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Патент USA US2408505

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Oct. l', 1946',
SBERGSTEIN
'
2,408,504
xmms Foa comme wEßs
Find sept. 14. 1944
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'Sn/nuez. BERGSTEIN,
BY
0¢t~ l, 1946.
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s. BERGsTElN
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Filed sept. 14, 1944
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2,408,504
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59mm. Benssreuv, I
INVENÍOR.
BY
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
2,408,504
UNITED. STATES PATENT orrica
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`
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2,408,504
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MEANS Fon coA'rING WEBS
Samuel Bergstein, Cincinnati,
Ohio.> assignor to A
Robert
Motrèrie: Bergstein and Frank David Berg.
stein, trus
Application September 14, 1944, Serial No. 554,022
My invention relates to devices for applying
a continuous coating of lacquer or other coating
materials to a continuous web of paper or the
like.
'
It is an object of my invention to provide a
>mechanism whereby coatings containing solvents
may be applied to the web without any material
loss of the solvent during the actual coating op-,
eration. Thus, the characteristics of a supply ofv
the coating material at the coating station is not
subject to progressive changes due to solvent loss
during the coating operation.
A further obiect of my invention is to provide
an extremely simple and low cost coating mech
anism which is adjustable' to a full range of
webs within the width limit of the machine,
2
but spaced therefrom so that the web must fol..
low a short tangential path in reaching the doc- ‘
tor blade. Side members are provided which en--
gage the surface of the web upon the cylinder,
and are appropriately shaped to do this. The
side members, however, have extensions, the
lower edges of which follow the adjacent tan
_ gential path.
They also have end portions closely
approaching surfaces of the knife or doctor. The
doctor and the side members together form with
the web a reservoir in which a. relatively small -
quantity of the coating substance may be main
tained, the side members acting as dams for this ' ’
reservoir and permitting both the use ïof lower
viscosity materials and the maintenance of very
much less volume in the reservoir than would
which is readily adjustable to the coating of films
of different thicknesses, and which provides a
be possible otherwise.
v
In the drawings, a'roll or supply of the web _
smooth, continuous coating on the web with a
to be coated is indicated at I, mounted upon a
'
l
20 suitable shaft or mandrel 2, which in turn may
A further object of my invention is the pro:`
be supported by a conventional back stand or
vision of means for coating which will prevent
unwinding stand. It should be understood that
or minimize loss of the coating substance upon
the unwinder may be va separate instrumentality
stoppage of the machine or breakage of the web.
These and other objects of my invention, 25 or may be part of a single machine, as a mat
ter of design. The unwinding device will be
which will b__e set forth hereinafter or will be ap
provided with a brake la to prevent overrun
parent to one skilled in lthe art upon reading this
minimum of waste and Spoilage.
ning and to tension the web.
_ specification, I .accomplish by that certain con
procedure of which I shall now describe an ex~
emplary embodiment.
,
It should be understood also that instead of
rectly unwinding the _web from a rolled sup
struction and arrangement of parts and in that
30 pLv and coating it as shown in the figures of this
v_Reference is made to the drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic pian view `of a
' mechanism according to my invention, the sup
~ case, the web may proceed to my mechanism from
some other source oi' supply, such as al previous
machine acting on the web, in which event pre
cautions will be taken to restrain the web as
ply tank being shown in dottedlines, the cover 35 aforesaid.
so that it may be tensioned.
’
being omitted. .
’
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic sectional view of
. the mechanism shownin Figure 1. taken along
the center line of that figure.
Figure 3 is a diagrammatic plan view of a now 40
control means.
‘
_
Figure 4 is a partial sectional view of the tank
showing flow control means.
The web 3 passes around a break-over roll «i
on its way to a draw roll or cylinder 5. The ‘
break-over roll may, if desired, be surfaced with
rubber.
'
'
I prefer to drive the draw roll or cylinder l;
and the provision of a variable speed drive, in
dicated at I8 between the roll 5 and a source of
power 20, enables me at this point to control
the speed of travel of the web 3 as it is being
Figure 5 is a partial isometric view oi' the cover.
Figure 6 is a partial isometric view of a side 45
coated. such speed variation being .desirable in
member showing adjustable means.
