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Патент USA US2408515

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06L 1, 1945-
I
V c. w. HAZELETT
2,403,514
_ METAL WORKING PROCESS AND_APPARATUS
Filed April 10, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
,
INVENTQR
, I
an
I BY W
_ '
A-TTO‘RNEY
2,408,514
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
UNITED ‘STATES PATENT orrrce :
METALWO-RKING rnoonsslmn
APPARATUS
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Clarence W. Haaelett, Greenwich, (John;
»
Application April '10, 1943, Serial N0. 482,606
19 Claims. (Cl. 22—-57,2)
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1
i
This invention relates to a metal workingproc
ess for the production of seamless tubing directly
from molten metal, The invention relates'fur
ther to one form of apparatus that may be used
for the carrying out .of the process. My invention relates further to modi?cations, both in the
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relatively to the pouring plane of the metal.
Preferably this endw-ise movement takes place
at the same- time that the. .metal is rotating with
the-mold, andpreferablyeifects movement of
.
process and in the apparatus, for'the production
of round barsv and bi-metallic seamless tubing.
At the present time, seamless tubing is manu
factured commercially'by several processes, all
of which are relatively expensive‘for a ‘number
of reasons well understood by those skilled in the
art. Seamless bi-metallic tubing is extremely ex
pensivedespite the many efforts that have been
made to ‘reduce the cost of manufacturing such
tubing.
As I have already indicatedvthe object of my
invention is the forming ofseamleSs tubing ‘di
rectly from the molten metal, an object that those
the metal relatively‘ to the rotating mold; It is
obvious that the endwise and rotary movement of
the metal will result in the solidifying metal
being in the form of a helix. .
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V
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It is a further ‘feature’ of ‘my ‘invention that the
convolutions vof the helix, or the helical ribbon of
metal that is» deposited on the .mold,:are welded
.to a one another.
It: is a» particular feature of _ this
portion ‘of myHi-nven-tion that this Welding takes
place through theoverlapping -»of the successive
convolutions of the helical. ribbon .of -metal,»and
with the ‘last pouredmetal'welding to the imme
diately preceding convolution ‘deposited-on the
rotating "mold because-the last poured metal
and the preceding convolution are in a condition
to permit welding. vUnder another theoryof‘my
skilled in the art will undoubtedly appreciate has I20 invention, the several convolutions may be juxta
been frequently attempted ‘but without success.
posed and be welded through-arching of the '
The process and apparatus to be described‘herei
~c9nVe1-utlons into welded relation. In- the'pre
inafter have actually been used ‘by me for the
vferred‘form of my invention, however, the‘sev
manufacture of seamless tubing and-have ‘been
found extremely successful. In describing my 25 eral convolutions are overlapped and are rolled
process and apparatus I shall ,of course outline '
certain theories of operation that I now believe
into welded-‘relation.
.
In this preferred form of pay invention, this
rolling action takes place just after ‘the metal
poured onto the rotating-mold, but those skilled
processrand apparatus‘ However, I do not wish 30 is
in
the art will appreciate that the-rolling may
the, patent claims to be granted me to be limited
take ‘place at'fvario-us points depending on the
by the. theories. 1 shall set forth since those vtheo
cooling conditions, the metal, and other variable
ries may prove vnotto be entirely correct ‘or com
Those skilled in the artfwi-ll'readily
‘
fa ctors'.
plete.v It will be well also to consider that the
appreciate ‘also-after a full study of the speci?ca
apparatus that’ I shall outline hereinafter is - tion and drawings of this application, that my
merely exemplary of one form of meanswhe-reby
invention need not necessarily be, carried on in
my process. may be successfully carried on, and
the exact manner which I now‘ consider the pre
that other arrangements of apparatus may be
to be true fromthose studies I have made of my
successfully used'followirrg my teachingsto the
.art. It will be well to remember also, that while
I shall describe a process in which severalsteps
are .used, sub-combinations‘ of the ‘process, omit
ting certain steps, may yield excellent results, and
I shall include in this application claims covering
such.sub—.combinations.
_
ferredlform, and that variations thereof within .
the scope of myteachings to the prior‘ art will
readily occur to those skilled in the art,
As a further feature of my invention, I prefer
to roll the metal tubing-additionally, ‘at appoint
beyond its initial formation through welding of
the. ,convolutions thereof, ‘and this additional
whereby I obtain seamless tubing direetly'v’fr'om
rolling is useful. in disposing of the surplus metal
that may be: deposited onthe inner surface of
molten metal, the metal is poured on to a rotat
the -tubing.,y=and inv the smoothing thereof.
