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Патент USA US2408421

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Oct. l, 1946.
Filed Jan. 13, 1944
3 Sheets-Shea?, l
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3| y
Üct. l, 1946.
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Filed Jan. 13, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Oct. l, 1946
Edward L. Ginzton, Garden City, N. Y., assignor
to Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., a. corpora
tion of New York
Application January 13, 1944, Serial No. `518,054
21 Claims.
(Cl. 172-281)
The present application relates to wave trans
mission apparatus and concerns particularly ap
paratus suitable for use in microwave systems.
An object of the invention is to provide meth
ods and apparatus for frequency multiplication,
particularly arrangements suitable for use in the
microwave frequency spectrum.
Fig. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of a mixer
Fig. 6 is a bottom view of the apparatus of
Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is a graph illustrating the characteris
tics of a square-law crystal rectifier of the type
which may be employed in the apparatus of Figs.
1 to 6; and
Fig. 8 is a graph illustrating the composite
A specific object of the invention is to provide'
a frequency doubler, and another object of the
invention is to provide a frequency tripler.
10 characteristics of push-pull connected crystal
Still another object of the invention is to pro
recti?lers employed in the apparatus of Figs. 3
vide a mixer multiplier.
It is an object of the invention to provide a
stable crystal multiplier and to provide a multi
and 4.
Like reference characters are utilized through
out the drawings to designate like parts.
The frequency multiplier illustrated inthe Figs.
A further object of the invention is to provide
1 and 2, comprises a transmission line II and a
methods and apparatus for avoiding burn-out of
lateral transmission line I2 joined to the trans
crystal multipliers.
plier having high eñiciency at high frequency.
mission line II. In the arrangement as illus
Still another object of the invention is to pro
vide a push-pull arrangement for improving the 20 trated, the transmission line II is designed to re
ceive the input or lower frequency, and the trans
characteristics of crystals used for frequency
mission line I2 is designed for supplying the out
put frequency, e. g. an even harmonic such as
Other and further objects and advantages will
double frequency. As shown, the fundamental
become apparent as the description proceeds.
In carrying out the invention in its preferred 25 frequency transmission line II may be of the co
axial or concentric line type assumed to be circu
form, a pair of joined transmission lines is em
lar in cross-section and the double frequency or
ployed or a single transmission line is provided
second harmonic transmission line I2 may be of
with input and output sections designed for dif
the wave guide type, shown in this case as a rec
ferent frequencies. Non-linear circuit means
such as rectifying crystal means, for example, 30 tangular Wave guide. To facilitate making the
requisite circuit connections to the transmission
are interposed in one of the transmission lines
line I I, an input transmission line i3 maybe pro
designed for the lower frequency and serving as
vided for supplying the input energy, for example,
the input transmission line, or transmission line
high frequency electromagnetic Wave energy
section. The output transmission line, or trans
having a wavelength of approximately 10 centi
mission line section, is coupled to the input trans
meters in case a 5-centimeter wavelength output
mission line, or transmission line section, and is 35 is
preferably arranged to cut-olf energy having a
line II includes outer hollow cylinders I4
wavelength longer than the desired wavelength,
and I5 and an inner conducting rod i6. The out
in order to insure that the output frequency is
er hollow cylinders Il and I5 are joined to and
substantially a pure harmonic of the input fre
40 extend laterally above and below the upper and
lower surfaces oi the rectangular wave guide i2,
A better understanding of the invention will 'be
which have suitable openings for receiving the
afforded by the following detailed description
hollow cylinders I4 and I5. The inner rod I6 ex
considered in conjunction with the accompanying
tends through the wave guide I2 and on either
drawings, in which
45 side thereof.