'
view of the nature oi' various coating substances
Briefly, in the practice of- my invention, -Iy
in the production of coatings o: desired weights.
- cause a web to be coated to pass around the sur
The break-over roll l is located closely ad
face of a relatively large diameter cylinder or
jacent to the draw roll 5. As the draw roll re
draw roll. tensioning the web as this is done so
as to cause it to lie smoothly against the sur- . sq volves in the direction of the arrow, the web is
caused to pass tightly around its surface for a
face of the cylinder without wrinkles or buckles. „_ considerable
portion of its circumference, thus
I carry the web away from the surface of the
causing
the
web
to be smoothed out and freed of
cylinder and beneath a knife or doctor which
wrinkles.
l
` ls located close
to the surface of the cylinder is
An adjustable blade or scraper 8 is suitably
2,408,504
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mounted in a way to be contacted by the web 3
at a position close to but not at the surface of
the draw roll 5. The scraper or knife may be
mounted in various ways as, for example, at its
ends in side frames (not shown), of the machine»
is’preferabiy rounded, as shown inthe drawings,
lso that itmay be adjusted to different angular
relationships with the web, and means for an
gular adjustment are also provided. „I have
shown the knife or doctor 6 mounted on a shaft
extending transversely across the machine. and
provided with set screws; but other mountings
_ and adjustment means may be employed.
tity to replenish the supply of coating material
thereat. The iiow will be regulated in accordance
with the viscosity of the coating material and
the speed of travel of the web.
The tank may be constructed and operated in
a variety of ways. I prefer to provide an elon
gated tank which, as shown, extends across the
width of the area to be coated, and is also
15 equipped with a suitable cover to prevent undue
The
angular relation of the knife to the web is one
of the factors controlling thethickness of _the
applied coating.
'
After passing beneath the doctor or knife 6,
the web 3 is drawn away at an agle tothe tan
gent and passes between upper and lower pinch
rolls 1 and 8.
.
formof a slot or through a series of small, spaced
orifices. Suitable means are provided for the
regulation of flow of the coating material so as
to deliver to the coating knife the proper quan
Or it may be otherwise mounted on or in a mem
ber extending across between the side frames.
It is also made rotatably adjustable as to posi-'
tion. The working surface of the, doctor or knife
4
trolled stream flows out of the lower end of this
tapered base through a narrow channel in the
^
Adjustable, shaped side members 9 and l0 are
provided. 'The under surfaces of these members
have a portion i2 configured to conform to the
surface of the web on the surface of _the draw
roll 5, and another portion I3 contoured to con
form to the web in its short tangential travel be-l
tween the surface of the draw roll 5 and the act
evaporation of solvent. Such a tank may be pro
vided at its base with a series of outlet perfora
tions 23 (Figure 4) and also with a sliding plate
Y 24, similarly perforated as at 25, and serving both
as a means for opening and closing the perfora
tions and asa means for regulating the volume
of flow of the coating substance. For this pur
pose it may be provided at one end with an ad
justabie stop 26 to control the open position and
at the other end with a fixed stop 21 to determine
a closed position. It may be spring-urged as at
28 to the closed position and moved to open posi
tion, if desired, by solenoid 29 or other means con
nected as by leads 30 to the circuit of the main
drive for roll 5. Thus if the machine is stopped,
the flow of coating substance from the tank will
cease automatically.
`
ing surface of the vknife or doctor B. The ex
My invention is particularly adapted to coating
treme ends of the side members are contoured, as
with lacquers or other substances in solution in
at it, to respond to the knife or doctor 6 in one’
position thereof. Where the knife or doctor must v35 volatile solvents. lExamples are: vinyl resins or
other resins dissolved in acetone, alcohol, or sim
ilar solvents. The great bulk of the coating ma- terial is retained in a. tank so that it is not sub
stituted, or the side members 9 and I0 may be
ject to loss o_f solvent during the coating opera
provided with adjustable extensions, indicated
at i5, to permit them to be adjusted 'to various 40 tion. as would be the case, for example, were the
coating substance maintained in the conventional
positions of the knife or doctor. These exten
'fountain and roller coating mechanism. When
sions may be plates, held to the `side member. by
such mechanisms are employed with coating ma
abolt ZI, and slotted as at 22 to permit appro
terials containing volatile solvents, there is a
priate adjustment.
