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Patented Oct. 1, 1946
UNITED"
2,408,499
STATES
f,„.-;2,408,4_99
PA'ITEI*IFTy
v - OF FICEY
i
_ PIs'roN EXRANDER'
Franks.' Wells, Aniançe, ohió-
_
ApplicationA August. 21, 1945; Í’SeriaIlNo. 6112750
»i 7 claims.
(cli> 309-12)
ThisV invention relates to‘a piston expander;
The principal object ofthis' invention is` the
adjacentïto 'the slot thereof; thusexpan'sionffis
directly“ against" the skirts of‘tl'ie piston'. It"’1s
possible' by using the device "shown and described
provision of a> pistonexpa-nder that maybe used
iso-provide the desired expansion to rtheskirt of'ßa
piston.
A1v further object ot'this-inventio'n is the pro
Vision of‘ a piston expander that will provide
desired expansion to theï sltirt‘of> a. piston and
maintainthe expansionatf all times.
‘
A' still furtherobje'ct ’of this‘invention is the
provision ofV a- piston expander incorporating a
tension'means whereby the expanding pressure
exerted'against the skirts'of the Apiston is 'made
flexible so as to Vcompensate for‘the expansion
and 'contraction ofthe piston resulting fronrheat.
A still' further object 'of thisvinvention is'the
provision of' a pistonexpander; incorporating a
unique lockingfrneans 'for' controlling the ' degree
of y eX-pansîonfto ' which > the Yexpander is set.
, It isv well known that many forms of piston
expanders have been devised toattempt to- suit
ably'expandtheskirtsof a‘piston sufficiently t'o`
compensate > for vthe wear ‘of thel piston itself and
- herein tore-snapcïthe piston‘thr'ough‘ expanding
D
the skirt to its original'size or larger so that Ythe
piston .will conform .With any irregularities'inî the
cylinder wail..
.
. With' the .foregoing ‘ and other' objects in ‘View
which 'will' appearV 'as the description~ proceeds;
the invention" resides inthe; combination. and are
rangement ci"Y parts 'and in ‘the details .of 'con
struction hereinafter described land claimed; 'it
being understood that changes in' the precise'em
bodiment'of the inventionv hereinv disclose'dfcan
be made4 within the scope of.` what is’ clafin'i‘e'd',
Without Adeparting from .» tlieï vspirit ‘ of ` the'- inven
tion.
.
The: invention 'is illustrated in th'e‘accompany'
irì‘g'drawine, wherein:A
.
Fig.' 1 isfa, View. of' Íthe piston expan'dencom'
pletelyas'sembled..
Fig.' 2"is a- detail‘v'iewofîa bolt‘ portion'Lof'the
expanderish'own in'Fig. 1'.
_
the wear of the cylinder-walls. Onetype vof'piston
Fig. 3"’i's ’a detail View' of. 'one 'of' the flanged
expander known to theartcompriseda circular 25 bushingsishown in Fig. .1.
section'of spring- steel. This type maintains a
Fig.' 4'is a detail View .of the adjustrn'entïnut
continuous expanding ‘ pressure on the piston
skirts ‘and usually -sets, up an Aundesirablel pressure
onAV the Y 'cylinder-` Walls j thus -' causing' unduel wear.
shown‘lnzlï'i'g. 1.4
..
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_.
y
.
>l1"ig"."5` is a detailviéwhf the 'selfelockin‘gï'co'il
springshowninFîgl..
.
'
,
"
"
Another type of" expander known to the artcom-` 30 Eig; .6> is 'a detail vieu/"ofï‘the’.other‘ñanged
prises a` bolt> assembly positioned between the
bushingshown in Fig. 1.
_Í .
_
.
