Патент USA US2408408код для вставки
Y Oct-1,1946. 1 I w H. BENVIOFF ' 2,408,407 A, HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS Filed July 10, 1942 . VINVENTORI - BY Hucso BENIOFF (WM M ' ATTORNEY ‘ Patented Oct. 1, 1946 2,408,407 UNITED ‘ STATES PATENT ' ,~~ ' HIGH-FREQUENCY ' 2,408,407" APPARATUS OFFICE - ’ .l-’?ugo .Benioff, Ila-Canada,'.'Caiif., assignor, by. ' mesne assignments, ‘to Submarine Signal Come . pany, Boston, Mass, a corporation of Delaware ApplicationJuly 10, 1942-, Serial No. 450,451 1 .11 Claims. . 1. > - (011315-39)v ' ’ _ _ ' 4 ‘ - ' The present invention relates to apparatus for producing ultra high-frequency - electromagnetic waves and relates-more particularly to short-wave ment. The» plates I and 2 are supported by insu-i. lating. discs 5 and 6, respectively, which'at their. radio transmitters in a frequency range of 150 ., inegacycles and higher. ‘The present invention is an improvement-oi my peripheries are held against the clamping cylin-.~ ders ‘I by means of the clamping rings 8v and. 9 which may be held by screws I0 and II to the copending 7 applications Serial No. 362,434, ?led clamping cylinder, ‘which ‘screws may bev spaced around the rings. Centrally~located and 'sup-f October 2v3-,l940,-,serial;No. 391,153, ?led April 30, 1,941,} and‘ Serial. No;1432,293, ?led February 25,v ing disc I2. Theelements Sand 6 and I6 may.__‘ ported by the cylindrical ring ‘I is a thin insulat 1942; ~» In thelast oi-these- applications a spark; 10 all .be of mica orfsome. other suitable material hav-~ tank circuit is shown in which there‘is used two‘ ing highinsulating qualities.v (The disc l2, which centrally located therein. isrcent‘rally spaced between the innersurfaces of’ the plates I and 2, has .a'centrally- located perfo-. closelyspaced plates with thesparking electrodes The present invention relatesto' the‘same gen ration I3 into which the points-of the electrodes 3' 9 oral apparatus and v?nds its chief improvement 15 and '4 may slightly project; The plates l and .2 and advantage in that a greater'amount of power may be mounted and held tofthe mica discs 5 and. can be more'readily handled "than 'in the .former' 6 by means of suitable shortscrewsv I4, 14' and. embodiment.» In the present application a direct I 5, I5, although any other suitable means for at_--v current polarizing voltage is employed which, it taching the plates‘ to‘the- discsv 5 and 6 may be appears, prevents a premature discharge across 20 employed. The plates I and 2_make good electri-‘ the sparking electrodes’ and permits the voltage. cal contact with rearwardly projecting members between, plates‘ to rise to a higher value before (‘I and I8 which maybe formedas a part of the. breakdown of the gapwith a resulting storage‘ of conducting‘cylindersv I9 .and 20, respectively. The increased amount of energy‘for liberation during ~elements I1 and I8‘ are also of highly conductive the. discharge of the gap.. .t .. . . l material. .Thewhole system, comprising the cyl _ The presentinvention is "further simpli?ed in inders I9 and 29, theconnecting elements ‘ll and that in this form it is unnecessary to provide aux-. I8, the plates I and 2 withtheir projecting elec-1 trodes 3_and 4, forms both the spark tank circuitl iliary sparking electrodes. . , r - ~1 > ~ 7 ' A further advantage obtained in the present invention is that the resonant oscillatory circuit and I Within'the. the radiating cylinders circuit.