,As an important feature of my invention
ing mold in such a manner as to be'carried away
As a further feature of ‘my invention I am able
by the mold,~the metal solidifying on the ‘mold as
it is‘ being carried away. It is a further preferred.
to form a- bi-rmetallicv tubing through the utiliza
tion of ‘the ?rstformed-tubing as the mold for a
second --formed inner tubing. Somewhat simi
feature of my invention that the metal poured
onto the mold rotates'wi‘th ‘the ‘mold ‘by means
larly, my invention is applicable .to - the forming
that may be provided for the particular purpose.
-of asolid-bar of metal through the pouring of
As a still further feature of my invention, the
metal into the seamless tubing that is formed
metal deposited on the» mold is moved endwise': 55
2,408,514
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by the utilization of the apparatus and process
of mv invention.
I have thus described generally the main fea
be placed a thrust washer 3|. A second thrust
washer 32 is applied between the rollers l3 and
20 and a drive ring 33 that is in» threaded as
sembled relation to the mold member ID. The
tures of my invention and my contribution to
the prior art in order that ‘the breadth of my in
threaded drive ring 33 is equipped with a series
of resilient drive ?ngers 34 that are adapted to
engage and rotate What I term “bait,” and there
after the tubing that is formed in the mold mem
ber Hi, all as will be hereinafter set forth in more
particular steps of the process to be outlined
hereinafter. and to the understanding of a pre 10 detail.
For cooling.r the tubing, I illustrate cooling pipes
ferred form of the apparatus that I shall here-'
vention and its relation. to the prior art may bet—
ter be appreciated. The general description pre
sented will ‘also help in an appreciation of the
inafter disclose for carrying on my process. Nat
urally. as I have already suggested. the nature of
my invention is such that it should not be lim
35 in Fig. 1, these being merely diagrammatically
in exaggerated form the manner in which the
convolutions of the helical ribbon of metal are
which a coolant may be fed to the roller 45. In
shown. Naturally, other cooling sources may be
providedand may be located as may be required,
ited by the particular apparatus I shall describe. 15 depending upon the quality of tubing manufac
tured, the material utilized and other variable
the particular seouence of the steps that I shall
and controlling factors.
set forth. nor the theory of operation of the proc
The metal that is poured onto the surface H
ess. since variations of the process steps. the
of mold member ID for the forming of tubing, is
theory of operation. and the apparatus itself will
readily occur to those to whom the disclosure of 20 supplied from a ladle 40 and through its pour
ing spout 4| into an adjustable metal pourer 42.
my invention is presented.
The pourer 42 is readily adjustable through
Referring now to the drawings. Fig. 1 is a ver
means designated generally by numeral 43, so
tical diagrammatic section of a machine used by
that the quantity of metal M ?owing onto the
me for carrying out the process of my invention.
Fig. 2 is a section of a modi?ed form of the ma 25 mold surface II, and that part of the surface H
on which it is deposited may be determined, all
chine of Fig. 1 used for forming solid round bars.
as illustrated in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an end view of the machine shown in
For rolling the surface of the tubing that is
Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a modi?ed form of the invention
formed in the mold l0 by the metal M, I use a
of Figs. 1 and. 2 illustrating the manner in which
my invention may be utilized to form a bi-metal 30 roller 45 mounted on a standard 46 through
the intermediary of ball bearings 41. The roller
lic bar. Fig. 5 is a section through a portion of
45 is hollow and houses therein a pipe 48 through
a tube formed by my invention and illustrating
used to form a ?nished tube.
the particular relationship of the parts illus
35 trated, the roller 45 is adapted to contact the
metal M poured onto the mold I!) just after that
metal is actually deposited on the mold I0, it be
ing understood that preferably the speed of ro
nated by reference numeral l0, and is formed with
tation of the mold I0 is such that the metal will
an inner surface I I that mav be tapered outwardly
as is \clearly evident from Fig. 1. That portion of 40 adhere to it by centrifugal force and be moved
toward roller 45. It will of course be appreciat
the inner surface designated by reference nu.