'struts-of the older type of piston'and'which,
Tnelpa‘rts shown inFigs; 2,'3, 4; 5, and-6 come
through variousadjustments', provides‘a means
prise 4tli'efexpander. shown in Fig'. 1 and‘aresh'own
of-v expansion. This- type of expander; such as
in- the drawings'
approximately the positions
` shown‘in'Patent #2,‘057,327,"wi11, when installed
by' anexpert, result in
'satisfactoryexpansion.
However, the limitationsxof 'this' form‘ of 'exel
pander are‘chieñy‘ due to the rigid u_nyielding
expansion'obtained which Will'res'ul'tJ in freezing
or -sticking'of thepiston if‘the‘ expander' has'be'en
set» a» littletoo‘tight. The‘present' invention is
an improvement"ovent'hisV form of'. expander in
that it incorporates'the use of'a coil spring` po
sitioned abouttlie'bolt'section‘of the' expander in
such manner ’that‘the ‘expansion pressure .exerted
bylthe‘expander‘is `carril-:fd‘at all timesthrough
theícoil spring‘and~ while' the‘skirts‘ ofthe piston
may be; expanded to'any' desired deegree, the.
incorporation of thecoil‘s‘pring, provides' a ñeXi
bility that becomes ‘highly'import'ant when the
piston‘itself-'expands due totoperating'conditions
In=the-present'invention; Iä provide a piston‘ex
panden adapted for Ausevin the-newer forms' of
they Aoccupy'wlien assembled.
f
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` Fig.' 'Tis' a modiñed‘form’ of flanged" bushing
adapted to' be used‘in place of the bushing'fsh’own
in Figj3 when the expander is used in a'piston
havings'trut‘s therein.
_
.
_
'
Fig'."8ïisîa'detai1 viewiof a'm‘o'difled forni of 'the
bushing"s'l'iov‘vnV in Fig; Band. isz adapted to* be
used' on anlexp‘and'er withrthe b'ushing‘îshown in
Fig; 'Twh'en the> expander is .positionedibetwe'en
struts‘in‘a'piston;
.
_
Fig. 9 is a detail View of. a modiiiedf'o‘r‘mcof
` the bon shown innig: 2';y .the-threaded area/being.
considerably larger in. size and design’ffor'ex
pandersi subjected>l to abnormal expansion.’.pres'-Y
sures.
_
.
Fig.’ 10v`> is -across sectionalivi'ewlof’a ’piston
showingfthè expander Vshown in'FigL‘ l’p'osition‘ed
therein.
A
_
BY "referring to' Fig; 1. of* the drawing. it‘.wi‘ll`loe
se'en'th'at the vpiston expanderi'c'oinprises 'a
fhl‘ëa'ded‘b'oflt Ufa pair 'ofioppositelif disposed un
2,408,499
3
threaded flanged bushings 2 and 3 are positioned
on the opposite ends of the threaded bolt I. The
flanged bushing 2 being smaller than the flanged
bushing 3 and is positioned upon a smaller un
threaded end 4 of the threaded bolt I (see Fig. 2) .
In order that this flanged bushing 2 may be po
sitioned upon the bolt I, a hole 5 has been drilled
in the bolt I and a pair of holes E have been
drilled in the flanged bushing 2. ’I‘hese holes
are adapted to receive a cotter pin 'I. Positioned
upon the threaded bolt I and between the flanged
bushings 2 and 3 there is an adjustment nut 8 '
and a coil spring 9. Raised portions Ill formed
on the ends of the coil spring 9 are adapted to
engage slots II in the adjustment nut 8 and'
flanged bushing 3. The flanged bushing 3isfpo
4
upon the bolt when it is partially in place in the
piston. After the assembly is completed the
cotter pin 1 is placed thus positively placing the
expander in the piston, and the adjustment nut
rotated until the correct expansion is obtained.
In adapting this piston expander for use in the
new pistons using thermostatic controlled struts,
it is only necessary to substitute a thermostatic
spring for the spring ordinarily used in the ex
pander, thus’accuratelycontrolling the degree of
expansion throughout the temperature range of
the piston.
