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Патент USA US2408429

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Oct. 1, 1946.
- 2,408,428
-w. B. LEAF
Filed March 2, ' 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
‘BY '/7A d,7?7f%w~
Oct. 1, 1946.
' 2,408,428
I - w. B. LEAF
2 Sheets-Sheet -2
Filed March 2,‘ 1943
- Mum B. LEAF" '
A rromvgx _ '
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
’ usual)?‘ STATES-7
omcs j‘ "
bo'dying other features'v‘cfr the " present invention;
1 .
This invention relates to‘ means for retarding
Figure 4 is a section takenalong manner-4,
cinder cutting in fire boxes and more ‘specifically, ‘
in the ?re boxes of steam locomotives.
Figure 3.
In many locomotive >designs,»the ?re box‘is‘
Referring ?rst to the ‘form- of the invention
illustrated in'Figures"1*'and 2i,‘th'e' ?re box 5 is of
‘ divided into ‘upper and lower combustion zones:
'by an arch member causing the rising gases to
flow‘?rst in one direction until the‘ end of the
arch is reached and then turn and 'flow in are
verse direction until the gases pa's'sinto the fines
in the bo‘ilertube zone. ‘
*1?“ ‘
In‘ such a‘movement, the gases‘ reacmhigh‘v'e
conventional designw'havi'ng an'end wall 6 and a
crown sheet 1 ‘of conventional size and shape.
The lower portion of the ?re box is enclosed'by
grate section 8_'{border'edby a Gaines'wall 9,
‘110 a»
'while at its end‘ oppositethei-end wall .6 a ?ue
sheet i0 is disposedf‘toreceive'the gases of .com
bustion*passir'1goutiofithe'?re' box 5.‘ A throat
locities and. assume de?nite courses of travels'o
spaced as to create areas of partial vacuum,
which induce a circulatory‘movement of the high ‘
Velocity gases into such spaces. As 'a' conse- »
' quence of this action, the lower fines of the boilers
do not receive their proportionate ‘share of the
' sheet l_2'*of the usual type-is-positioned below-the
A siphon‘me ‘ber1l3 of the dual tube type ex
tends from’ the throat sheet [2 ‘into and through
?re box 5, being isupportedlfrom ‘crown sheet ‘I
at its upper extremityandby the Gaines wall 9
gases ‘of combustion-and become plugged with
andithr'oat sheet I‘? ‘at ‘its lower extremity.
Likewise,’ the ‘uneven distribution’of the gases; 12o 'IA'n arch member esignated generally'by refer
cindersinarelativ’e'ly short time.
' '
of combustion causes cinder cutting of tubes,
flues; superheater units, ?ue sheets ‘and crown
ence numéral'flrand‘ comprising an intercon
nested series of fire bri ck Ma" supported ‘on lugs
bolt‘ heads‘in the areas where the'high velocity
gases contact such members.- Particularly, at
' '15 mounted on siphon tubes‘ l3 and "side sheets
the end of ‘the arch, the gases’ whip rapidly‘
‘through'?re'boxifor a substantial distance and
' l6_,‘-_extends from Gaines wall 9 at an inclination
' around and travel in'the opposite direction in a v
space limited to from one-third to one-half ‘of the
total space between the arch and the cro’wn‘sheet.
It is an object of the present inventionsto?pro
vide a simple, economical and ef?cient'me'ans for =‘
directing and controllingithe‘flow’of'gases in a
?re box toobtain ajmore efficient distribution of
"such gases. ‘
A further object of the invention is'to provide
vdivides the‘?re box'rinto' upper and lower com
bustion. zones designated _A and B - respectively.
The‘ construction vthusfar" described - is ‘conven-.
tional' in' locomotive boilers and comprises a part
' of “the presentv invention, only 'toithe' extent that
jsuch'pa'rts' are utili’zedwith other features here
in’a‘ft'er to bedesc'rib'ed,
‘- To eliminate the detrimental effects of the un
even distribution of'the gases of‘ combustion in
duced by the arrangement-of arch M, a de?ector
va simple, economical and efficient lmeans‘for re
' es of’ combustion- in ‘a
. ducing the velocity ofrga‘s
‘arch member designated by ‘the 'sreferenc'eunu
:meral l1 lis-disposediin overhanging relation to
residein novel
i - '‘of’ con
struction, and‘novel combinations and arrange
ments of parts, the details‘of which will be ‘de
scribed in the course of the following description.‘
To afford a better understanding} of they inven
tion, reference isfmade to the’ accompanying
the-upper end of‘arch l4. ~
Arch I] ‘is composed of a series of intercon
nected ?re brick» Ila supported'from‘isiphons l3
and side sheets Hi'on lugs-I5. Preferably‘the
"arch/l1 should be so shaped that its inner end’ is
- approximately on thelvline bisecting the'angle be
drawings illustrating typical embodiment's'of, the .45 tween the‘ crown‘ sheet ‘I and arch- l4, while its
outer end is curved to approximately conform to
invention. 1 “In the drawingslin the severalfviews
f the normal gas‘ flow about arch I4.
ofwhich‘ likervparts have been. designated; simi
“In this ‘form of theinvent-ion,‘ the tiles Ilia at
the'end of the archv l4 underhanging arch I‘!