Fig. l is a side view, mainly in longitudinal sec
For producing the desired second harmonic in
tion, of a frequency doubler;
the output, a. non-linear circuit element I1 is
Fig. 2 is another side view of the apparatus of
interposed in the transmission line II, for exam
Fig. l turned 90° from the position shown in
ple, in series with the inner conductor rod I6.`
Fig. 1;
50 In order to facilitate the mounting and replace
Fig. 3 is a side view, mainly in longitudinal sec
ment of the non-linear element Il, the hollow cyl
tion, of a frequency tripler;
inder I4 and the rod I6 may be jointed so as to
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary view of the apparatus
have physically separable portions I8 and I9,`=
of Fig. 3 including an output end view of the
respectively. A conventional threaded coupling
transmission line;
65 21 is provided for joining the hollow cylindrical
members i4 and is and the rod portions I0 and
i9 are suitably formed to make electrical con
nection with the terminals of the non-linear ele
ment il.
The non-linear element il may take the form
of a crystal rectiñer unit of the type employed in v
microwave and other ultra high frequency radio
receiving systematíor rectifyfing, detecting, or
demodulating ultra, high frequency energy. It
for the biasing battery 29 and the crystal rec
tifier Il.
Suitable means are also provided for tuning
the portion 4G of the _wave guide i2, shown to
the left oi’ the transmission line
ii .
Such means
,may take the form of a conventional adjustable
position plug 45, uijustably mounted by means
of a screw t6 having a supporting block el and
formed as a quarter-wave trap spaced from the
is shown as a standard unit incased in a cylin- _ 10 inner surfaces of th'e wave guide i2.
The portion d8 of the wave guide i2 extending f
der 22 with a downwardly extending pin terminal
to the right of the transmission line ii is broken ,
28 and an upper flat contact terminal 2d. The
away in Fig. 1 to simplify the drawings, but it
rod it is provided with a socket at the upper
will be understood that suitable connections by
end to receive the pin terminal 28 and the rod i 9
is provided with the contact button 25 at the 15 conventional choke couplings or the like, may be
made between the output end ¿is of the wave
lower end to make contact with the crystal ter
guide i2 and apparatus to which second harB
minal 2Q.
monic wave energy is to be supplied.
The input line i3 may also be a conventional
The conversion of the fundamental frequency
coaxial line, including an outer cylinder 2G elec»
„trically and mechanically joined to the cylinder 20 energy supplied through the transmission line i3
to th‘edouble frequency or second harmonic wave
i8, and an inner conducting rod 2l electrically
energy leaving the wave guide from the output
' and mechanically connect/ed to the inner con
end ¿i8 results from the lacls of ’linearity between
ductor rod le.
voltage input and current output of the crystal
It will be understood that for the purpose of
providing the requisite mechanical support for 25 rectifier il.
The characteristic curve of such a crystal rec
the inner conducting rod suitable low-loss insu»
lators or bushings such as the element 28 may be
Preferably biasing means are provided for
causing the crystal rectifier il to operate in th‘e
tiñer of the square-law type is shown in Fig. '7 in -
which current is measured along the vertical axis
and voltage is measured along the horizontal
axis. The magnitude of the biasing voltage in
more desirable portion of its characteristic curve.
To this end, a source of biasing voltage such as
` a battery di? may be provided which is electrically
the battery 2@ is so chosen as to accentuate th'e
second harmonic. The exact amount of bias re
i 5, the later being electrically connected, in turn,
which bends upward as shown in Fig. 7, so that
quired will depend upon the individual crystal
employed, and the type of crystal, lit is known,
connected in series with the nonlinear crystal
element ill. For example, the battery 2@ may be 35 for example, that silicon crystal rectiñers and
germanium crystal rectiiiers have opposite types
provided with conductors 3i electrically con
of characteristic curves, one being of the type
nected to the inner rod it and the outer cylinder
the crystal is operated near the heel of the curve,
to the wave guide i2, the outer cylinder ifi, the
outer cylinder id and the inner conducting rod 4:0 and the other being of the type which droops or
bends downwardly so that the crystal is operated
i 9. The coupling 2i serves to connect the h'ollow
near the mee of the curve.
cylinders ill and it electrically aswell as me
`When the triple harmonic of the fundamental
chanically, and the rod i@ and the cylinder it
frequency is desired, a crystal multiplier may
are electrically connected at their upper ends.