‘Having thus described my invention, what I
claim is:
1. A piston expander for adjusting the skirt
‘of ‘a slotted skirt piston comprising
pair of
flanged bushings positioned in openings in the
sltioned slidably upon the threaded bolt I and .
engages an opening in the piston skirt as does ' said skirt; a threaded bolt slidably positioned
through and between the said flanged bushings;
the flanged bushing 2. It will thus be seen .that
when assembled and positioned in a piston in 20 a coil spring positioned around the threaded bolt
and adjacent to one of the said flanged bushings;
openings in the piston skirt, the expander will
a nut threaded on `the saidthreaded bolt and
exert expanding pressure against the piston skirt
adapted to move the said coilspring-against-the
when the adjustment nut'S is rotating toward‘the
said flanged bushing so as to suitably expand
flanged bushing 3 thus `tending to compress the
coil spring 9 through which all of the expanding 25 the skirt of the said piston.
2..A piston expander -for adjusting the skirt
pressure is exerted.
of a slotted skirt .piston comprising a pair yof
It will be seen that due to the raisedportions I0
flanged bushings positioned in openings'in the
formed on the ends of the coil spring 9 and the
said skirt; a threaded bolt slidably positioned
slots I I in the contacting surfaces of the adjust
ment nut 8 >and flanged bushing >3, the adjustment 30 through and between the said flanged bushings;
a coil spring positioned around the threaded bolt
nut`8 will> be efficiently locked in position at in
and adjacent to one of thersaid flanged bushings;
numerable locationsas the raised portions I9 en
a nut threaded on the said threaded bolt and
gage the slots I I. By referring to Fig, l0 the ex
adapted to move the‘said coil spring against the
pander will be seen-positioned between the op
said flanged bushing; the said flanged bushings
posite sides I2 of the skirt of the piston and ad
formed so as to conform in shape with the inner
justment to the slot I3 therein. It will also be
seen that due to its location it does not interfere
with the adjustment wrist pin bearings I4.
When it is desired that the piston expander be
positioned in a piston formed with struts there
in, it is necessary that the flanged bushingsî
and3 be removed and modified ñangedbushings
I5 and I6 (see Figs. '7 and 8) beused so that the
flanges thereon are fiat and will suitably engage
the struts of the piston. Otherwise the expander
sides of the .said ypiston skirt so as to suitably
expand the skirt of thesaid piston.
3. A piston expander for adjusting .the struts
of aslotted skirt piston comprising a pair of
flanged bushings positioned in openings Vin the
said struts; a threadedbolt-slidably positioned
through A.and between the said »flanged bushings;
a coil spring positioned around the threaded bolt
' and adjacent to. one vofthe said flanged bushings;
projections formed on the ends of said coil spring,
a nut threaded onthe said threaded bolt and
adapted to, move the .said coily spring against the
saidflanged bushing so as to suitably expand the
of the pistons being manufactured areprovided
with openings in the skirt in which the. expander C, o struts `of the said .piston vslots formed crossways
in- said nut andthe .,last. mentioned flanged bush
may be positioned, it is a simple task todrill
ing„for registry with said projections on said
openings in pistons not so equipped. It will also
spring, an opening in said .bolt and rin Ione of said
be seen that if the outer endsof the flanged bush
flanged bushingsand akey-.positioned in said
ings2 and 3 extend through the skirt I2 of. the
is exactly the same as that yused in the newer
forms of pistons in which there are ,.no.struts.
In this connection it will be seen that while some
piston that may be easily removed bygrinding CII Ui openings so as to lock »the saidbolt to the said
flanged bushing .and thereby preventing the rota
either before or after the device hasbeenin
tion of the said bolt, the registration of the said
stalled inthe piston. When the piston expander
is used in pistons subjected to extreme pressure
such as in heavy duty air compressors, it has
been found desirable to form the threaded bolt
as shown in Fig..9, wherein the threaded section
I‘I is considerably larger than normal so that a
larger adjustment nut may be used to insure suffi
cient expanding action as the adjustmentnut is
rotated.
