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Oct. l, 1946.
E. c. LYoNS
_ 2,408,466
-MELTING MAGNESIUM METAL AND THE LIKE
Filed Nov. 9, 1944
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INVENTOR.
BY-
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@IMA ¿gi?-W» 17km; 1% l I v
A-rToRNE‘Ys
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
2,408,466
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
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MEL'rING mGNEsIUt/_i' METAL AND
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Ellis C.'Lyons, Boulder City, Nev., assigner, by
mesne assignments, to Reconstruction Finance
Y Corporation, a corporation of theUnited Statesl _
' 'Application November 9, 1944, serial No. A562,722
7 Claims.
(C1. 266-33)
This invention relates to the melting of mag
nesium and magnesium base alloys, and has for
its object the provision of certain improvements
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with molten metal and communicates with the
elongated molten metal reservoir. In the form
of the apparatus particularly adapted for'remelt
in the melting of magnesium and in the melting,
` ing clean and puriñed magnesium base alloys, the
with or without refining, of magnesium and its 5 aforementioned receptacles are unnecessary for
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settling out impurities,- and either or both may be
Magnesium is vcommonly produced by the elec- l.
trolysis of a fused bath of magnesium chloride or
by rreduction of Vmagnesium* oxide. The crude
metal is characteristically contaminated with ox- 10
ide, chloride or other impurities which are cus-
used for introducing molten metal into the reser
Voir as molten metal is discharged- therefrom, or
other‘suitable means may be provided for-such
introduction of molten metal into the reservoir;
The temperature of the fused salt bath may be
tomarily removed by remelting and/or reñning
controlled to maintain the molten metal in the
the molten metal. The reiined metal is usually
reservo-ir within a predetermined temperature
alloyed with other metals to impart desirable
Tange-
hardening and corrosion-resisting qualities there- 15
to for structural and other mechanical and commercial uses, as, for example, in the automotive
and aircraft industries. Among the many magnesium base alloys so used may be mentioned,
'
The foregoing and other novel features of the
invention which I believe to be patenta'ble are
set forth in thev appended claims. The prin
ciples of the invention will be best understood
from the following description taken in con
merely by Way of example, the magnesium-alu- 20 junction with the accompanying drawing, in
minum-zinc-manganese alloys -containing 0.1 to
which the single ñgure is a side elevation, partly
.12% aluminum, none up to 5% zinc, none up to
iny section and somewhat diagrammatic, of an
3% manganese, >and the balance essentially magapparatus embodying the invention.
nêsium- `
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`Referring to the drawing, an insulated tank 5
The meltingVV and reñning of the crude metal 25 holds _a fused salt bath'ß. The bath 6 may be
and the production of .magnesium base alloys is
heated by any convenient means but is prefer
customarily carried out at the plant where the
ablyheated by one or more pairs of electrodes 7
magnesium is produced or in plants for refining
electrically connected to a suitable source of elec
and alloying magnesium. On the other hand,
tricenergy B thro-ugh a thermostatic control de
magnesium base alloys are customarily remelted l" vice 9 including a pyrometer ID thermally asso
and -cast in foundries for manufacturing Ystruc
tural and other mechanical articles of the alloy.
~ The present invention contemplates an im
proved apparatus for melting and refining'crude
ciated with the bath.
An elongated conduit or molten metal reservoirV
I I is submerged in the fused salt bath 6. The
conduit is in the form of an oval coil extending
magnesium and for melting magnesium-base `al-’ ,-35 from near the top to near the bottom of the bath
loys, with or Without refining. In its broad aspect,
and is appropriately supported by standards I2.