For the purpose of tuning the transmission line 45 also be employed and the dimensions of the out
li and preventing reflections resulting in a high ‘ put transmission line may be so chosen as to cut»
oñ' the undesired lower frequencies, such as the
'standing wave ratio, adjustable high frequency
fundamental frequency and the second harmonic,
snorting plugs. or tuning elements 32 and 823 are
passing only the thirdl harmonic. However, in
provided. The tuning element 32 comprises an
adjusting knob or handle 8G to which is secured 50 order to increase the eiîiciency of the apparatus
and avoid wearing out the crystal, _when an odd
a plug or annulus 35 of suitable conducting ma
harmonic is desired I prefer to employ a push
terial, such as brass, which' makes electrical con
pull connection with two oppositely connected
tact with both the outer cylinder i@ and the in
crystals, by means of which the second harmonic
ner rod i9. Pins 3b may be provided which are
rigidly secured to the plug 85 and are slidably 55 is inherently suppressed. For example, as illus»
trated in Fig. 3, a _transmission line iii vmay be
retained within an annular slot 3l yin the knob 8d.
employed having an input end 52 to which iun
The knob 3Q may be formed as a hurled ring
damental frequency energy is supplied, and an'
nut and the outer surface ofthe cylinder i8 may
output end
at which an harmonic output is
be threaded for engagement by the nut 3G. The
cylinder it is provided with slots 38 on both 60 obtained.
The input portion of the line 5i is arranged as
sides to receive th'e pins 80.
a double concentric circular transmission line
The lower tuning element 88 maybe similarly
with an inner concentric line 56 and an outer
constructed except that it includes a snorting
hollow'cylindrical conductor 55, concentric with
plug 35' having an inner part ¿ii making elec
trical contact with the rod it, an outer part ¿l2 65 the line et. The latter is adapted to be cone
.nected by conventional couplings to a similar type
making electrical contact with the hollow cylinder
ib, and a thin insulating band ¿i3 oi' suitable low ` of concentric line (not shown) from which the
input energy is received. The coaxial line Ed in~
loss material, such as polystyrene tape, separat
ing the parts (Si and ¿l2 so as to form a con
'cludes a hollow cylinder Et and 'an inner con
denser, the plates of which are the confronting 70 ducting rod el. The outer hollow cylinder t5 is
surfaces of the members @i and ft2. Such' a con
tapered,Í as shown at 58, toward a point 59 at
denser serves as a high frequency short with' re
which it has a rectangular or oblong cross-sec
spect to the alternating current input, but serves
tion. Between the point t@ and the output end
to insulate the rod i@ from the outer conductor
5B, the outer conductor 65 is in the iormof a
i5 in order to provide a direct current circuit. 75 conventional rectangular wave guide, the dimen
sions oi which are so chosen that its cut on? wave
length is slightly longer than the desired har
monic, for instance, the third harmonic of the
energy supplied through the input concentric line
made oppositely with respect to the inner con
lductor-s 86, so that each rectifier is biased in the
same manner with respect to its own polarity.
Referring to Fig. 7, a third harmonic compo
il. For example, the line 54 may be designed for 5 nent of relatively great strength may be obtained
10 centimeter input and the wave guide output
from a square law crystal rectifier by a sufficient
section 63 may be designed for 3.5 centimeters
cut-ofi. For tuning the input end of the concen
tric line 5I, a conventional slidable shorting plug
6| is provided, which includes an annulus 62 of
conducting material making electrical contact
with both the outer hollowfcylinder 55 and the
hollow cylinder 56.
