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Oct. 1, 1946.
-
J. w. CLARK
2,408,410
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
Filed Julie 19, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Q,
NV N
JIWECLARK
0d- 1, 1946'
J. w, CLARK
I
FREQUENCY CONVERTER‘
Filed June 19, 1941
:25
164 m
' 2,408,410
v
2 Sheets-Sheet- 2 '
7
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
2,408,410
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52,408,410-
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'‘ FREQUENCY ooivvitarr'za
JohnW. Clark,'Chatham, N: J.,>assiaom Beu
.
.Telephone
_ ._ ,York,
Laboratories, _ Incorporated,
‘New
vYea corporation Qf‘INCWJYOIK ‘
'Application June 19, 1941‘, ‘Serial No‘; ‘398,757,
‘
.
>
1 Claims.
(01.31545) ‘
7
‘
modi?ed in‘accordance' lwith?the'iinvention, shown
This invention relatesto modulating system for
ultra-high frequency ' electromagnetic, waves and
partially‘cut away;
. ,
Figs.- 1A} and 1B show-alternativedetails which
currents and is, particularlylapplicable towaves
may be substituted in the'arrangementlof Fig. v1.;
a few centimeters or less'inwave-length. The in
'Fig.'2' is an end vview’of ‘thelstructure ofIFig.
vention relates more especially to afrequency
1, shown partially cut away;
converter, ‘mixer,’ or ‘?rst detector in a super
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Fig. 3 is a schematic-diagram
hetero'dyne'radio receiving system.
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of a superhetero
' dyne-radio receiver embodying the invention; "and
the .
‘ _An object of the invention ‘is to simplify
_
Fig.vv 3A shows an- alternative coupling arrange-1
ment which maybe‘ substituted for a portion of
construction and operation ofw'a superheterodyne
radio receiver adapted for usein the ultra-lush
the circuit showninFigJi.
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Referring to the drawings,v there is shown in
' A feature of the-inventionis .a compact means
Figs.»
1 and 2 a resonant cavity oscillator of the
for introducing a receivedqsign'al wave into the
electron velocity variation type‘ such as is dis
interior ofha hollow resonator inhan ultra-high
closed in application Serial No. 386,794 ?led April .
frequency electron velocity variation type of os 15 4,1941, by A._E. Anderson and‘A. L. Samuel and
cillator to effect frequency conversion with no
assigned to’ the assignee ofthe present applica
substantial disturban-ce‘__tovv the normal operation
tion. , My oscillator structure herein disclosed
of the oscillator and with high e?iciency of con
includes certain modi?cations to accommodate
the introduction ‘of waves intercepted by a doublet
20
Another feature. of the invention resides in
antenna l, or other-‘ineans'of intercepting ultra
impressing the received signal-modulated wave
high frequency po'wen The respective vbranches
between the drift tube and the adjacent, elec-:
of the antenna'or other’ interceptor‘are connect
trodes in a'single cavity type of oscillator, ef
ed with the‘vouter conductor :2‘ and inner con‘
fectively across. the. input .and- ‘output ,gaps, in 25 ductor 3‘Yof -" a‘ suitable coaxial ‘transmission line,
The line‘ 2, '3 preferably has two branches, one'of
frequency range;
version.
parallel.»
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1 lnaccordance with the invention, the beating
which; compris'ing‘an outer conductor 4 and an
innerconductor15, is an adjustable tuning stub.v
locity variations, operated substantially in the
The other branch, comprising "an outer conductor
normal ‘manner, and provision is made for im 30 6 and 'an inner conductor "lfis ?tted through an
pressing the incoming signal modulated wave
aperture in the semicylindrical casing section 2| ,
oscillator is of a type-employing electron ve
substantially simultaneously across the input and
output gaps e?ectively in parallel. A velocity
of the ‘Anderson-Samuel oscillator. Throughout
the drawings-the elements which are the same ‘as
corresponding elements in the Anderson-Samuel
variation in accordance'with the'incorning wave
is superposed uponthe velocity variation due to ‘ . oscillator have been given'the same reference nu
The velocity variedielec- '
tron stream- isthen subjected to ‘ a‘ conversion
the local oscillations.
