Oct- vi, 1946- J. 1.. HAIGHT, JR 2,408,554 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed April 21, 1945 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 . T dm w m 4.‘ N Oct. 1, 1946. J. L. HAIGHT, JR INTERNAL-‘COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed April 21. 1945 2,408,554 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 mm . ° ‘ INVENTOR %é@~@-*~ Mg?» Oct. 1, 1946. 2,408,554 J. 1.. HAIGHT, JR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed April 21, 1945 4 ‘Sheets-Sheet 3 mQ. ' INVENTOR Oct. ‘1, 1946. I J, |_, HAIGHT, JR 2,408,554 INTERNAL- COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed April 21, 1945 _ > 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 a75 /a 37 @4 Fa; Q30 I ' E g "B ' '36 ~ ~9a 75 N. . 39 - I a9 . I ' w [BK INVENTO R I Patented Oct. 1, 1946 . UNITED ' 2,408,554 STATES ~ PATENT 2,408,554 ' OFFICE i I John INTERNAL-COMBUSTTON Lewis Haight, Jr., Fort- Worth; Tex; Application April 21, 1945, Serial no. 589,601 12 Claims. (CL 123=-i6) 1 2 This invention relates to internal combustion for control of intake. Air from 36 and 31 is con engines and particularly to internal combustion engines of the two-cycle type‘. Principal objec- ducted- to‘ the cages H13 by cylindrical shells g‘e-_ nerically designated by numeral 18. Interposed tives" of?‘ this invention are maximum operational between 36\ and 3‘! and cylinder heads are air efliciency, including improved horsepower-to scoops 38iarid1'39,’ ?tted with valves» 4| and 42, and-having shells which envelope (HH') each weight andv fuel consumption-to-horsepower ra tios, and utilization of any type of liquid fuel. :ylinder anditscomplemént of radiating longi tudinal ?ns, generically designated by numeral Means of attaining principal and subsidiary ob jectives are revealed in the following description 102-; and mergeinto the conduits-43' and 44 which of vthe basic unit of theirlv'ention offered by Way 10 convey both exhaust gases and'aiir‘ employedlfo‘i’ ofv example. The description will refer‘ to the‘ ac cooling and‘scav'erligirig' to the flan-case‘ 4. Agpfowi companying drawings‘ in which: erfu-l fan‘ 95 driven by‘ crankshaft 9, towhich it Figure 1 is a plan view, partly broken away, isa?ised, creates‘ strong‘ draft-in 38‘ and 39 which of ‘an engine in accordance with the invention. passes- thru shells [I] I: and cooling? ?ns I027,’ thence Figure 2 is a front elevation with ?ywheel and 15 into conduits 43’and‘ “sand- eXpe'll‘e'd forcefully case removed. till“ fa'n case 4; when valves 20; 21, 22, and 2-3 are open duringie‘xhaus‘teintaké stroke of pistons and exhaust ports- 81,- 88, 89‘,» 9019i, 92, 931 and 94 'uncovereabypistons I2; l3,‘ I-4ai1'd l5, therei's-a ~ ' Figure 3 is a side elevation with parts broken away; . ' Figure 4 is an enlarged largelysectiona'l view of a cylinder with appurtenant details‘. 20 simultaneous- outrush of eiiliaust ‘gases thru 43 generic-and ini’llSh of air’ thl‘li airscoops 36 and 31‘ thencethru shells 18, cages I03», ports-‘of valves 2M2!) 2'2, and 23, cylinders 5,- 6, 1 and B; exhaust ports-site»say-conduits 43 and 44 and fan case 4. Figure 5 is a rear view of a front‘ cylinder show ing arrangement?of exhaust‘ ports and exhaust and cooling passages. Figure 6. is an enlarged View, partly broken away; of an injector-distributor shown in Figures 25 Gear 45 mounted on crankshaft 9‘ at front end 1, 2', and 3. of‘enginé'di'i’v'és géai‘ 15 Whose‘ shaft drivesa dé?e Figure 7 isa front View of injector and acceler trifugal oil pump 16 which discharges‘ oil drawn ation pump showing cam detail and arrangement from'dilipa-in 2 to center main bearing whence it of .fuel supply and outlet ducts. is passed into the nonow oranksjl'ii-ait‘ 9 and dis Figure 8“ is an enlarged View‘ of valve Wlri'ichv 30 tributed thereby‘ to‘ the- other’ main; bearings and appears in Figures 2 and 7. t0- the‘ri?e? di‘illéd' connecting rods} Referring Referringi?'rst to Figures 1, 2, and 3, reference to Figure 4, detan-lingv atypical cylinder and ape numeral l designates a crankcase to which is‘af purtena-ncés', reference numeral 96 indicates'eil ?xedifan oil pan 2, gear-case 3, fan case‘ 4, cylin'? duct-in connecting rod in which is‘?tted wrist ders'>5,’6, l,- and 8, and injector-distributor 41. 