For introducing the odd harmonic, a pair of
` nonlinear elements, such as crystal rectiiiers 63
ly large biasing voltage in the reverse (negative)
direction so that the natural boundary layer is
brölgn down and current flows in the reverse di
rectior? along the curve 11. The magnitude of
the bias is such that the crystal operates around
a voltage, represented by the vertical dotted line
18.- The crystal is then forced to operate along
the reversed portion 11 of its characteristic curve
which has a relatively large third degree curva
is provided/ For supporting the crystal rectifiers
ture. In order to avoid the necessity for care in
63 and enabling direct current bias connections
preventing the crystal from being burned out
to be made thereto, a pair of lateral coaxial lines
and to increase stability two opposed crystals may
6I is provided, extending above and below the
be employed.
transmission line 5i. The lines 64 may be sim 20
By employing two crystals of opposite polarity
ilar in construction, each including an outer hol
connected in push-pull, a stable third harmonic
- low cylindrical conductor 65 and an inner con
component of considerable strength is obtained.
ducting rod 66. In order to provide for remov
The composite push-pull characteristic curve is
ability 0f the crystal rectifier 63, the outer cylin
shown in Fig. 8. By selecting biasing voltages
der 65 is removably attached to the outer con 25 equalling the distances between the vertical axis
ductor 55 of the transmission line 5i. For ex
ample, a hollow projection 61 may be formed in
the surface of the conductor 55 with the inside
threaded to receive the lower exteriorly threaded
end 68 of the hollow cylinder 65. For; tuning the
line 64, a short-ing plug 33’ may be provided sim
ilar to that described in connection with Fig, 1,
or the shorting plug may include a single con
I and the vertical lines 18 and 19, an inner por
tion of the characteristic curve between the lines
18 and 19 is effectively eliminated, and each crys
tal tends to operate with respect to one or the
30 other of the lines 18 and 19 and the combination
operates as if it had a characteristic curve rep
resented by the curve lines 6I and 82, joined at
the points 83 and 8l.
ducting hollow annulus 35 with a thin cylinder
If it is desired to mix or heterodyne one input
69 of non-conducting material insulating the in 35 circuit with another of a harmonic frequency,
ner surface of the annulus 35 from the rod 66, so
this may be done by employing a combination
as to form a high frequency short, but preserve
mixer multiplier, as illustrated in Fig. 5, for ex
direct current insulation.
ample. In this case, the fundamental frequency
For making direct current connections the out
of a high frequency circuit, such as a three centi
er end of the line 64 is formed as a pin and socket 40 meter circuit, may be heterodyned With the third
connector including an outer screw threaded con
harmonic of a lower frequency input such as a 9
tact 14 electrically connected to the outer oon
centimeter circuit. To this end, as shown in Fig.
ductor I8 and a concentric pin contact 12 elec
5, an input wave guide 85, an input adjustable
trically connected to the conducting rod B6. For
coaxial transmission line 86, and a coupling
supporting the pin 12 in the outer end of the rod 45 transmission line 81 may be employed, including
66, an insulating bushing 13 is provided, and the
a crystal rectifier element 88 for generating the
annulus plug 35 serves to support the intermedi
third harmonic of the wave supplied through the
ate portion of the rod 66.
coaxial line 86. For supplying the heterodyned
For supporting the crystals 63 laterally, insu
output, a coaxial transmission line output cou
lating bushings 14 are provided, and for coupling 50 pling 89 may be provided.
the input end of the transmission line 5i to the
The interconnecting transmission line 81 in
transmission lines 64, a transverse internal con
cludes an. outer hollow conductor 9i, an inner
ductor rod 15 is provided which is concentric
cylindrical conductor 92, a suita-ble adjustable
with the transmission lines 64 forming a con
snorting `stub device 93 for tuning, a contact de»
tinuation of the inner rods 66, that is electrically 55 vice 94 for making an electrical connection with
and mechanically connected to the inner rod 51
the upper or ilat 'contact of the crystal rectifier
of the transmission lines 54 and 5i. The upper
88. As shown, the inner conductor 92 is of rela
and lower ends of the rod 1'5 are drilled to form
tively large diameter in comparison with the outer
„ sockets for receiving the pin contacts of the crys
cylinder 9i and a narrow rod 95 is provided for
tal recti?lers 63 and the inner ends of the rod 66 60 joining the lower end of the conductor 92 to the
are provided with contact buttons, as previously
crystal contact Sii. The input coaxial transmis»
described, to make electrical contact with the
sion line 86 includes an outer hollow cylindricai
crystal rectifier 63.