process to develop density variations. ‘Anynonr
linearity in the conversion ‘process will result in
thejappearance of modulation components, for.
example, sum and difference frequencies, in the
density variations. To 'secure'airelatively low
intermediatev frequency, the difference, frequency
component maybe utilized. vThe modulation
componentsmay be developed; at the collector
electrode in various ways, as, for‘example, by‘
40
operating the collector at a-retarding' potential
adjusted‘to turn backthe slower moving elec
meral‘as in the drawings of the Anderson-Sam
uel‘a'pplication? The cylindrical insulating en
velope lll'of‘theoscillator, for example,‘ a glass
tube, encloses 'an electron v‘gun shown generally’
at» llg'togethe'rvwith ‘an electron collecting elec
trode or“ collector 'IZ. Between‘the electrongun
II and theicollecto‘r lz'there are sealed into and
through the walls of‘the envelope In a pair of
disc members'fj3 and M formed respectively into
- protruding, approximately conical" electrodes l5
and I6‘, coaxial with'the electron gunand pro
vided withralignedapertures at their respective
apices for'the passage-therethrough of’ an elec
trons; Alternately, the collector electrode may be
tron streami'or beam’ from the electron gun.
VA‘
a substantially ?eld-free‘drift space may be ‘pro
axially mounted between the electrodes l5 and I6
and has aligned apertures at‘ its ends for them
operated at an electron'accelerating 'potential'or . 50'. tube l1, referred to herein'as the drift tube, is
vided .in‘which bunching' ofithe :electrons ‘may. 7
take place in any suitable manner.
:Inthe drawings:
,
.
,
l
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>
1
»Fig. 1 is a‘perspective .viewiof" an'oscillator
trance ‘and exit of the electron beam. ' The'elec
trodes l5 and I6, in cooperation with the respec-
tive adjacent‘ ends of the disc 'tube'l'l, form a pair
2,408,410
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it
of gaps l8 and I9 which will be referred to re-~
spectively as the input gap and the output gap.
mg electrode 5| for forming the electrons emitted
from the cathode 49 into a conical beam in co
The discs l3 and I4 and the drift tube I‘! are
operation with the shape of the cathode may be
preferably of highly conductive material, for ex
provided in the vicinity of the cathode as shown
ample, copper. The discs l3 and M are her
metically sealed into and through the walls of
the tube | 0 by any suitable process or form of
seal, for example, a copper-glass seal.‘ The drift
tube H has attached to it a conductive rod 20, by
which it is supported in position and by means 10
schematically in the ?gure. The electrode 5| is
preferably electrically connected with the
of which electrical contact may be made from the '
exterior of the envelope Ill. The conductor 20 is
sealed into and through the Wall of the envelope
l0 through a glass bead or ‘other. suitable her-4
metic seal. Alternatively, three supporting rods
cathode. An accelerating electrode 52 serves to
regulate the beam current and in conjunction
with the shaping electrode 5| to focus the beam
at approximately the center of the input gap l8.
One side of the heating element 50 may be con
nected to the cathode Within the tube ID and
brought ‘out of the tube by means of the com
mon lead 53. ‘In that case, the lead 53, together
Withithe remaining'heater lead 54 and a lead 55
‘H, 12 and 13 may be employed as shown i'n'rFig.
from the accelerating electrode 52 constitute
the external connections from the electron gun.
The'remaining electrical connections to the oscil
lator comprise a lead 56 connected with the walls
tube I‘! in any suitable manner as, for example, 20 of the resonant chamber, which lead 55 may
by means of the rod 20,0rby one of the “rods 1|,
conveniently be grounded or connected with the
12 and 73 shown in Fig. 1A, or by=connectionto
mounting .plate, and a lead?lconnected to the
the-disc electrode 14 of Fig. 1B. The outer con
collector l2. The leads '53,‘! 54, 55' and .51 are
1A, or the drift tube may be supported by-a disc 1
electrode 14 as shown in Fig. 1B. vThe inner con
ductor '| is conductively connected to the drift
ductor 6 is conductively connected to-the casing
brought out through ‘the walls of the tube Ill-in
2| ‘as by means of a snug frictional engagement
suitable presses or scale.
or in other suitable manner.