the apparatus of the invention comprises an elonThe upper end of the conduit I I communicates
gated molten metal reservoir immersed in a fused
with the upper end of an enclosed receptacle or
salt bath, with means for introducing metal into
settling unit I3 completely submerged in the‘fused
the reservoir under conditions inhibiting oxida- Lio ysalt bath.y A second receptacle or settling’unit
tion, and with a Valve-controlled discharge for
Ul is immersed in the fused salt bath. The re
the reservoir, the reservoir being so constructed
ceptacle I 4 is open at its top, above the level of
that in'operation it is iilled with molten metal
the bath, and is connected to the receptacle I3'
Which flOWS 'by gravity from the point of intro#
by a conduit I5 at a level slightly below the com
duction thereto to the point of discharge there# 45 munication of the receptacle I3 with the elo-n
from. In the form of the apparatus 10211131011gated conduit II. The conduit I5 may advan
larly adapted for use in melting and reñhîng
tageously slope upward from the receptacle I4
crude magnesium, the melted metal iS held in
tothe receptacle I3. The receptacle Id has arde
two receptacles immersed Vin the fused salt bath
pending drain |5 with> a, discharge valve :1 a1;
and ?communicating with each other beneath the
the bottom. thereof The receptacle |3 has a.
molten metal level, and in' which impurities are` similar depending drain IAB with a discharge valve
permitted to settle out. One of the receptacles
i9. A heating coil 2o surrounds the lower end of
may be open to the atmosphere and the crude
each drain ‘I5 and I8, exteriorly of the bottom
metal introduced into the top thereof. The other
of the tank 5, to prevent freezing of the metal and
receptacle may be completely enclosed and is ñlled .
impurities in the drains. The lower end of the
2,408,466
3
elongated conduit II communicates with a dis
charge conduit 2 I having a valve-controlled metal
outlet 22. The conduit 2| and Valve outlet 22
may be heated to prevent freezing of the metal.
The apparatus illustrated in the drawing is
particularly adapted for magnesium refinery op
eration. Molten metal, solid pigs or shapes, scrap,
and the like may be advantageously treated in
the apparatus to separate therefrom the asso
ciated impurities such as particles of salt (cell
melt), flux, oxides etc. which may contaminate
the crude metal. The crude or contaminated
metal to be treated, for example the pig 23 illus
trated inthe drawing, is introduced into the open
upper end of the settling unit I4. Solid metal so
introduced is melted by the heat of the fused
salt bath. The impurities, being heavier than
the molten magnesium metal, settle towards the
‘bottom of the unit I4 and may be removed from
time to time through the discharge valve I1 of
said reservoir for introducing molten metal into
the reservoir when molten metal is discharged
from the reservoir.
2. An apparatus of the character described
comprising an elongated and substantially closed
molten metal reservoir submerged in e. fused bath
without communication between the interior or
said reservoir` and the material of said bath, a
settling unit submerged in said bath and com
municating near its upper end with one end of
said reservoir and having a discharge in its bot
tom for settled matter, a Valve controlled dis
charge means for the other end of said reservoir,
and means for heating said bath.
3. An apparatus of the character described
comprising an elongated and substantially closed
molten metal reservoir submerged in a fused bath
without communication between the interior of
said reservoir and the material of said bath, a
settling unit submerged in said bath and com
municating near its upper end with one end of
said reservoir and having a discharge in its bot
place in the settling unit I3 and may be removed
tom for settled matter, a valve controlled dis
from time to time through the discharge valve
charge means for the other end of said reservoir,
I 9 of the drain I8. Substantially pure metal-is
said reservoir being so constructed that in oper
delivered from near the top of the settling unit 2:5 ation it is filled with molten metal which flows
I3 lto the elongated conduit Il.
by gravity from the end communicating with said
The fused salt bath 5 is thermcstatically con
settling unit to said discharge means, and means
trolled to bring the molten metal in the elongated
operatively associated with said bath for heating
conduit II to the proper casting temperature.