conductor 91 and an inner conductor 98. For
It will be understood that the portion of the
tuning purposes the outer conductor 91 may bc
lower transmission line 6E, which has been broken 65 in the form of a telescoping tube. For coupling'
away, is shown as turned 90° in Fig. 3, in order to
the transmission line 86 to the transmission line
show the slot 38 for receiving the pins 36.
81 a ‘lV-probe 99 mounted within the cylinder 9i
The crystal rectifier 63 may be of the same type
may be connected to the end of the inner con
as represented by the crystal rectifier I1 of Fig.
ductor 96. The outer conductor 9i is removably
i, except that one of the crystal rectifiers 63 is 7o joined to the top surface of the wave guide 85.
mounted in a non-standard position; that is, with
by means of a suitatble threaded extension 6?
reversed polarity. Biasing batteries (not shown)
such as described in connection with Fig. 3.
are connected to the upper and lower direct cur
The output transmission line connection 89 in
rent contacts 1i and 12 for biasing the rectiñers
cludes a hollow cylindrical member lili electri
63 and the polarities of the biasing voltage are 75 cally and mechanically joined to the lower surface
of the wave guide 85, an insulating bushing |02
supporting a connector socket |03 and an in
elements included in the inner conductors of
the transverse transmission lines.
ternally flanged tubular or cup-shaped member
5. Apparatus as in the preceding claim in
|04, threaded into the member I0| for supporting
cluding tuning adjustments for the coaxial
the insulator |02. The termina1 |03 has a drilled 5 transmission lines.
opening |05 at the upper end serving as a socketl
6. A mixer multiplier, comprising in combina
contact for the lower pin terminal of the crystal
tion a high frequency input transmission line,
rectifier 88 and has a connecting pin |06 extend
' a low frequency input transmission line, a trans
ing downwardly through the insulator |02 and a
mission line connecting the two, and a hetero
suitable opening in the member |04. The mem 10 dyne output connection from said connecting
ber |0| is provided with flanges |01, thus forming
transmission line, one ,of said lines including a
with the pin or conductor rod |06, a suitable
nonlinear circuit element for introducing a har
coupling of the type used for making connections
with concentric transmission lines.
monic of the input energy of the low frequency
input transmission line.
In order to avoid discontinuities in the wave 15
7. A frequency tripler, comprising in combi
guide 85, a. quarter-wave trap || | may be mount
nation an input transmission line designed for
ed around the socket terminal |05, spaced there
from. Likewise, the contact mem-ber 94 may be
fundamental frequency input, an output trans
mission line coupled thereto, an interposed non
provided with a tubular extension H2 forming a
linear circuit means for introducing harmonics,
quarter-wave trap.
20 the output transmission line having such dimen
'I'he righthand end 0f the wave guide 85 is
sions as to cut off wavelengths longer than the
closed by a suitable plug |08 which may be made
third harmonic of the fundamental frequency
adjustable, if desired, but which need not be ad
justed if initially properly positioned to termi
8. A frequency'multiplier, comprising a hollow
nate the wave guide for the frequency of its in 25 electrically conducting member having a longi
put. For matching the apparatus to the wave
tudinally extending conductor therein to form
guide input, in order to avoid reflections and in
a coaxial input transmission line, and having an
order to obtain,minimum standing wave ratio,
/open portion forming a wave guide output trans
adjustable tuning probes |09 may be provided
mission line, transverse transmission line means
which consist of rods with a suitable axially ad 30 coupled to the input transmission line and non
justable circuit of a conventional type for fixing
linear circuit means in said transverse trans
the extent to which the rod extends into the wave
mission line means.
guide 85.