_
4 _
The tuning stub comprising the outer con
ductor 4'and inner conductor 5 may beadjusted
by-means of an annular piston 8 ‘of conductive
sources of biasing potential andheating-current
are shown schematically in‘Fig. 3. 58 is apower
transformer or other source of suitable current
material connected by rods or other suitable
means with a knob 9.
_
for operating the heating element 50. The lead
53 is connected to the negative terminal of a
biasing battery or other source of biasing poten
tial '59. The lead ‘55 from the accelerating elec
trode 52 is connecte'di't'o the variable contactor
of a potentiometer 50,, one of- the two poten
tiom'eters '60 andv 'Iil connected in shunt across
the battery 59. The lead '55 from the resonator
_ 7
Inthe oscillator,v the ,discs |3- and>7|4 form a
portion ofthe walls of the resonant chamber or
cavity resonator together with thecasing" sec
tions Z‘I and 22, which sections'?t closely to
gether and are provided withv milled semiannular
surfaces 23'and 24,respectively, which ?ts snugly
inside the edges of the disc members |-3 and M.
A pair‘of cylindrical ‘collars 25 and '26, of mag
netic material, provided with flanges Z'Iand 28,
respectively, are placed over the tube 10- and
_
The interconnections of the tube with suitable
.
is connected to the variable contaotor of the
potentiometer l0 and maybe grounded. I‘f- de
40
sired, the potentiometers 60 and 10 may be
replacedlby asing'le vpotentiometer "with two ‘con
against the outer surfaces of the respective disc
tacts, either ‘or both'c'f which contacts may v‘in
members |3and M. 70m one-side ofvthewcasin'g
some cases be‘?xed.
_
a ring 6| and-screws “are provided so that
The head" 51 from-the collector 12" is ‘connected
when the screws are tightenedithe disc ;| ~3~and 45 to the common ‘terminal of'a‘ resistor 80 and
?ange 21>are clamped securely between thering
BI and surfaces 23 and 24 on the casing.» A
a condenser 8|, the remaining terminalj‘of'the
condenser ‘being ‘ connected 'to "one of‘ the input
similar ring, 62 and screws 29 ‘are- provided on
terminals of an intermediatefrequency amplifier
theotherside of the casing. ,
82'. The remaining input “terminal ‘of “the ‘ amplie
v, A plurality of plungers, in the formof-screws 50 ?er 8-2? is preferably‘ grounded. The remaining
3,4, 35, 36 and 31, are threaded into the walls
of the‘casin'g sections 2| ‘and 22 for altering the
size and shape of the resonant cavityfor tuning
purposes.
.
terminal of‘ the resistor 385 is connected-"to a
point in the power "supply circuit, for‘exainp'le;
eitli‘er'to the negative or to-th-eipos-itive terminal
of the battery 59. A switch 5851s shown in‘F‘ig.
A permanent magnet 45 haslpole-pieces'iex 65 3 whereby‘ either o‘fv'the latter-two "connections
tending perpendicular to the main bodyLthe
may/be selected as desired. ‘The I output tenni
pole-pieces, being milled out with cylindrical-de
pressions at 46 and '41 to form a cradle to sup
port the?cylindrical collars 25 andv 26, respec—
tively. The tube assemblyincl-uding the vcollars
n'als \ of‘ the intermediate v‘fr‘eqlie'ncy ampli?er :82
are connected to ‘ithe'input terminals of a‘ de
tector "84:, whi'chis :connecte'dwto ~ a suitable-‘trans
lating device ‘ such as ‘a 1'telephone receiver =85.