This vcan be accurately accomplished in the ap 30 the same and maintaining the molten metal in
the drain I6. Further settling of impurities takes
paratus of the invention, since the salt bath
assures uniform heating of the metal in the con
said reservoir within a predetermined tempera
ture range.
el. An apparatus of the character described
comprising an elongated and substantially closed
duit within narrow ytemperature limits. Purified
molten metal is withdrawn from the conduit II,
as required for casting, through the outlet 22. 35 molten metal reservoir submerged in a fused bath
without communication between the interior of
Casting may be carried out in sand molds, per
said reservoir and the material of said bath, a
manent molds, or the like. Except for the open
settling unit submerged in said bath and com
charging .top of the settling unit I4, the parts of
municating near its upper end with one end
the apparatus holding molten metal are com
pletely enclosed, and the molten metal is effec 40 of said reservoir and having a discharge in its
bottom for settled matter, a second settling unit
tively protected against oxidation or other con
open at its top and for the most part submerged
taminating influence. The conduit II is at all
in said bath and having a discharge in its bot
times completely f1lled with molten metal, and
tom for settled matter, said settling units com
`the contemplated flow of molten metal through
municating with on-e another intermediate their
the apparatus results from the action of gravity.
ends, a Valve controlled discharge means for the
The elongated conduit or molten m-etal res
other end of said reservoir, and means for heat
ervoir I I may be made of steel, such as ste-el pipe.
ing said bath.
Such a metal conduit submerged in the fused salt
5. An apparatus of the character described
bath has little tendency to scale, rust, pit or
comprising an elongated and substantially closed
corrode, and hence has a long life. Similarly,
molten metal reservoir submerged in a fused bath
the receptacles I3 and I4 and conduit I5 may be
without communication between the interior of
made of steel.
said reservoir and the Ymaterial of said bath, a
The fused salt bath may be heated in any
settling unit submerged in said bath and com
appropriate manner, the electrodes and asso
municating near its upper end with one end of
ciated devices being described and illustrated
said reservoir and having a discharge in its bot
merely by way of example. Thus, electric resist
tom for settled matter, a second settling unit
ance units, submerged pipes through which hot
open at its top and for the most part submerged
gases pass, etc. may be substituted for the elec
in said bath and having a discharge in its bot
trodes.
tom for settled matter, a valve discharge means
The invention while particularly adapted for
for the other end of said reservoir, said settling
treating magnesium and alloys thereof, may be
units
communicating with one another interme
employed with advantage in treating other easily
oxidized metals.
,I claim:
l. An apparatus of the character described
comprising an elongated and substantially closed
molten metal reservoir submerged in a fused bath
without communication between the interior' of
said reservoir and the material of said bath,
means operatively associated with said bath for
maintaining the molten metal in the reservoir
within a predetermined temperature range, a
valve controlled discharge means operatively con
nected to one end of said reservoir, and means
diate their ends `and below the communication of
said reservoir with the first mentioned settling
unit, said reservoir being so constructed that in
operation it is iilled with molten metal which
flows by gravity from the end communicating
with said first mentioned settling unit to said
discharge means, and means for heating said
bath.
6. An apparatus for melting an easily oxidized
metal comprising an elongated and substantially
closed molten metal reservoir submerged in a
fused Ibath without COmmunication between the
operatively associated with the other end of 75 interior of said reservoir and the material of said
2,408,466 v
bath, onevend of said reservoir being adapted to
receive molten metal melted rby the heat of said
bath, and a Valve-controlled discharge means
for the other end of said reservoir, said reservoir
being so inclined that molten metal ñowsthere
through by
gravity.
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7. An apparatus for melting an easily oxidized
metal comprising an elongated and substantially
, closed molten metal reservoir submerged in a
rfused bath withoutcommunication between the 10
interior of said reservoir and the material olf said
lbath, means for introducing molten metal melted
by the heat of said bath into said reservoir under
conditions inhibiting oxidation, and a valve-con
trolled discharge means for said reservoir, said
reservoir being so constructed that in operation
it is ñlled With molten vmetal which flows by
gravìtyrfrom the point of introduction thereto to
the point of vdischarge therefrom.
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ELLIS C.y LYONS.
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