9. A mixer multiplier, comprising in combina
I have herein shown and particularly described
tion a high frequency input transmission line, a
certain embodiments of my invention and certain 35 low frequency input transmission line, intercon
methods of operation embraced therein forl the
necting means extending therebetween, and non
purpose of explaining its principle of operation
linear means in said interconnecting means for
and showing its application, but it will be obvious
producing a, harmonic of the frequency supplied
to those skilled in the art that many modifica
through the-low frequency input transmission
tions and variations are possible, and Iv aim, 40 line.
therefore, to cover all such modifications and
1_0. Apparatus as in the preceding claim, fur
variations as fall within the scope of my inven
ther including a heterodyne output connection
tion which is'defined in the appended claims.
for extracting heterodyne energy from said non
What is claimed is:
linear means.
1. A microwave multiplier, comprising in com 45
11. A microwave frequency multiplier compris
bination a wave guide, a coaxial transmission line
ing, in combination, a hollow pipe wave guide, a
`joined transversely to said wave guide, but hav
tubular conductor opening into said wave guide,
ing an inner conductor extending through said
a further conductor within said tubular conduc
wave guide, a crystal rectifier in series with said
tor forming a coaxial transmission line there
i inner conductor, and a connection for supplying 50 with and extending transversely across said hol
fundamental frequency energy to said coaxial
low pipe wave guide, a crystal rectifier connected
transmission line whereby a harmonic thereof is y in series with said further conductor, means for
supplied to said Wave guide.
supplying ultra high frequency energy to said
2. Apparatus as in claim 1 including a source
crystal rectifier, and means for tuning said co
of direct current bias in series with said crystal.
5 axial line to control the current distribution along
3. A frequency multiplier comprising in cbm
the portion of said further conductor extending
bination, a transmission line with a fundamental
across said wave guide.
frequency energy input connection and a har
12. A microwave frequency multiplier compris
monic energy output connection, transverse
ing, in combination, a hollow pipe wave guide,
transmission lines joined to said first-mentioned 60 first and second tubular conductors connected to
transmission line, said last-mentioned transmis
Vsaid wave guide and extending in opposite direc
sion lines being of the coaxial type, each includ
tions therefrom, a further conductor extending
ing a nonlinear circuit element and being coupled
through said first tubular conductor, said wave
to the first-mentioned transmission line input.
guide and said second tubular conductor and
4. A frequency multiplier comprising an elec 6 Ul forming with said tubular conductors, first and
trically conducting member having a longitudi
second coaxial transmission lines coupled to said.
nally extending conductor therein to form a co
wave guide, a crystal- rectifier in series with said
axial input transmission line, and having an
further conductor, means for applying to' said
open portion forming a wave guide output trans
crystal rectifier ultra high frequency energy of
mission line, a pair of transverse transmission 70 a wavelength longer than the cut-off wavelength
lines of coaxial type having inner conductors
of said wave guide, movable means within said
joined and extending through the first-men
first coaxial line for providing an adjustable ultra
tioned conducting member, and electrically con
high frequency energy conducting path between
nected to the inner conductor of the input c0
said first tubular conductor and said further
axial transmission line, and non-linear circuit 75 conductor, and movable means within said sec
ond coaxial line for providing an adjustable ultra
high frequency energy conducting path between
said second tubular conductor and said further
„ 10
monic energy coupling is provided between said
further conductor and said wave guide.