is held to thevpermanent magnet by the ; mag
alternative ‘coupling --a‘rran‘gement for ‘use
neticforce and, in addition, the lower half sec
between the ‘collector I2 :and the iintermediate
tion 22 of the casing-may be securedto the middle
frequency. ampli?er :821 is shown 1
Fig. 3 3A - and
portionvjof-the permanent ‘magnet by means of pa‘
may
bei‘sub‘stituted
for
"thezportioniof
the circuit
screw;48. If desired, the magnet“ may be at 65 in Fig. 3: shown ' between: the broken ‘.li'n'e's
.X' and.
tached to a base plate or other mounting in any
Y. In1Fi'g.i3A,:86 is aitransforr'ner suitablefor'
suitable manner. _ .A U-shaped magnet or one of
operation at thedesired intermediatefrequen'cy,
other, suitable shape may be used in placeof-the
as, for ' example, a vspecial ‘ airvv core ‘transformer
one illustrated, or an electromagn'et may be sub
designed for ‘60 megacycl'ea'or‘other convenient
stituted for the permanent'magnet. ,_
70 frequency. The‘ secondary ‘windingrof {the trans
_The electron gun || may be of thetype dis,
former is ‘connected to a coaxial'transmissionline
closed in Figs. ‘3 and 4 of the Anderson-Samuel
81 through a coupling, condenser 88».
As the co
application, comprising adished cathode 49er
axial transmission‘ line will usually; be: of relatively
ranged to rberheated'by a heating element, 50-,»as
low
say 70 ohms, the ‘transformer
shown schematically in ‘Fig. 3 herein. A shape .75 86 ‘isimpedance,
preferably designed'with. .Y'a 'stepdown ‘im
2,468,410
effectedibyia sorting out of the electrons on the
'pedance ‘ratio 'to- match ' the impedance or the V
basis of theirxvelocity, the - f aster electrons enter-'
collector-circuit,.which maybeof'the order of
fill?fliohms'rx.11;_v
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inglthe; collector. .The process is analogous to
If
recti?cation and in aisimilar manner, as in the
‘use‘of a'recti?er' as a modulator or converter;
3'.~In;the operationv‘of theisystem as shown in the
?gures; Ethe oscillator‘? functions to . sustain elec
application, toiwhichreference may be made for
sumland difference frequencies are produced in
the resultant current.‘ The difference frequency
withire'spect‘to the incomingwaves. andthe local
oscillations'is usually. chosen as the intermediate
a; imoreacomplete. description. The introduction
ofii the coaxialtransmission line B, 1 into the
resonating. cavity has substantially no effectiupon
the 'mode ofoperation. in the ‘production of sus
tained ='.os'ci~l1ations.;' Since‘ the ‘conductors of the
line: are substantially .radial. they- rare‘ approxi
the collector circuitcarry theoriginal signal mod
ulationi-asfrec'eivedat the'antenna and the inter
mediate ;freq'uency .icompone'ntlmay be selected,
trdmagnetic waves of. ultra-high frequency. with-.
in‘ithe resonant cavity .in substantially. the same v
manner .asldescribedi .in “the Anderson-Samuel
frequency, in order to take advantage of a rela
tively 1 low frequency in the intermediate fre
quency. ampli?er. - The modulation‘ products in
and, ampli?ed-,4 and-ksubjecteduto .a second detec
tion toreproducesthe original signals as in any
mately? perpendicular ..'to the-lines of electrical
intensity in‘thec‘avity, and, therefore,:do not ma-y
superheterodyne radio receiving system. The in
termediate frequency ampli?er‘82, detector 84
terially alter the con?guration of the ?eld.*The
mainvdifferenceis asmall change‘in theeffective
shape'and-volume of the cavity and a resultant 20 anditranslating'device 85 ‘are not shown in detail,
asthey-maybe of anyzsuitable type... . f ,.
.
difference-g innthe resonating;frequency, ,1 which
., When theswitch, 83 is placed in the upper po
maybe allowed for inithe tdesig‘nxof .the. resonator.