I ,Figure .71vv is a fragmentary, central section
have their upper surfaces curved to substantially
through thej?re box of a locomotive :boiler, em '50 conform to the curvature of the under surface
bodying features of the present invention;
c'farch l1 and thus provide a passage l8 of sub
" ' Figure 2 is‘a section takenalong" the lines 2:-2,
-'stantially'-iuniform width.
Figure 1;"
'7 Figure 3
' v:It will be'observed‘by reference to Figure I that
a fragmentary, centra1‘ section 55 the deflector arch.“ overlaps arch l4'for‘ about
- through the‘ ?re box of a locomotive boiler, em
three-fourths the length of arch IT. This ar
rangement prevents the hot gases entering pas
sage l8 from rising toward crown sheet 1 and di
rects them instead along linear courses against a
substantial portion of the surface of ?ue sheet I0.
At the same time other gases traveling through
the arch I‘! of Figure 1. The essential difference
between the arches I1 and I'Isc resides in the
composition of the arch Ilzr. This member is a
hollow metallic body having openings to its hollow
interior 22 connecting with siphon tubes I3 and
the outer enclosure formed by shell 20.
the space between de?ector arch I‘! and crown
A heat
transfer ?uid circulates through the siphon tubes
sheet ‘I also assiune a substantially linear com
I3 and hollow interior 22 of the arch member Ila:
ponent parallel to the surface of crown sheet ‘I
preventing excessive heating of the sur
until they reach the surface of ?ue sheet I0 10
faces of the de?ector arch I ‘Ix through contact
against which gases passing through passage I8
with the gases of combustion.
do not penetrate.
In this form, the main arch I4 is not curved
Referring to Figure 1, it Will be noted that 7
three zones have been designated in grate sec- ~
' at its upper end adjoining passage I8a as in the
tion 8. Gases of combustion rising from zone a: 15 form illustrated in Figure 1. However, the curva
ture of the under side of arch Ila: is suf?cient to
travel upwardly into the space between de
impart the necessary directional components to
?ector arch I1 and crown sheet ‘I. The gases
the gases in passage I8a, with the result that uni
rising from grate section y travel into passage I8,
formity of gas distribution is attained in this
while the gases rising from section a ?ow directly
to a passage I9 in Gaines wall 9. Preferably, the 20 form ofv the invention as well. However, the
curvature of the main arch is a preferred fea
clearance between de?ector arch- I7 and crown
ture as some excessive wear on the end ?re'bricks
sheet ‘I is su?lcient to provide a gas velocity some
of the arch may resultfrom the irregular shape
what less than the calculated gas velocity through
of said end with reference to the direction of
passage I8.
movement of gases into passage I8a.
As a consequence of this arrangement, a uni
From the foregoing, it will beapparent that in
form distribution of gases is attained with a close
either of the forms illustrated, the gases rising
from the grate section are distributed before they
assume directional components toward ?ue sheet
sheet I0 than the gases passing through passage 30 I0 and, as a consequence, the velocity and direc
tion of said gases is under control throughout the
I8, and by having the velocity of the gases in
control of the velocity of such gases as well. The
gases passing above de?ector arch II are re
quired to engage a smaller surface area on ?ue
passage I8 somewhat in excess of the Velocity in
said other zone, a uniform distribution results.
This arrangement prevents the development of
excessively high velocities in the travel of the
gases about the end of main arch I 4 by its division
‘of such gases, forcing a substantial portion there
entirev course of their reverse ?ow toward ?ue
sheet I0. -»
The control thus exercised affords even dis
tribution of gases of combustion against the ex
posed surface of ?ue sheet I 0, resulting in higher
boiler e?iciency and reduced wear due to cinder
of to assume a downward component by reason of
cutting and plugging of the ?ues.
the shape and location of the under surface of
de?ector arch I‘I before they have traveled any
It will be understood that either of the forms
of de?ector arches II or I'Ia: may be used with
a main arch having either a curved end of the
type shown in Figure 1, or a straight end of the
I0. As a consequence, cinder cutting of tubes
type shown in Figure 3.
and lines, superheater units, ?ue sheets and crown
In the foregoing description, the main arch has
bolt, heads is substantially reduced and the en
gines steam much better, thus reducing fuel con 45 beenv shown in both forms as associated with a
siphon structure. However, in certain types of
sumption and increasing boiler efficiency. Fur
?re boxes arch tubes are used as the supporting
ther, by utilizing substantially'the entire avail
medium for the main arch, while in others cir~
able space in the reverse movement of the gases,
culator tubes are utilized to provide the inter
formation of a partial vacuum condition is elim
mediate support for the main arch. In all such
inated and velocities are substantially reduced.
arrangements, the arch is substantially the same
The form of the invention illustrated in Figures
in arrangement as the arches shown in Figures
3 and 4 employs the same principles of operation
1 and ?andyfunctions in an identical, manner to
and is generally similar in structural arrangement
divide the ?re boxes into upper andlower com
to the form of the invention illustrated in Figure
bustion zones.v 1. To this end, the ?re box 5 has the usual end
Consequently, where the term “main arch” has
Wall 6, crown sheet ‘I, side sheets I6 and grate
been used in the description and claims, it is
section 8, enclosed at one end by a ?ue sheet I0
meant to cover any form of main arch now in use
under which is provided the usual throat sheet I2.