18. A microwave frequency multiplier com
prising a hollow pipe wave guide, a conductor
13. A microwave frequency multiplier as de 5 extending transversely through said wave guide,
ñned in claim 12, further including means for
tubular conducting means connected to said wave
applying direct bias voltage to said crystal rec'
guide and forming an outer conductor for co
tiñer for varying the operating characteristics
operation with said first conductor as a coaxial
thereof whereby the frequency multiplication ef
.transmission line, means for applying to said
ficiency of said frequency multiplier may be en 10 ñrst conductor ultra high frequency energy of a
wavelength longer than the cut-off wavelength
14. A microwavev frequency multiplier com
of said wave guide, a first crystal rectiñer con
prising a hollow pipe wave guide, first and second
tubular conductors connected to said wave guide
nected in series with said conductor in a first
ultra high Vfrequency current path between said
20. Ultra high frequency apparatus compris
current-carrying orientation, and` a second
and extending in opposite directions therefrom, 15 crystal rectifier connected in series with said
'a further conductor extending through said first
conductor in an opposite current-carrying orien
tubular conductor, said wave guide and said
tation for conduction of Acurrent during opposed
second tubular conductor and forming with said
half cycles of the applied ultra high frequency
first and second tubular conductors, first and
second coaxial transmission lines coupled to said 20
19. Ultra high frequency apparatus compris
wave guide, a first crystal rectifier positioned
ing first and second coaxial line elements con
within said first tubular conductor and connected
nected together at a junction point, means for
in series with said further conductor, a second
producing an ultra-high frequency potential
crystal rectifier positioned within said second
difference between the inner conductors of said
tubular conductor and connected in series with 25 coaxial line elements and the outer conductors
said further conductor, means for applying to
thereof at said junction point, and an energy
said further conductor intermediate said first
utilization device coupled to said coaxial line
and second crystal rectifiers ultra high frequency
elements at said junction point and responsive
energy of a wavelength longer than the cut-off
to ultra-high frequency currents in the inner
wavelength of said wave guide, movable means 30 conductors of said first and second coaxial line
in said first tubular conductor for providing an
first tubular conductor and said further con
ing first and second coaxial line elements con
ductor, and movable means in said second tubular
nected together at a junction point, a third
conductor for providing an ultra high frequency 35 coaxial line joining said first and second coaxial
current path between said second tubular con
line elements at said junction point, the inner
ductor and said further conductor.
conductor of said third coaxial line being con
15. A microwave frequency multiplier as de
nected to the inner conductors of said first
fined in claim 14, further including means con
and second coaxial line elements at said junction
nected to said further conductor for applying 40 point, and a wave guide adjoining said first and
direct bias potential to said crystal rectiiiers.
second coaxial line elements at said junction
16. A microwave frequency multiplier com
point and coupled to the inner conductors there
prising, in combination, a wave guide, a tubular
of, whereby said wave guide is coupled to said
conductor opening into said wave guide, a fur
third coaxial line through electromagnetic cou-.
ther conductor within said tubular wave guide 45 pling between said wave guide and the inner
forming a coaxial transmission line therewith
conductors of said ñrst and second coaxial line
and extending transversely across said wave
guide, a crystal rectifier connected in series with
2l. Ultra high frequency apparatus comprising
said further conductor, means for supplying to
a hollow pipe wave guide having first and second
said crystal rectifier ultra high frequency energy 50 openings therethrough, first and second tubular
conductors connected to said wave guide vat said
openings, a third conductor extending through
currents in said transmission line, meansfor
said first tubular conductor, said wave guide and
tuning said coaxial transmission line to regulate
said second tubular conductor and forming
`the harmonic currents therein, and means for 55 first and second transmission lines with said
applying a'direct bias potential to said crystal
first and second tubular conductors, and a fourth
rectifier for enhancing the harmonic operation ` conductor connected to said third conductor at a
point between said first and second transmission
y 17. Apparatus as recited in claim 16, further
lines, whereby said fourth conductor is coupled
including movable ultra high frequency cur 60 to electromagnetic energy guided through said
rent conducting means positioned within said
hollow pipe wave guide in accordance with the
coaxial transmissibn line for varying the ultra
difference of impedance to current flow through
high frequency current distribution along said
said first and second transmission lines.
further conductor, " whereby high intensity har
of a wavelength longer than the cut-off wave
length of said wave guide to produce harmonic
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