ed that under certain conditions the metal will
meral Ila, is used to determine the outside di
adhere to mold Ill su?iciently merely through
ameter of the tubing to be formed. the tapering
cooling, whereby to be carried by that mold into
of the surface I I being adapted. as will herein
Referring now more particularly to the draw
ings. the rotating mold. of mv invention is desig
after appear more clearly, to allow for a ready
withdrawal of the ?nished tubing from the mold
Ill. The mold I0 is adapted to be driven by what
I term a driving roll I3 secured to a shaft I4 and
driven by a gear l5 through a pinion IS. The
pinion l 6 may be on the shaft of a variable speed
motor and is used to drive the roll I 3 and there
by impart rotation to the mold 18 as will readily
f coaction with the roller 45.
As was set forth generally in the earlier part
of- the speci?cation, it is a preferred feature of
vmy invention that the solidifying metal deposited
on the mold- [0 be moved endwise relatively to
the mold l0 and the point where the metal is
deposited onto the surface II. It is preferred
also that this endwise movement take place as
the metal is rotated with the mold H].
be apparent. The shaft 14 is well supported by
For rotating the metal with the mold II], the
ball bearings l1 through a substantial standard
!8 and is thus held in suitable operating relation 55 resilient drive ?ngers 34 are utilized, those
to the mold Hi.
?ngers, it being remembered, being secured to the
driving ring 33. For moving the tubing endwise,
Cooperating with the driving roll I3 are a pair
I utilize a friction screw member 50 mounted on
of backing rolls 20 shown in Fig. 3, and probably
the right hand end 2311 of thesame shaft 23 on
best illustrated in Fig. 1. Each roll 20 is sup
ported by a bearing 2! relatively to an eccentric 60 which is mounted the backing roll 20 illustrated
in Fig. 1. The pressure of the friction screw
sleeve 22 mounted on a shaft 23, and each of
roller 50 against the tubing may be regulated
the shafts 23 is held in ?xed relation by a stud
24 relatively to a standard 25. Each of the ec~
by an eccentric sleeve 51 that functions in ex
centric sleeves 22 is formed with an arm 25
actly the same manner as do the eccentric sleeves
whereby it may be rotated relatively to the shaft‘ 65 22 already described in considerable detail.
Mounted about the shaft I4 through a bushing
23 to move the roller 25 mounted thereon toward
and away from the mold ID. In this way. an ad
'justment of the rollers 20 is readily obtained.
The eccentric sleeves 22 may be secured in any
adjusted position by thumb turns 2'! threaded
sleeve 52 is a further backing roll 53, the func_
tion of‘ which will be quite apparent to those
skilled in the art.
For starting the endwise and rotary move
‘ment of the poured metal I utilize what I term
bait. This bait is in the form of a sleeve 54 that
is formed at its extreme left end with a very thin
section 55 pierced for a series of holes 56 into
onto adjusting studs 28 that traverse slots in the
arms 26 and ?anges 29 of the standards 25.
The rotating mold member ID is formed with a
shoulder30 at its left end in Fig. 1, and between
this shoulder and the rollers l3 and 20 there may 75 which the metal M will'enter.
The holes 56
2308,5814
serve to bond- the "metal ?rmly to ether‘ bait :a'siis
apparent. ‘The ‘bait 514 will of course -'be :moved
'endwise‘in ‘the direct-ion of the arrow 5'! ‘by ‘the
screw ,‘friction roller 50 ‘or by ‘othermeans, 'while
rotated 'by'the resilient drive ?ngers'3'4, and will
‘carry ‘with "it ‘the “solidifying meta-l ‘itube. It vis
obvious that the rotary and 'endwise movement
imparted ‘to the metal deposited on‘themfold 3M
will cause vthe metal to assume the vform or a N
Naturally,_ the several
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‘
‘helical ribbon of metal.
convolutions of this helical'ribbon of metal may
be .made to overlap ' somewhat "by an r-adjustment
of "the, pouring rate relatively to the ‘speed of
rotation of the mold l0 and the end-wise move- I
ment of‘ the solidifyingmetal. The roller '45 will '
roll the ,convo'luti'ons ‘to form a consolidated vtub
ing with the 'convolut-ions preferably vdisappear
ing into one another andwelding to‘one another.