in the ?re boxes of locomotive boilers and the de
A dual type siphon member I3 is supported
?ector arch of the present invention will be dis
from crown sheet 1 at its upper end and from
Gaines wall 9 and throat sheet I 2 at its lower end. 60 posed above and in overhanging relation to the
upper end of any such arch to divide the gases of
A main arch I4 extends from Gaines wall 9 up-,
combustion in their turning movement and there
wardly at an inclination and the ?re bricks I4a
by control velocity and direction of such gases.
of this arch are supported from siphons I3 and
Changes ‘and modi?cations may be availed of
side sheets I 6 by supporting lugs I5 as clearly
Within the spiritvand scope of theinvention as
shown in Figure 4. Crown sheet ‘I, end plate
de?ned in the hereunto appended claims.
6 and side sheets I6 are enclosed by an outer
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
shell member 20 and de?nes therewith ?uid-cir
Patent is:
culating passages into which the upper ends of
1. In a ?re box having a lower grate section, a
siphon members I3 open, as indicated at 2I in
flue sheet at its rear end, a crown sheet forming
Figure 4.
an upper closure for the ?re box, a main arch in
A de?ector member I'I:c in this form of the in
clined upwardly and forwardly from a rearward
vention is supported in overhanging relation to
appreciable distance in the directionof ?ue sheet
the upper end of main arch I4, and in length,
spacing and general arrangement is similar to .
point of support adjacent the ?ue sheet to divide
the space between the gratesection and the crown
sheet into-upper and lower combustion zones, the
upper end of said arch terminating in a curved '
portion, and a de?ector arch supported in overhanging relation to said main arch with a portion
extending f?rwardly beyond the end of the main
arch to divide the gases of combustion rising from 5
portion of the divided gases directly to the ?ue
4. In a ?re box having a lower grate section, a
?ue sheet at its rear end, a crown sheet forming
an upper closure for the ?re box, a main arch in
Said grate section prior to their Passage between
clined upwardly and forwardly from a rear point
the main arch and the crown sheet, the underof Support adjacent the ?ue Sheet and extending
undulating arrangement laterally of
Side Of Said de?eCtOr arch
Substantially 0011
centric with the curved surface of the main arch
box to bridge the Same and divide its Space into
to direct one portion of the divided gases direct‘ 10 upper and lower combustion zones, and a de?ector
arch supported in overhanging relation to said
ly to the ?ue sheet.
211131232XS 122125;’' 5:022;
withof athe
yond the
main extending
arch to divide
the gases
tiltit???iiiii°i?iétiii?5m??? 15 sf,integrates“segregates
pomt of Support adjacent the ?ue Sheet to dwlde
crown- sheet the surface of the de?ector arch
gggwipasieegeggsgnugggr ‘2:38 lsgztgoélogggsti'gg
zones, the upper end of said arch terminating in a
nearest the main arch being arranged in. substan
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curved portlon’ and a de?ector arch of curved 20 between said surfaces to travel at substantially
section concentric with the curvature of the main
arch Supported in overhanging relation to Said
throughout the width
of the ?re
main arch with a portion extending forwardly
beyond the end of the main arch to divide the
5. In a ?re box having a lower grate Section, a '
gases of combustion rising from said grate section 95 ?ue Sheet at its real’ end, a Crown Sheet forming
prior to their passage between the main arch and '
an upper closure for the ?re box, a main arch
the crown sheet and directing the divided gases
inclined upwardly and forwardly from arearward
directly to the ?ue sheet.
point of support adjacent the ?ue sheet to divide
3. In a ?re box having a lower grate section, a '
the space between the grate section and the
?ue sheet at its rear end, a crown sheet forming 30 crown sheet into upper and lower combustion
an upper closure for the ?re box, a main arch
zones, the upper end of said arch terminating in
inclined upwardly'and forwardly from a reara curved portion, siphon tubes extending longi
ward point of support adjacent the ?ue sheet to
tudinally in said upper combustion zone, and a
divide the space between the grate section and
de?ector arch comprising ahollow, ?uid-contain
the crown sheet into upper and lower combustion 35 ing body supported in overhanging relation to
zones, the upper end of said arch terminating in
said main arch with ‘a portion extending for
a, curved portion, and a de?ector arch supported '
in overhanging relation to said main arch with
wardly beyond the end of the main arch to divide
the gases of combustion rising from said grate
a portion extending forwardly beyond the end of
section prior to their passage between the main
the main arch to divide the gases of combustion 4n arch and the crown sheet, the hollow interior of
rising from said grate section prior to their ipassaid de?ector arch being in conductive connec
sage between the main arch and the crown sheet,
the upper and lower surfaces of said de?ector
tion with said siphon tubes in the fire box for
circulating a heat-transfer liquid through the
arch being substantially concentric with the
de?ector arch.
curved surface of the main arch to direct each 45
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