35 pill 977 that‘ is ‘drilled longitudinally and‘ diametri Fitted in the three bearingportions of‘ crankcase cally‘ to oil bearing ‘sections'of piston l4 and to l is ‘the crankshaft‘ 9 having cranks Hl'and II pass‘oil into duct 98 of push rod 18 which" is with; connecting rods, arranged as shown in drilléd'diametrically', as shown; so that it-e'?iits drawings‘, Figure 1, to pistons l2, l3, l4 and I5. oil? into» the conical'depre'sswii of dis]? on stem 26 Drilled push rods I6, 11, I8, and, I9,’ each divided 40 when piston is at‘ top (if-stroke and at the'h'o‘ri and joined at center of piston heads,~ centrally z‘ontai cen-terline' of valve 22 when piston and intraverse the valves 20, 21-, 2‘2 and 23 and their rod are at bottom of stroke and necessarily oils iintegrant tubular stems with conically depressed interior of valve stem during‘ ascent and descent. disksvdesilgnated. by reference numerals 24, 25, There are ori?ces‘ of soriie'wll'a‘tv reduced dianiéter 287,. and 27. Valve tension is provided by springs 45 ‘at-‘e'?-d's" 6f ionglitudinar dii'C't in: Wrist p'i-?- 91 to provide 0111 jets to‘cylinde'i" walls. . 28,. 29,. 30,. and. 3| which. bear upon the disks of 24, 25',_ 26,. and 21' and the heads of cages, desig Figure Eli-s offered for’ thelpurpose' of showing nated. by the generic reference numeral Ill-3; su ‘ the dual'eiiliaust ports in each cylinder, the solid perposed on cylinder heads of 5,. 6, 1', and‘ 8. Nu unes'depieting port-‘s of‘ forward cylinders and merals 32, 3'3, 34 and 35 designate the bidiametric 50 dotted lines indicatingiél‘a‘?i-Vé' positions or cyl: cylinders enclosing operational area of push rods, inders adjacent to fan‘ case. It‘ should be noted valve stems and- springs above cages. that the size of ports‘, coupledwith'fan dr‘aft,~!as Air scoops 3B and 3''! collect air" for scavenging air, carburetion, and interior" cylinder cooling, sures fast, complete scavenging‘. “Gear 451 also drives‘ gear llfi'l'iavirig‘ female shaft and are ?tted with butter?y’ valves 40 and 40A 55 51, Figures 3931116", WHfCb-driiiés all}. inject-6Y4‘! _ 2,408,554 3 and adjunct ignition distributor 48 which appear in Figures 1, 2, 3, the latter revealing operating lever 59 and acceleration pump 52. Various as pects of these units and fuel supply and distribu tion ducts are shown in all ?gures of drawings except Figure'5 and reference accordingly made, 4 air drawn into cylinders thru valves 20 to 23. Fuel jets 90 and |00 are shown in Fig. 4. Referring to Figure 5, reference numeral ||| designates a shim plate typical to juncture of each cylinder with crankcase I, said shim plates also appearing in Figures 1 and 2. Said shims represent, together with the injector system and control of air fOr combustion mixture by valves but more particularly to Figures 6 and '7. A splined shaft '56 is received into the correspond 40 and 40A, means of utilizing any type of liquid ingly milled shaft 51 and thereby driven. Be fuel by varying compression ratio by increasing 10 tween'the splined‘segment of shaft 56' and cam or reducing thickness of shims. It will be noted 55 is a spheruloid |05 which rotates within con from Figure 2 that conduits 43 and 44 have slotted trol block |06 to which is ?xed plunger rod of bolt openings to permit adjustment of juncture acceleration pump 52. Cam 55 ismilled as shown with fan case 4 corresponding with cylinder in Figure '7 to receive the splined shaft |04 to position. which is ?tted a distributor arm-6| which con This engine being of the two-cycle type, the tacts lead-in wire from coil with its curved ~mem diagonally opposite cylinders ?re