‘ I9 and 20, . ._respectively, - - ~ ' __ are. I is coupled more ef?ciently to the radiator and that telescopic cylindrical elements» I94 and 20'v which, may be extended beyond theledge of’ the. cylinders-I I 9 and 20 to increase the e?fective antenna length‘; the radiator functionsmore ef?cientlyin the radi ationof electromagnetic power. " > , The applicant believes, but he is not certain, . and adjust for tuning of the system; These.tele-' from studies and tests of-the present invention 35 scopic cylinders. I 9% and 20"‘maybe omitted where. that after the discharge across thespark gap, the the antenna length is de?nitely- determined and. oscillatorycircuit establishes itself ‘with the op-~ no tuning adjustment is required. ‘ ' .. _ posed plates as a capacity and-the radiators ex tending therefrom as resonant quarter wave Initially the voltage is built up between plates l and 2 until a breakdown occurs in length elements forming a one-half wave length 40 region between the electrodes 3 and 4 and radiating system. 7 . V perforation I3 in the disc l2. The electrodes , Other constructional features and advantages will be more- fully appreciated and’ understood." from the description contained in the speci?cation below when taken in connection with the 45 drawingd'in which Fig. 1 shows aicentral section’ through the apparatus and the operating wiring diagram connected therewith, and Fig. 2 shows an end View. of the apparatus shown in Fig.1. In'Figl the apparatuscomprises .two opposed conductive plate members I and 2 with centrally. with the points of the electrodes in actual align spaced apart’ a distance determined by the maxi-3 mum available potential atbreakdown. ,As ‘an. illustration in one case with breakdown occurring. with 21,000 volts between plates, the spacing was‘ .050 of an inch for the point electrodes. . Before. the breakdownoccursthe. energy is storedup in' the tank circuit with extreme stresses occurring between ‘the plates ‘I and 2. Breakdown of the 50 located electrodes preferably‘ of tungsten or other . suitable material 3 and limounted and projecting I from the opposing ‘sur‘iacesi'of‘the plates ‘I and 2 the the the are spark releases energy stored in the-capacity of theetank circuit and sets up oscillations. in the‘ I tank circuit which is coupled with the antenna,’ thus providing means for radiating power. Under normal conditions there is present. in.‘ the gap enough ions to bring about a breakdown‘ 2,408,407 3 4 ing sheet positioned midway between the faces of said two plates, said insulating sheet having a perforation in alignment with said electrodes. between the sparking electrodes 3 and 4 at rela tively low voltages. By the use of a direct cur rent polarizing voltage the free ions remaining 2. In an ultra short wave oscillatory spark in the gap after discharge are cleaned out, thus increasing the potential at which discharge oc- 5 circuit, in combination, two ?at plates spaced with their face surfaces in closely opposed rela curs. This polarizing potential must be direct tionship with each other, electrodes centrally current or timed low frequency pulses of a suf positioned in opposing relationship .on said plates and-facing Ieachrother, means comprising insu impulse potential is built up to a peak in the 10 lating discs attached to the backs of said plates, an insulating sheet positioned midway between neighborhood of 20,000 volts between the plates,.. the faces of said two plates, said insulating sheet an initial application of 500 to 2500 volts D. CI having. aperforation in alignment with said elec will sweep the space between electizodesmfreezofi.” trodesand means supporting said insulating discs such ions. By this means a voltageconsiderahly higher than that which could normallyjbemaine- 151, and isheetsin‘ para-Her positions with each other. 3'..An.ultra.-sliort. wave oscillatory spark cir tained may be reached betweemjheel'ectrodes cuit comprising-two flat plates spaced with their before a breakdown occurs. The mica disc l2 facesurfacesirrc-losely opposed relationship with which is centrally located betweenzplatessl'iandri each other, electrodes centrally positioned in op =2 prevents breakdown at points other .thansthe. gap in the space between. the plates due to stray ' 20 posing relationship on said plates and facing each other, means insulatingly supporting said plates ions not. removed by the direct current poten in'sai’d'position'» and'acondncti-ng'shell ‘supported tial‘; ThB.