This welding will take place because the last
poured ‘metal coming in contact with the roller "v
45;‘as‘well-as ‘at least the immediately preceding
convolution ‘of the helical metal ribbon, are in a
State‘to permit welding ofthe two. ‘My process
has actually been carried on successfullyto make
tubing of six ‘inches outside diameter ‘and with
‘a wall thickness ranging from .1-25 to .5 inch.
In making‘thi-s tubing I have rotated the mold
H! at a speed of 130 ‘R. P. M. andjhave‘ moved
the "solidifying metal endwi'se at the rate 6-‘1’8
inchesper minute.
7
Under some conditions, the several convolu
tions of the helical metal‘ribbon maybe poured so
as to lie vmerely juxtaposed. In such ‘an event,
the roller 45 will be relied upon to roll the-con
‘volutions of the ‘helical metal ribbon into welded ‘5
relation to "form a consolidated ‘metal tube.
The several ‘welded convolutions formed by '
roller 45 will of coursepresent a smooth “exterior
surface as is required. The inner surface formed
by the metal forced upwardly by surface 45a of -'
roller 45 ‘will bev relatively ‘rough. It is generally
necessary to provide ‘a ‘supplemental roller for
acting on the inner ‘surface, although in many
cases a, surface such vas is normally formed will
be quite adequate.
tunes-for driving the mold‘ : t0 :androlls-‘45 . and . 80,
as fw'ellfas {movingfthe'lbaitianditubing, will readily
occur‘ oithose skilled int‘the'art.
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' fInilFig. l2.,:I?il1ustrate aimodi?cation using cer
tain parts o'f'.I>Fi'g=.~.1';in a manner to yield vasolid
round :bar. ;‘In
2I'the mold isdesignated by
reference “numeral ‘ I 0a and ‘is ' adapted "to receive
metal‘ ‘through va pouring {spout =>'42a adapted for
adjustmentisirnilarlyto spout 42 of Fig. 1. The
mold 10a isshown vertically positioned :in Fig. 2
butimayiassumean ngularzor more nearly hori
zo'rital position. .‘Aéroller W5‘ccooperates with the
metal moving from the pouring rspout 42a in sub
stantiallyth‘e ‘same ‘manner ‘as ‘in Fig.‘ 1-. Because
a fso‘lid'ib‘a-rl'isto be formed, ‘the beveled portion
45d of rroiler~45o maybe relatively large and: in
the Pfo'rm rshown‘iit Iro'lls ia considerable portion of
the metal bar and contributes the smooth outer
surface required.- Sufficient additional metal is
poured to‘ ‘consolidate with {the rolled‘ 'metalto
form the section B'o'f a solids-bar of metal. ‘The
bait in Fig. 2 is designatedby reference numeral
54a and is similar in its action‘torbait'54 of Fig.
1 except ‘that it may have ‘a ‘solid end where the
pouring ‘i's‘ver'ti‘cal r’orsub'stantia'lly so. Coolant is
supplied ‘by a device 'H all in a manner which
will» be understand now by those skilled in the art.
In common with'the modi?cation of Fig. '1 ‘the
moldv l‘l?a vmay be ‘tapered so as to make it pos
sible to ‘more readily ‘separate the cylindrical
product ‘from the mold as the said productis
rotated'with the mold'and is moved endwi'se rel
atiivelfy to the mold‘. :It is rather obvious that
the ‘invention of'this modi?cation yields a solid
cylindrical? bar of'metal having preferably a rolled
outer surface contributed by‘ the action of the
surface 45d of roller 45c, and that even a larger
part of said bar ‘may ‘be ‘rolled ‘by making the
roller ‘450 of relatively larger ‘diameter.
'
In
‘4 ‘I ‘illustrate a vertical section of a
further vmodi?cation of my invention in which
the mold‘is' indicated by reference numeral 10b,
3, primary metal spout by ‘reference numeral 42b
and a‘Ip-‘rima-ry roller‘ by reference numeral 4’5b.
A supplemental roller ,for 45 Coolant is supplied by a'device 3.5a whose action
is apparent. ‘The parts 'l'O'b, 42b and 45b coop
rolling a ‘smooth inner surface when desired ‘is
erate as do the ‘parts I0, ‘42 and 45 of the modi
?cation of‘ Fig. 1. ‘This ‘cooperation yields a tube
T’ that is moved endwise as ‘it is rotated rela
to. This roller '60 may ‘belocated ‘at any desiredv
point. in the tubing .and may assume .any shape 50 tively to the mold 10b just as in the earlier modi
?cation. The tube "1" as formed by ‘the roller
found suitable.