The :function of .the =.oscillator;in ‘the present ar
rangementi's-to establish a'strong electric ?eld of
sition,;the.c‘ollector isconnected to a positive por
tionxof source 59, vor other suitable potential to
provide .1an.~.electron accelerating effect .in the
spacebetween'the output gap [9 and the collector
the‘. :resonant frequency across both, the ,. input
gapE'.rl.8t-and.,the ‘outputgapilll. gThe antenna l,
1.2.. ..Allthe._ electrons, in this case, are drawn to
is.-idesigr'i‘ed for the reception of- a desired ., high
the collector :but due to their unequal velocities
they. become, somewhat grouped into. bunches
frequency and; the- resonant frequency of the
oscillator is preferably ‘chosen to differ from the
frequency to be'received uponwthe antenna by 30 while .traversingithe distance between the output
gap1l9 and thecollectorJZ. Itis. known that this
an’gamount, fjust equal to -a desired ‘intermediate
process
of .bunching is generally a non-linear
frequency.:.-,'I‘h'e piston 8 is adjusted to resonate
one... » Consequently, ' modulation components ap
therline;tothe incoming frequency in known man
pear. in the density variationsof the; electron
nento impress,a;maxi1num alternating voltage
stream:
as?it .-'strikes .the .collector- electrode; l2,
upon? .thedrift: tube I‘Lr. The voltage, thus ape 35
and, an; intermediatev frequency component, is , im-v
plied ‘is ‘effectively in parallel ‘between the drift
pressed upon vvthe coupling circuitvwith results
tubeand the electrodes: I3 and‘ I4, respectively. ~
Referring more speci?cally to the operation .01 ' similar to those describedin the preceding case.
,.
theisyste'm .‘as' afmodulator, frequency converter . ~ .~ What-is claimed is:
or ?rst detector, it will be evident that the in
40
coming signal waves and the locally generated
quency waves, a drift tube enclosed within said
chamber, and said chamber walls and. said drift
waves are superimposed upon the input gap [8
and the output gap IS in such manner as to
simultaneously impressvelocity variations upon
the electrons passing through the gaps.
known that velocity variations in an electron
stream may be converted‘by various means into
successions of density variations of the same
1. In a frequency converter, an oscillator com
prising a resonating chamber for ultra-high fre
tube having aligned apertures, means for direct
45
ing a stream of electrons through said apertures
whereby said electron stream is velocity varied
by electromagnetic waves within said chamber,
and means for adjusting the transit time of the
electrons traversing said drift tube to initiate and
stream at some point later traversed by the '
stream. It is also known that the process of con 50 sustain said oscillations; means for impressing
version from velocity variations to density varia
tions may be a non-linear one, so that modula
tion products such as sum and’ difference fre
between said drift tube and said chamber walls
a Wave having a frequency comparable to but
different from the frequency of said oscillations
whereby
a second velocity variation is superposed
quencies appear in the density variations so pro
said electron stream, and means non-linearly
duced. In the present system, the conversion 55 upon
responsive to velocity variations of said electron
may be accomplished in at least two ways, either
stream, operative upon a doubly velocity-varied
one of which may be selected by means of the
portion of the stream.
switch 83. In accordance with one method, the
2. A system in accordance with claim 1 in which
switch 83 is placed in the lower position, as shown,
the non-linearly responsive means comprises
so as to connect the collector I2 to the negative 60 means for sorting electrons on a basis of differ
terminal of the battery 59, thereby placing the
ent electron velocities.
collector at substantially the same direct current
3. A system in accordance with claim 1 in which
potential as the cathode 49. The electrons, after
the non-linearly responsive means comprises
passing the output gap I9, are in this case sub
means for converting velocity variations of the
jected to a strong retarding ?eld. Having dif 65
ferent velocities, the individual electrons possess
different amounts of kinetic energy and are able
to penetrate respectively different distances
electron stream into electron density variations
in the stream.