‘thlGkI’iESS"Of the micaplate should‘ ?cient value.to effect the desiredcleaning .out, of the space .betweemthe‘electrodes: . Wherethe to the ‘backrof ‘i each of ‘said ‘plates iii-‘conducting preferably ' be ‘ small‘ ' compared’ to the“ spacing relationship therewith; saidv conducting shell hav-' The circuit for .operatingtheioscillator' includes 25 ing a<longitudinal dimension adjusted for the desired resonance in the oscillator-circuit. an impulse transformer‘ T1; the *primary'of which 4'; In‘ an’ ultra short wave-Y oscillatory spark cir is'energizedby a. gaseous"tube""2l‘*wh'ich has ‘a cuit’; in'combinationj, two flat plates spaced‘with cathode, anode and ‘control electrode. A triggere their face-surfaces in closely opposed‘ relation ing'impulse maybe impressed ‘between the oath betweerrrplatesr ode'and the control electrode‘ in'a‘ manner simi- 30 ship ‘:w-ith-eacli‘ other, electrodes- centrally‘ posi tibned in opposing? relationship’ on said plates and‘ facing ‘each' other, means iinsulatingly sup porting said plates in said-position; an insulating" condenserxCiis charged'from a source 22 through‘ sheet‘ positioned midway between‘the faces‘ of a'resis'tor R1‘ when the ‘thyratrontif is in 'a'non condu'ctingtconditiont . When the gaseousptube 35 saidtLtwo-plates; said’ insulating sheet having a perforation- in ' alignment with said electrodes, 21 'isxendered conduct'r‘ng'b'y ‘the-action of the and’ ‘means providing a direct'current ' potential triggeripulse'on'its ‘grid; the :ch'arge'on' C'z passes between ‘said'plates for sweeping‘out the free ions' through 'the‘primarywf the transformerTi in lar. to ‘that ‘described 'inrmy copen'ding': applica tiomSerial‘ 'N'o; 432,293‘referred‘to above. The to “prevent " a‘premature discharge between said ‘ the form; of ‘a‘sh'ortipulse: The output of ‘the secondary is‘ impressedl'upon the ‘plates of'the 40 electrodes. 51? In an ultra shortwave 'oscillatory'spark cire cuit, in' combination, two ?at'plates spaced with. chosen as to charge the plates-in a.few. microe theirface surfaces in closelyopposed ‘relationship, seconds; Chokeslal‘aarme?ective. at the 'oscil-' with eaclr other, electrodes ‘centrally positioned. lator frequency" (which may,;. for "instance; be 600"megacycles)'. Ch‘okes'23. are oijhigher‘ in- 4 in"v opposingrela'tionshipon‘ said plates and fac tank'circui't. . Theconstants'of thecircuit‘ ‘are vso ing each other, means insulatingly ‘ supporting ductan'cerandi ‘are effective‘ at . charging impulse; saidi ‘plates in said position and: means providing. frequencies. In order-.to be. effective .at ultra high" frequencies the windingsv of "L2 are wound of. a‘di'rect current potential between said: plates for. removing ions to, prevent apremature discharge very ?ne wire on a core;.of ‘smallldia'meter; and with appreciably spaced?turns'. There ‘is als'oin 50 the. circuitlwith" the itransforrrreiwaw condenser '03 acrossithe‘ terminals ofjwhich the'direct polariz-v ing Tvoltage '24""is applied." This "polarizing-volt‘ between said electrodes; ‘ 6.~'~'An ultra shortwaveoscillatory, spark cir cuit-comprisingtwo-?at plates spaced witl'rth‘eir. face-surfaces-irrcloselyopposed relationship with each other, electrodes centrally positioned in op age/is ‘applied ‘through a ‘high resistance The ‘source 24 maybe applied through‘the whole 55 posing?‘ relationship on said plates‘ and facing. each- other; means 'insulatingly supporting said. period ot'operati‘onasidesiredxand the impulse plates“ in 'sai'dposition, a ‘conducting ‘shell sup voltage generated-by" the ~transformer Ti willbe porteditothe back’ of each'of' said plates in con superimposed upon this‘ polarizing voltage during‘ ducirig' relationship‘ therewith, said conducting the‘ charge‘ of'the‘tank circuit. The action of the“ polarizing voltage‘ is‘ suchiithat 'upon dis; 60 shell ‘ having a longitudinal ' dimension adjusted . forith‘e desired resonance in: the oscillator cir charge'zof the tankcircuit a normal uniform volt cuit, and means providing a direct‘ current poten age isquicklyiprovided across'the' space between tialabetween said plates for sweeping out the free the' plates, thus‘icausin'g ‘the .