constant and large solvent loss which increases
The side members 9 and i0 may be so placed
costs because. of the need for adding additional
as to rest on extreme marginal portions of the
solvent from time to time. Solvent loss also
web 3; and they serve as dams so that avery
makes the coating operation difficult because of
small quantity of the coating material may be
progressive changes in the viscosity of the coat
continuously confined by the knife, the web, and
ing material as the solvent evaporates. In' my
two side members.y Coating material is thus not. ,
apparatus and- process, a much better control of lost off the edges of the web as in many coating
the coating is obtained because the quantity ex
\ operations, nor is it necessary to minimize this
posed under conditions where solvent eva-poration
loss by maintaining a high viscosity in the coat
can occur is very greatly minimized, while the
ing material.> The members 9 and l0 may be
great bulk of the coating material is maintained
caused to rest at their proper positions by gravity, ,
in a closed tank where evaporation is minimized
wherefore, I have shown them slotted, as at I6,
be adjusted to other rotative positions, other ap
propriately shaped side members may be sub
the cross member il between the frames of the '
machine engaging in these slots. The members
or prevented. It should be noted, however, that -
the utility of my invention is not confined to sol
vent type coatings, but may be'employed for vari
9 and i0 are thus able to ride up and down as
may be required for webs of different or differing 60 ous other types. Emulsions in water may be ap
plied in accordance with my invention and, in
thicknesses; but because it is a very short tangen
deed, coatings which require heat for the control
tial path of travel for the web between the sur
of~ viscosity'may likewise be employed together
face of the draw roll 5 and the line of contact of
with means for applying heat to the tank and
the doctor 6 with the web, the web is maintained
in close engagement with the undersides of the 65 means, such as enclosed'electric heaters in the
scraper blade to maintain the temperature of the '
members 9 and it) by the tension aforesaid.
coating substance, so long-as the web being coated
The weight of the members 9 and' I 0 constitutes
is capable of withstanding the heats involved.
very little drag on the web. Since these elements
The adjustment of my mechanism, when
overlie marginal edges of the web, these edges re
v.main uncoated; but they may be later trimmed oil 70 changing from one width of web to another, is
extremely simple and involves only the proper
by knives or shearing means, as will be readily
understood.
'
.
A tank Il for coating material is mounted above
the surface of the draw roll. Thisv tank is tapered
_ at its base, and the coating material in a con
-positioning of the side members so that they rest
upon the marginal edges of the particular width
of web being coated. Where it is desired to coat '
75 different parts _of the same web with different
__
:mossosl
'
6
9 and i0. The direction of tangential travel of
substances, one or more additional members, like
- the web from the draw roll 6 to the blade is pref
those shown at 9 and I0, may be employed inter
' mediate
in the tank
the I1others
or suitable
and with
separate
suitable
tanksd_ivisions4
as mal1
_erably inclined downwardly, as shown; and the
path is short, being at most several inches, so
that there is no great area of unsupported web
be desired, so that different coating materials
may be applied -to different areas ,of the web.
The coating material which flows from the ‘
between the draw-roll and the doctor blade.
A cover member i8 may be used in connection'
with my apparatus, having depending side plates
tank l1 is delivered directly onto the web and is
i8a, and being'supported on the side frames of
trapped in the pool aforesaid formed'by the-de#
pression of the web itself between the blade and 10 the machine by extensions i8b in such a way as
to cover the side members, the doctor bladev and
the draw roll with ~the side members acting as
the reservoir of material formed on the web.- It
dams. The amount of material held in this pool
will be slotted as at 82 to receive the nose of the
or reservoir at any given time `>is small, >so that
the coating operation may ‘be caused to occur so
Modifications may be made in my invention
rapidly that evaporation prior to coating is ren 15.
without. departing from the spirit of it._ Having
dered immaterial. ~The actual thickness _or
thus described my invention in an exemplary em
weight of the applied _coating iscontrolled by
bòdiment, what I claim as new-»and desire to- se»>
the adjustment of the blade. The coating occurs
tank.
uniformly across the » face of the web.