I
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45gb, serves as the ‘outer portion of ‘a bi-metallic
In ~Fig. 3 the manner in ‘which the rollers 45
‘bar, the core of which is formed by the pouring
and 60 are mounted is rather clearly set “forth.
There it Will be ‘noted that ‘the bracket 46 on - of additional metal‘ ‘into the- tube T’ by a second
which the roller 45 is mounted, is ‘pivoted at 62 55 spout ‘Inc. The roll'er- 45b is adapted to roll a
part of the additional metal issuing from the
on a main support 63. The main support, 63 has
designated by referencenumeral. 60in Fig. _1 and
is equipped with apipe 6| ‘carrying coolantthere-'
an .arm 64 on which is mounted a 'guid'e'rodf65,
pouringspout lll'ci'so that the-said metal is welded
and the bracket 46 is formed with a discelike
to the 'out'er'tube T’ along the general line ‘W
shown
Fig. 4. Where the metal issuing from
portion 66 pierced at 61 for passage of therg'uide
rod 65. A spring 58 bears against portion ‘66 of so the spout ‘Hicjo'f this modi?cation of my inven
tion is a, metal. different from the metal issuing
the bracket 46, this spring being mountedia-bout
from the spout‘ 4212, ‘a 'bi-m‘etallic bar is formed.
the guide. rod .65 and adapted to have‘ its pressure
By referring back now to Fig. 1, I shall de
adjusted by a nut 69 in threaded engagement
scribe a still further modi?cation of my inven
with a threaded, end of'ro'd 65. His obvious ‘that
through the adjustment of the pressure-0f spring ‘65 tion whereby I make ibli-metallic tubing through
employing the basic process and apparatus of
68, the pressure of the roller 45 against-‘the
myinvention. InFig. 1 'I show in phantom lines
poured metal maybe determined. Through a
.an additional spout '15 adapted to flow a metal
somewhat similar but independent ‘arrange
’ dissimilar fromjthat furnished through spout 42.
ment, the pressure of a spring "5811 against a
bracket 46a~on which the roller 60- is supported, '7'0‘This dissimilarmetal flows on the interior sur
face of the exterior tube“ formed on moldv Ill by
may also'be adjusted. vThus, thev pressure of the
roller 45 at a point when the-‘metal of the ex
roller 60 "may be independently determined. It
terior tube is in a condition tohave "welded there
will be obvious to those-skilled in‘tlhe art't-hat
to theadditional and dissimilar‘meta'l' from- spout
my showing of this ‘structure is’ purely diagram- ‘
75
75. The‘additional metal will form an‘inte‘rnal
matic and that many other mechanical 'stru'c- ‘
2,408, 51.4
8
tube through the vpressure of a roller 45f similar
to the roller 45 used in forming the outer tube
and this inner tube will of course be welded to
the outer tube. For the sake of clarity in the
drawings, both spout 15 and roller 45]‘ are shown
displaced to the right more than would actually
applying rolling pressure to said metal radially
of said mold just after it is deposited on said sur
face whereby to consolidate and solidify said
metal while permitting the metal to flow axially
of said mold away from the zone of radial pres
sure application, applying axial pressure to said
?owing metal as it leaves the zone of radial pres
be the case under operating conditions.
InFig. 5 I illustrate in exaggerated form one
sure application whereby to weld'said metal to
example of the manner in which the several con
the previously deposited metal, and rotating said
volutions of a helical ribbon of metal are ‘used 10 metal at the speed of rotation of said mold- and
by my process to form a consolidated metal tube.
moving it endwise relatively to said mold.
Fig. 5 illustrates well the action of roller 45 and
its surface 45a in rolling the metal, the angular
lines formed at '11 by the shading representing
the welded junctions of the helical ribbon con
volutions in a typical tube. The normal irreg
ular inner surface that is formed is well shown
also.
1
I believe that the basis of my invention and
the several di?erent conditions under which it
may be employed, will now be clearly understood
by those skilled in the art.