- positive ions re ions after'a discharge has-occurred betweenv said. maining in" the'space to travel to" the’ negative‘ electrodes. plate 'and'the negative‘ ions to travel 110 the .posi-' 7.’ An: ultra short wave oscillatory spark circuit tiveplate. This red'ucesthe. number :of' ionsgi'n comprising two'flat' plates spaced with their face; this‘ space; Havingnow describedjmyinvention, I claim: ‘ I; In an..ultra.short wave oscillatory spark cir- cuit,. in .combination,. twoi ?atplates spaced with. 70. their‘ .tacesurfaces in closely... opposed. relation. ship,,with each’. other, electrodescentr'ally. posi tioned in opposing._.relati'onship_ on, saidplates. and facing each‘ other, means insulatingly-sup surfaces-inv closely‘ ‘opposed relationship with each' other; ' electrodes centrally'positioned“in"op= posing irela‘tion‘ship on" said "plates and ‘ facing each other; means " insulatinglY. ‘supporting _ said plates in" said position, .a conducting: shell‘ ‘sup; ported to the backof each of saidplates in con ductinglelationship therewith,‘ said ‘conducting; portingjsaid platesin sai'd'position. and‘ an insulate 7'5 shell‘ 'havingj'a- longitudinal" dimension adjusted‘ 2,408,407 for the desired resonance in the oscillator circuit, said conducting shell having a diameter substan tially as large as the diameter of said plates. 8. An ultra short wave oscillatory'spark cir cuit comprising two flat plates spaced with their face surfaces in closely opposed relationship with each other, electrodes centrally positioned in op posing relationship on said plates and facing each other, means insulatingly supporting said plates in said position and a conducting shell supported to the back of each of said plates in conducting having a perforation in alignment withsaid elec trodes. - Y ' I , 10. An ultra short wave oscillatory spark cir cuit comprising _. elements providing two closely spaced surfaces in opposed relation to each other, electrodes centrally located on and projecting to wards one another from said surfaces, means in I sulatingly supporting said elements in said posi 'tion and a conducting shell supported to the back of each of said elements in conducting relation ship'therewith, said conducting shell having a relationship therewith, ' said conducting shell longitudinal dimension adjusted for the desired having a longitudinal dimension adjusted for the resonance in the oscillatory circuit. ' 11. An ultra short wave oscillatory spark cir desired resonance in the oscillator circuit, said ‘ cuit comprising elements providing two closely conducting shell having a diameter substantially spaced surfaces in opposed relation to each other, as large as the diameter of said plates, said shell electrodes centrally located on and projecting to being supported to said plates at the central sec wards one another from said surfaces, means tion of said plates. insulatingly supporting said elements in said po 9. In an ultra short wave oscillatory spark cir cuit, in combination, means providing two closely 20 sition, and a conducting shell supported to the back of each of said elements in conducting rela spaced surfaces in opposed relation, vwith each other, electrodes centrally positioned on and pro jecting towards each other from said opposing tionship therewith, said conducting shell having surfaces, resonance in the oscillatory circuit, said shell means insulatingly » supporting said plates in said position and a mica sheet positioned in the space midway between said surfaces and extending parallel to the same, said mica sheet a longitudinal dimension adjusted for the desired having a diameter of substantially the same size as said elements. ' v v - , HUGO BENIOFF.