In order-that additional adjustment may be
made, the smaller unthreaded end .4 of the
threaded `bolt I is provided with aslot I8 cut‘
into the end thereof so that a screw driver Nor
similar tool maybe used to rotate the bolt.
In installing .this piston expander ina piston,
it is necessary that the flanged bushing 3 be in
stalled ñrst, the threaded bolt I then, being passed
through this flanged bushingß into the piston and
projections on the .spring with the slots in the
said nut and the flanged'bushingV preventing the
rotation of the said nut on the said bolt, raised
portions formed on the ends of the coil spring and
slots formed on the said nut and the said flanged
bushingso that the said raised portions of the
spring register with the said slotsto form locking
' means to prevent thenut frornrevolving on the
said bolt, and an >opening formed in the said
bolt and in oneof the said flanged bushings, and
a key positioned in the ,said opening so as to lock
the said boltto .the [said ,hanged bushing and
thereby prevent its rotation.
4. The Acorn'binationof a piston comprising a
slotted piston skirt having oppositely disposed
openings therein; anda piston expander com
prisinga pair ,of flanged bushings positioned in
the various other portions ofV the device placed 75 the said openings; a threaded bolt positioned
2,408,499
5
through and between the said bushings; a coil
spring positioned around the said threaded bolt
and adjacent to one of the said flanged bushings;
i a nut threadably positioned upon the saidthread->
ed bolt adjacent to the said coil spring and serv-- ì
ing as a means of moving the said coil spring
through and between the said flanged bushings;
a coil spring positioned around the threaded bolt
and adjacent to one of the saidiñanged bushings;
a nut threaded on the saidthreaded bolt and
adapted to move the said coil spring against the
said flanged bushing; the said flanged bushings
and the said ñanged bushing in relation to the
formed so as to conform in shape With the inner
said threaded bolt and the other fianged bushingA .
so> as to suitably expandthe skirt of the said
10
5. The combination of a piston comprising a
sides of the said piston skirt; an opening in said
piston.
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slotted piston skirt havingparallel struts there
in, the said parallel struts having oppositely dis
posed openings; a piston expander comprising a
pair of flanged bushings positioned in the said
openings; a threaded bolt positioned through and
between the said bushings; a coil spring posi
bolt and in one of said flanged bushings and a
key positioned in said openings so as to lock the
said bolt to the said flanged bushing and thereby
prevent the rotation of the said bolt.
7. A piston expander for adjusting the skirt of
a slotted skirt piston comprising a pair of flanged
bushings positioned in openings in the said skirt, ~
a threaded bolt slideably positioned through and
between the said flanged bushings; a coil spring
tioned around the said threaded bolt and adja
positioned around the threaded bolt and adja
cent to one of the said ñanged bushings; a nut
cent to one of the said flanged bushings; a nut
threadably positioned upon the said threaded 20 threadedl on the said threaded bolt and adapted
bolt adjacent to the said coil spring and serving
to'movíng the said coil spring against the said
as a means of moving the said coilspring and
ñangedibushing; raised portions formed on the
the said ñanged bushing in relation to the said
ends of the said coil spring; slots formed in the
threaded bolt and the other flanged bushing so
said nut and said ñanged bushing, between which
as to suitably adjust the strutsfof the said piston 25 the said coil spring is placed, so thatvthe said
for the purpose of expanding the skirt thereof.
praised yportions of the spring registers with the
6. A piston expander for adjusting the skirt
said slots to form locking means to prevent the
of a slotted skirt piston comprising a pair of
nut from revolving on the said bolt.
flanged bushings positioned in openings in the
said skirt; a threaded bolt slideably positioned 30
FRANK E. WELLS.
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