4. A process for forming tubing directly from
molten metal that comprises pouring molten
metal on a revolving mold surface, withdrawing
15 the metal deposited on said mold surface in a di
rection substantially parallel to the axis of rota
tion of said revolving mold surface while said
solidifying metal rotates with said mold surface,
applying rolling pressure to said solidifying metal
whereby to form a consolidated tube, and later
flowing additional metal on the inside surface of
the said tube while the metal of said tube is in
said mold and in a state to permit welding there
I therefore now claim:
to of the additioning metal.
1. A process for forming tubing directly from
5. A process for forming tubing directly from
molten metal that comprises pouring a ribbon of 25
molten metal that comprises pouring molten
metal directly on a rotating mold member, effect
metal on a revolving mold surface, subjecting the
ing the solidifying of said metal on said mold
metal coming in contact with said mold surface
member as said mold member rotates, drawing
and before it has entirely solidi?ed, to pressure
said metal endwise relatively to said mold mem
by a rolling surface directed toward said mold
ber while said metal rotates with said mold mem
surface, withdrawing the solidifying metal de
ber, whereby the said metal is in the form of a
posited on said mold surface in a direction sub
helical metal ribbon, determining the rotation
stantially parallel to the axis of rotation of said
and endwise movement of the metal at such a
revolving mold surface while said solidifying
rate relatively to the rate of pouring of the metal
metal rotates with‘said mold surface, adjusting
that the successive convolutions of the helical
the speed of rotation of said revolving mold rela
ribbon of metal deposited on said mold member
tively to the pouring rate of said metal and the
are at least juxtaposed, and the last convolution
extent of said withdrawal movement so that the
is in such a state that the metal last poured on
metal ribbons deposited on said mold surface dur
said mold member may be welded to said last
convolution, and applying the pressure of a roll 40 ing successive revolutions will bewelded to one
another by the rolling action of said rolling sur
ing surface radially of said mold member to weld
.face, and ?owing additional metal on the inside
said metal to the last convolution while also ap
surface of the resulting rotating tube of metal
plying the pressure of a tapered rolling surface
while said tube is in a state to permit welding
axially of said mold member against the surplus
metal ?owing lengthwise and from under said, ‘ thereto of said additional metal, and rolling said
additional metal against the said inside surface
?rst rolling surface onto the last convolution.
to weld said additionalmetal thereto.
2. A process for forming tubing directly from
_ 6. A process for forming tubing directly from
molten metal that comprises pouring a ribbon of
molten metal that comprises pouring a thin film
metal on a rotating mold member, effecting the
solidifying of said metal on said mold member 50 of molten metal on the surface of a revolving
mold, subjecting said ?lm of metal while solidify
as said mold member rotates, drawing said metal
ing to pressure by means of a surface roll to form
endwise relatively to said mold member while
a tube, and pouring additional molten metal on
said metal rotates with said mold member where
the resulting metal tube and subjecting the addi
by the said metal is in the form of a helical_
metal ribbon, and determining the rotation and 55 tional metal to rolling pressure quickly enough so
that the additional metal is welded to the ?rstv
endwise movement of the metal at such a rate
formed tube.
relatively to the rate of pouring of the metal that
7. A process for forming solid cylindrical bars
the successive convolutions of the helical ribbon
directly from molten metal that comprises pour
of metal deposited on said mold member over
lap, and the last poured metal convolution is 60 ing molten metal on a revolving mold surface to
form a tube, rotating and moving the said tube
applied to said mold member while at least the
endwise of said mold surface, and ?owing addi
immediately juxtaposed‘convolution. is in such a
tional metal into the rotating tube to ?ll said tube
state that the last poured metal convolution will
while said tube is in a state to permit welding
weld to the said immediately juxtaposed convo
lution, and applying rolling pressure to said 65 thereto of said additional metal to form there
with a solid cylindrical bar.
poured ribbon of metal after it is deposited on
said mold member and while it is still molten, and
8. In a-machine of the class described, a ro
with the ?nal rolling pressure so applied being
tating mold, means for pouring metal on the sur
both radial and axial relatively to. said mold
face of said mold, means for rotating said mold
whereby the said pressure consolidates and welds 70 and the metal solidifying on said surface, means
to one another the successive convolutions of the
for moving said solidifying metal endwise of said
helical metal ribbon to form a tube. .