’
4. A system in accordance with claim 1 in which
the non-linearly responsive means comprises
against the retarding ?eld before being stopped
means for grouping electrons into bunches in ac
and their motion reversed by the ?eld. By proper 70 cordance with their differing velocities.
adjustment of the initial velocity of the electron
5. In a frequency converter, an oscillator com
stream, it is possible to arrange matters so that
prising a resonating chamber for ultra-high fre
the faster electrons strike the collector l2 while
quency waves, a drift tube enclosed within said
the slower electrons are turned back. The den
chamber,
and said chamber walls and said drift
75
sity variations above referred to are in this case
2,408,410
7
8
tube. having aligned. apertures, means “for direct-,
electrically connecting the outer ‘conductor. of
inga .streamof electrons through'said "apertures
said line to‘ the- wall of :saidv resonating chamber,
means electrically connecting the innersconduc'tor
whereby said electron stream is velocity varied
by.electromagnetic oscillations Within said cham
ber, and means for adjusting the transittimeof
of 1 said ., line .to . said= drift tube "and an external
wave sourcewconnected to said'transmission line.
the electrons traversing said drift tube to initiate
and sustain said oscillationsya coaxial line for
ultra-high frequency waves, said line extending
radially through the Wall of said chamber, the
outer ‘conductor of said line being conductively
'7. In
10
connected to the walls of said'chamber and the
inner-conductor of said line being conductively
connected "to ‘said ‘drift. tube, means. for impress
ing upon said coaxial line waves having a vfre
quency comparable to butdifferent .from the fre
quency of said oscillations'and non-linearly oper
ative means responsive'to velocity. variations of
said electron stream.
.
6. In a frequencyconverter, :aresonating cham
ber for ultra-highfrequency waves, the wall of ,
said chamber being ,apertured to admit .an elec
tronstream into the interior'thereof, means to
inject an electron stream through saidaperture,
a drift‘ tube supported‘within ‘said resonating
chamber, said drift tubecbeing arranged to sur
round said electron stream and to de?ne together
with the chamber Wall a pair of gapstraversed
by saidielectron. stream, means cooperating .with
said drift tube, said chamber» wall, and'said elec
tron stream for producing sustained electromag
netic oscillations ‘within said resonating chamber
at. a resonant frequency vthereof, r a transmission
a
frequency
converter, , .a
resonating
chamber forultraehigh frequency‘waves,.the';wal1
of said chamber‘ beingrapertured to ‘admit anelec~
tron‘ stream into the-'rinteriorythereof, means'to
injectan electron streamuthrough saidaperture,
a‘ drift tube supported ‘within:said1 resonating
chamber, said drift tube being arranged 1 to sun
round said electron stream ‘ and . to de?ne together
with the vchamber wall‘ a. pair of :- gaps traversed
by. said e1ectron~stream,x means (cooperating with
said drift tube; said chamber walLandz‘said elec
tron stream to produce.sustainedelectromagnetic
oscillationsv within saidresonating chamber at
aresonant 'frequencythereof, aitransmissionzlin'e
having l'concentricinner-andi outer. conductorsv ex‘.
tending in av ‘direction substantially perpendic
ular to the lines of'forceof' the ‘electric ?eldwith
in said resonating chamber, said transmission
line passing through "the wallof said resonating
chamber and extending through a substantial
portion of the interior space of said resonating
chamber, means electrically.connecting ‘the outer
conductor ‘of saidlinetozthe wall of .said'resonat
ing chamber, means electrically connecting the
innerwconductor of said lineto said drift tube, an
externalwave source connected-to saiditransmis~
sion line and means; for tuning said ;transmission
line having concentric uinneriand outer .conduc_
line to the frequency :of. saidexternal rwave source
tors extending in a direction perpendicularto the
to impress substantial v.poten'tialsatthe frequency
linesof force of the electric ?eld within said..res-. 35 of said.externaliwave'source across. at leastone
onating chamber, said-transmission line-passing
of said gaps insuperposition.withpotentials de
through the wall» of said resonating chamber-and
veloped by said: sustained electromagnetic oscil
extending through a substantial portion of the
lations.
interior space of said resonating chamber, means
:JOHN W. CLARK.
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