.
y
'
cure by Letters Patent is:
The
‘
1. In a coating machine, a draw roll, a doctor
amount of flow from the tank i1 is controlled, 20
blade having an operative edge located adjacent
. so that it is necessary only to start the machine.'
but spaced from the surface of said draw roll,
establish the desired _relationship between the
means for moving a web under tension around
weight of coating desired, the speed of travel of!>
the web, and the angularity of the knife, and ' a substantial circumferential portion of said draw
roll and thence tangentially to the operating
then determine the amount of flow from the tank
edge of said doctor blade, means for introducing I1 which willvmaintain the reservoir in the de
pression of the web. Once this adjustment has _, coating material ontol said web -adjacent said
, been secured, the machine will continue indeñ- 1
nitely to apply a continuous film -uniformly to
the web.
.
»
As shown in. Figure l, the lower pinch roll 8
' 3" .c
I is preferably a continuous cylinder contacting-the
doctor blade so as to cause said material to dam
up against said doctor blade, and means for ad
justing the amount of coating applied to said -
web by angular adjustment o! said doctor blade
with respect to the tangential path of travel .of
uncoated under side of the web. Instead of a
said blade.
continuous upper cylinder, I. may employ small
friction discs 1, mounted upona shaft 1a, so that
these vdiscs may be caused to contact the web on
its uncoated marginal edges. The shaft 'ia may
blade having an operative 'edge located adjacent
but spaced from the surface of said draw roll,
2. In a coating'machine, la draw roll, a doctor'~
means for moving a web under tension around
a substantial circumferential portion of said draw
be driven by suitable means, such as a motor 3l, .
at a slightly higher rate of speed than the speed
roll and thence tangentially to the operating edge
of web travel, and continuously, i.-e. they con 404 of said doctor blade, means for introducing coat
tinue to rotate even though the main drive is idle.
ing material onto said web adjacent said doctor
f When the machine is stopped, as for example to
blade- so- as to cause said material to dam up
make an adjustment, the tension rollers or discs
against said doctor blade, and means for adjust
1 serve to maintain tension in the web so that, '
ing the amount of coating appliedv to said web
whether moving or stationary, the web is at all
by angular adjustment oi said doctor blade with
times held in tension against the blade or doctor 45 respect to thetangential path of travel of said
. S. The maintenance of the coating material in
blade, and means resting on the margins of said
-the reservoir is thus assured.’ The use of the
web and shaped to conform in part to the sur
friction discs 1 instead of a. continuous roll pre- ' ` face of said draw roll, in part to said tangential
`vents any displacement of the coating by such
path oi' travel, and to a i’ace of said doctor blade.
_ Y a roll if the coating has nothardened 'or set by 5o >3. The structure claimed in claim -2 wherein
>the time the web reaches elements 'l and 8.
the means for introducing the coated material
After leaving elements 'I and 8, the web may
onto said web includes an overhead tank with
ypass through a drying tunnel, it desired, and
adjustable outlet means.
' thereafter may be rewound or sheeted in the cus
'
4. The structure claimed in claim 2 wherein '
tomary manner or may be conducted directly to 55 the means for introducing the coating material
other mechanisms to operate upon it, as for ex
onto said web includes an overhead tank with
ample, mechanisms i'or_ bag formation. Such
adjustable outlet means, said tank being closed
`other mechanisms'form no limitation upon my
except for `said outlet means whereby to mini
mize yevaporation of solvent from a coating sub
invention.
,
'
, , From the above, it will be apparent that my
invention provides a simple means for effectively
supplying a, uniform coating to- a web. No elab
crate doctor blades or coating rollers are required,
the coating being done by a simple blade adjust
able directly on the web. \ Except. for a minimum
quantity reservoir oi the coating material on the4 web itself, the coating materialis retained in a
closed container or tank whereby loss oi.' solvent
is minimized; The coating is done immediately
after the web has passed around the draw roll l,
so that the web is positively maintained in a
smooth and unwrinkled condition as the coating
is applied. The low quantity reservoir of coating
material is formed on the web itself, and is main
tained by the doctor blade and the side members
30
stance.
-
'
\
' 5. The structure claimed in claim 2 wherein
the means for introducing the coating material
onto said web includes an overhead tank with
65 adjustable outlet means, said tank being closed
except for said outlet means whereby to mini
„
mize evaporation o! solvent from a coating sub
stance, and having means to interrupt the flow
oí the coating material upon interruption of the
70`movement. of said web.
e. The strucmre claimed in ciaim 2 wherein ' '
means resting on the margins ofsaid-web have
attheir ends means adjustable to conform to the
face oi’ said doctor blade in varyingpositions
75 thereof.