mold as it rotates with said- mold whereby said
3. Those steps in the process of forming tubing
solidifying metal is formed on said mold as a heli
directly from molten metal that comprise pouring
cal metal ribbon a roller having a cylindrical
metal on the inner surface of agrotating mold,’ 75 pressure surface positioned, force-action with
awe-sit
and the metal solidifying ‘on ‘said surface, means
for moving said solidifying metal endwise of said
mold as it rotates with said mold, a roller having
a-lpr'essure surface for applying radial pressure
to said solidifying meta1 directed towards the ‘sur
vsaid moldi'n that "zone where ‘the pouredmetal is
plastic for applying pressure to said solidifying
metal directed radially towards the‘ surfac'eof
said mold, and said roller having its end surface
‘tapered inwardlyjin the direction of movement
face of said mold, yielding means ,pr'essin'g said
of said helical metal ribbon whereby to apply a
pressure component to said‘metal ribbon airially
of said mold in the direction of movement of the
‘metal ribbon 't'o'that metal that flows from under
the said "cy'lindrlcalv surface.
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roller toward the said surface of ‘the rotating
mold, said'pressure surface terminating in a ta
pered end surface .for transmitting rolling pres
10 sure ‘to said'metal axially of said mold'in the di
' 9."In ,a machine of the class described, a ro
rection'of movement ‘of the solidifying metal, ‘and
tating annular mold, means for pouringmetal on
its rolling surfaces’ positioned where said metal
means mounting said roller within said imold‘with
the surface of said mold-,ineansfor rotating said
is an a plastic condition on the surface of said
mold and’ the metal ‘solidifying on said surf-ace,
,means for moving said solidifying metal "endwise 15 '14. In a machine 'of the class described, aro
'ofsaidmold as it rotates with said mold whereby
tating annular mold, means for pouring metal
said solidifying metal is formed ‘on said meld-as a
on thesur'face of said mold, means for rotating
helical metal ribbon, and a ‘roller having all'éll?
said mold and the metal solidifying on said sur
surface tapered inwardly away from vsaid mold
face, means ‘for moving said solidifying metal
for applying rolling pressure radially and angu 20 endwise
of said mold as it rotates with said mold
larlyto the successive ‘convolutions of said heli
whereby
said solidifying metal is formed “on said
cal metal ribbon just after the metal is deposited
mold
as
a
helical meta1 ribbon, a roller for roll
on said mold whereby to weld the successive con
mold,
volutions to one another.
10. In a machine of the class described, aro
t'ating ring-like mold member, means for pour
ing metal on the inner surface of said rotating
mold member as it rotates whereby the metal de
posited on said mold member will be rotated with
'
'
-‘
~
_
ing said solidifying metal ‘and terminating in :an
end , pressure surface tapered inwardly‘ axially
thereof in the direction of movement of said
solidifying metal, and means mounting said roller
for rotation with its end ‘surface in that zone of
the mold where themetal poured on the mold
surface remains plastic whereby said roller applies
said mold member as it solidi?es on said mold 30
a pressure component against said solidifying
member, means for moving the metal endwise as
metal directed radially toward the surface of the
it rotates with said old member whereby said
mold and a pressure component in the direction
metal will assume the form of a helical ribbon of
of movement of said solidifying metal, and with
metal, rolling means having surfaces shaped for
applying ?nal rolling pressure both axially and 35 said end surface rolling the metal ?owing end
wise from under the pressure roller.
radially to the convolutions of said helical ribbon
15. A process for forming tubing directly from
just after the metal is poured on said inner sur
molten, metal, that comprises pouring a ribbon
face, and means mounting said rolling means op- .
of metal on the surface of a rotating mold mem
posite that portion of the inner surface of the
rotating mold where the metal is not solidi?ed 40 ber, subjecting the metal coming in contact with
said surface and while it is plastic, to pressure
?rst by a rolling surface directed radially toward
said mold member and ?nally to pressure by a sec
ence of said rolling surfaces.
ond rolling surface directed at least partially ax
11. In a machine of the class described, a ro
tating annular mold, means for pouring metal 45 ially of said mold member, and with said radially
directed rolling surface forcing the metal against
on the inner surface of said mold, means for ro
the mold surface while the surplus metal ?owing
tating said mold and the metal solidifying on
axially
from under the end of said radially di
said surface, means for moving said solidifying
rected rolling surface is ?nally pressed by said
metal endwise of said mold as it rotates with said
mold whereby said solidifying metal is formed 50 second rolling surface axially against metal that
has just moved from under said radially directed
on said mold as a helical meta1 ribbon, means
and is adapted for solidi?cation and welding to
the previously deposited meta1 under the in?u
for pouring an inner ribbon of metal on the in
side surface of said ?rst ribbon of metal, and
means for applying rolling pressure to said inner
ribbon to weld its convolutions to one another I
rolling surface.