simultaneously her and diametrically opposed contact points si and power thrusts thereof act against cranks Hi multaneously with its base arm, thus supplying and H, which are disposed at 180 degrees to ignition current to spark‘ plugs 83 and 85 on cyl each other, thus achieving absolute counterbal inders5 and l and plugs 84 and 86 on cylinders 0 and 8 alternately as it revolves within distribu ance of both power impulses and compression resistance forces in opposed pairs of cylinders. tor case 48. I V ‘ This action not only eliminates torque and vibra The injector unit 41 consists of the housing 49 tion but exploits leverage and mechanical reso with cylinders 50 and 5| extending laterally nance, thereby enabling operating speeds of from therefrom with acceleration pump 52 centrally 25 8,000 to 10,000 revolutions per minute. It will superimposed on housing 49 at right angles to have been seen from description of the forced cylinders 50 and 5|. Cylinders 50 and 5| are fueling and scavenging means hereinbeiore set divided by partitions I01 and |08 respectively forth that enablement of high speed operation with the extreme chambers being the pump sec provided by said means, together with valve .tions._ Numerals 53 and 54 designate the plungers 30 is action system 20 to 23. As will appear in Fig which each consist of a rod having a head at the ures 1 and 4, the push rods IE to l9 are secured extreme end tightly ?tted in the pump chamber, by wrist pins and piston heads which motivate said rods. When pistons and rods are at top center as in cylinders 5 and T, Figure 1, and Figure 4, the rods l6 and i8 extend 84.6% of piston stroke length beyond the disks of 24 and a disk which retains one end of a coil spring (I09 and H0) with partition (I01 and I08) restrain ing the other spring end, and a socket retaining a ball.~_ , As will be noted from Figuresv? and '7, the cam'maintains a constant radius While its wheel 20. Using this position as 0 degrees on the progressively reduces in circumference so that crankshaft revolution circle, the heads on rods when said cam 55 is moved to the right, Figure 3, l6 and I0 engage the conical depressions in disks by the action of lever 59 being moved to its dotted 40 of 24 and 25 at 124.62 degrees as said rods travel ,line position, plungers 53 and 54, by virtue of ten downward, unseating and opening valves 20 and sion exerted by springs I09 and H0 increase 22 until the 180 degree position is reached as stroke travel accordingly and thereby enlarge fuel shown for pistons l3 and I5 and valve‘2l, Fig capacity of the pump chambers, thus providing . ure 1. As pistons and pushrods are impelled on the upstroke by crankshaft 9 and cranks l0 means for controlling discharge rate of the in jector to cylinders. _ p I and H, spring tension acting on disks ‘of 24 and _. Reference numerals 62 and 63 designate dual 26 returns valves 20 and 22 to closure as rod heads on l6 and i8 permit, full closure being reached at 235.38 degrees. It will thus be seen .fuel supplylines, ?tted with valves 64 and 65, detailed inFigure 8, to permit adjustment of rel ative proportions of volatile and nonvolatile fuel that valve action occupies 110.76 degrees of the revolution circle and 30.8% of stroke travel. It should be noted that the engine shown has a bore to stroke ratio of 8 to 13 and since ?gures quoted apply speci?cally to this example this data will vary inversely with stroke length. admitted to the common conduit 56 from which branches 01 and 08 convey to cylinders 50 and 5| respectively, while a third; duct supplies acceler ation pump 52. As hereinbefore set forth, plung er .of 52 is attached to control block |0B and as the block is moved to the right, Figure 3, fuel is ‘injected via tubes 13 and ‘I4 into juncture of tubes '51 and 68 with cylinders 50 and 5| respectively. As will appear from relative size of combus tion chamber to stroke as shown in cylinder 5, Figure 1, and cylinder 1, Figure '4, this engine The simplicity of the injector is notably and de- » has a compression ratio of approximately 13 to sirably enhanced by complete elimination of so 1, and, while adjustable thru shims | II as here valves.