»
,
2,409,504
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7. The structure claimed in claim 2 wherein
said means resting on the margins of said web
have at their ends means adjustable to conform
to the face of said ldoctor blade in varying posi
tions thereof, and wherein a cover member is
engaging uncoated marginal portions of said web.
said frictional discs being driven, and said draw
roll being likewise driven, the drive for said fric
tion discs being operative independently of the
drive for said draw roll.
provided enclosing said doctor blade, said mem
11. In a coating machine, means for applying
bers resting on the margins of said web as said
braking
resistance to a web, a break-over roll, an
web is being coated;
adjacent draw roll, a doctor blade near the sur
8. The structure claimed in claim 2 wherein
face of said draw roll but spaced therefrom and
said means resting on the margins of said web 10 means for engaging and moving a web under ten
have at their ends means adjustable to conform
sion, in the order named, said break-over roll
to the face of said doctor blade in varying posi
acting to conduct said web to the surface of said
tions thereof, and wherein a cover member is pro
draw roll, said draw roll being positioned with
vided enclosing said doctor blade, said members
respect to said break-over> roll and said doctor
resting on the margins of said web as said web 15 blade to cause the web to pass around a substan
' is being coated,‘said means for moving said web
tial portion of its surface, said draw roll and said
under tension comprising initial feeding means
engaging and moving means being located with
and retarding means therefor, and subsequent
means for moving the web, said last mentioned
means comprising a lower roll contacting an un
coated face of said web and upper coacting fric
tion discs engaging uncoated marginal portions
respect to said doctor blade so as to cause said
web to move tangentially to engage an edge of
said doctor blade and then to move at an angle
to the tangent toward said engaging and moving
means, the said tangent being downwardly di
of sai(- web.
rected. and means for delivering coating material
9. The structure claimed in claim 2 wherein
into the bight between said web and said doctor
said means resting on the margins of said web 26 blade.
have at their ends means adjustable to conform
l2. The structure claimed in claim 11 wherein
to the face of said doctor blade in varying posi
said engaging and moving means operate contin
tions thereof, and wherein a cover member is
uously at a peripheral speed slightly in excess of
provided enclosing said doctor blade, said mem
the speed of travel of said web.
bers resting on the margins oi' said web as said 30
13. The structure claimed in claim 11 wherein
web is being coated, said means for moving said
said engaging and moving means operate con
web under tension comprising initial feeding
tinuously at a peripheral speed slightly in excess
means and retarding means therefor, and sub
oi' the speed of travel __of said web, and wherein
sequent means for moving the web. said means
there are means engaging marginal portions of
comprising a lower- roll contacting an uncoated 35 said web and resting thereon, said means con
face of said web and upper coacting friction discs
forming to said web on the surface of said draw
engaging uncosted marginal portions voi' said
roll, following said tangential path and conform
web, said frictionai discs being driven,- and said
insr to a surface oi.' said doctor blade.
^
draw roll being likewise driven.
14. The structure claimed in claim 11 wherein
10; The structure claimed in`claim 2 wherein` 4:0 said engaging and moving means operate con
said means resting on .the margins of said web
tinuously at a peripheral speed slightly in excess
have at their ends means adjustable to conform
of the speed of travel of said web, and wherein
to the face of said doctor blade in varying posi
there are means engaging marginal portions of
tions thereof, and wherein a cover member is
said web and resting thereon. said means con
provided enclosing said doctor blade, said mem 45 forming to said web on the surface of said draw
bers resting on the margins of said web as said
roll. following said tangential path and conform
web is being coated, said means for moving said
ing to al surface of said doctor blade, and means
web under tension comprising initial feeding
for maintaining the positions of said last men
means and retarding means therefor. and subse
tioned members >in :the horizontal plane, while
quent means for moving the web, said means 60 leaving said .members free for gravity actuated
comprising a lower rollv contacting an uncoated
vertical movement.
face of said web and upper coacting friction discs
SAMUEL BERGSTEIN.
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