of substantially the same size
as
said elements.
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HUGO BENIOFF.
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