-
16. ‘A process for forming tubing directly from
molten metal, that comprises pouring a ribbon of
metal on the surface of a rotating mold member,
subjecting the metal coming in contact with said
surface and while it is plastic, to yielding pressure
by
a ?rst rolling surface directed radially toward
tating annular mold, means for pouring metal on
said mold member and ?nally by a second rolling
the inner surface of said mold, means for rotating
said mold and the metal solidifying on said sur 60 surface directed both axially and radially toward
said mold member, and with said radially di
face, means for moving said solidifying metal
rected rolling surface forcing the metal against
endwise of said mold as it rotates with said mold
the mold surface while the surplus metal ?owing
whereby said solidifying metal is formed on said
axially from under said radially directed rolling
mold as a helical metal ribbon, means for apply
surface is pressed by said second rolling surface
65
ing pressure to the convolutions of said helical
axially against metal that has just moved from
metal ribbon whereby to weld said convolutions
under said ?rst rolling surface.
to one another to form a metal tube, means for
and to said ?rst ribbon of metal.
12. In a machine of the class described, a ro
17. In a machine of the class described, a ro
pouring in like manner an inner ribbon of metal
tating annular mold, means for pouring metal on
on the inside surface of said tube, and means for
applying rolling pressure to said inner ribbon of 70 the inner surface of said rotating mold as said
mold rotates whereby the metal deposited on said
metal, to weld its convolutions to one another
mold will be rotated with said mold as it solidi?es
and to said tube.
on said mold, a roller having a surface substan—
13. In a machine of the class described, a ro
tially parallel to the inner surface of the mold,
tating mold, means for pouring metal on the sur
face of said mold, means for rotating said mold 75 means mounting said roller for applying rolling
11
2,408,514
pressure to said metal directed against the sur
face of said mold just after said metal is de
posited onto said inner surface, said roller ter
minating in a tapered surface just beyond the
point where said metal is deposited onto said
mold whereby to allow the flow of surplus plastic
metal angularly inwardly of said mold and under
said tapered roller surface, said tapered roller
surface pressing the surplus plastic metal angu
12
of said mold andv under said tapered roller sur
face, said tapered roller surface pressing the sur
plus plastic metal angularly while rolling it ax
ially against the metal previously deposited on
said mold, and means for moving the metal end
wise of said mold as said metal rotates with said
mold.
19. In a machine of the class described, a ro
tating annular mold, means for pouring metal on
larly while rolling it axially against~the metal 10 the inner surface of said rotating mold as said
previously deposited on said mold, and means for
mold rotates whereby the metal deposited on said
moving the metal endwise of said mold as said
mold will be rotated with said mold as it solidi
metal rotates with said mold.
?es on said mold, roller surfaces for applying
18. In a machine of the class described, a ro
rolling pressure to said metal, one of said surfaces
tating annular mold, means for pouring metal on
being substantially parallel to the inner surface
the inner surface of said rotating mold as said
of the mold whereby its pressure is directed ra
mold rotates whereby the metal deposited on said
dially toward the surface of said mold, said roller
mold will be rotated with said mold as it solidi?es
surface being positioned in said mold to contact
on said mold, a roller having a surface substan
said metal just after said‘ metal is deposited onto
tially parallel to the inner surface of the mold, 20 said inner surface, the other of said roller sur
means mounting said roller for applying rolling
faces tapering inwardly radially of said mold and
pressure to said metal directed against the sur
positioned inwardly beyond said ?rst roller sur
face of said mold just after said metal is deposited
face, whereby said tapered surface presses the
onto said inner surface, means yieldingly pressing
surplus metal flowing from under said ?rst roller
said roller on its mounting means radially of said 25 surface angularly and axially while rolling it
mold, said roller terminating in a tapered sur
against the metal previously deposited on said
face just beyond the point where said metal is
mold, and means for moving the metal endwise
deposited onto said mold whereby to allow the
of said mold as said metal rotates with said mold.
?ow of surplus plastic metal angularly inwardly
CLARENCE W. HAZELETT.
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