- This is accomplished by usage of com tofore setforth to adapt to any liquid fuel, this monyintake and discharge channels. On the in take strokes of plungers 53 and 54 the pump .chambers ?ll to whatever extent the stroke length permits and that is the obvious limit. On dis inventor recommends such ratio and a fuel'mix ture of distillate, or another non-volatile fuel, with gasoline, kerosene, liquid methane, butane, or. other volatile fuel for the reasons that: rela charge strokes‘ of plungers the pressure offered tively high operating temperatures permitted by by’ fuel in lines 61, 68, 13, and 14 forces the dis chargeto follow tubes 69 and 10 leading to cyl air cooling enables efficient combustion of such ,inders 6 and 8 respectively, and tubes ‘H and 12 > ' leading to cylinders ,5 and 1 respectively, mixture; inexpensive fuel reduces operating 70 costs; heat of compression furnishes ignition and 12 bifurcate and enter the cylinders at diametri obviates dependence upon electrical ignition; ?re hazard is reduced; ample lubricant, such as colloidal graphite, may be added to complement by effecting faster and better diffusion with the tion." The'ele'ctrical ignition means are provided . > As will be seen from Figurel, thee-tubes 69 to cally opposite points thus producing counter blast of’ the opposing ‘sprays of fuel and there oil jets of wrist pins 91 in cylinder wall lubrica 2,468,534 5 to (assure utilization of any type of ‘fuel, expedite starting; andfto- augment compression ‘ignition if andwhen;desired.v ; ' ' - ' j ' r f i ' From the" foregoing ' description and drawings ‘ an patent‘that, this; invention embodies satis factory means to achieve the objectives set forth in preamble, and altho the: engine depicted is 6 duit and, connection into cylinder, a port, or ports, soisituated in each cylinderas to beexposed 'dur. ing ?nal phase; of piston’sdownstroke and initial phase of upstroke and occluded byfpist'on during 5 balance of travel, means for'substantiallylcoim ciding the opening and closing of cylinders’ inlet and outletmeans, an exhaust conduitadapted to primarily ‘intended for propulsion of'a rear-en gined automobile wherein “the exhaust or air and combustion gases provides complementary thrust [receive and convey gases from outlet ‘port’; or ports, of each cylinder, means for creating ‘1a forced draft-rearwardly in air and exhaust con duits and thru cylinders when inlet and outlet it is" intended for general power plant‘ utility. ' When used to power aircraft, a propeller, or pro; valves, areopen forscavenging of combustious pellers, would replace the fan-95 and fan case 4; ' product- gases and charging-‘of cylinders with Likewise, the four‘ cylinders represent thev basic ‘ fresh air; means for injecting fuel into each cyl or-minimum number required to provide simul 1:5 inder' to carburetwith air therein-to form a-com taneous power impulses in opposed cylinders with .bustible mixture, means for'igniting s'aidcom adequate continuity, and any desired number of bustible mixture; means for supplying fuel ‘to additional units may be added, with appropriate the injector means including a pair of fuellines arrangement of cranks and additional fueling leading from separate sources of fuel-supply, a and ignition means to correlative interspersion of powerv impulses, Other variations in- the‘ form 20' and arrangement of parts ‘beyond the disclosure connection for each fuel line; with said common conduit, and a connection, or connections, for-said conduit With‘the injector means; means for'rra herein are of course possible and are contem plated in the claims which ‘follow. valve in'each fuel line, means for operating each valve independently, a common fuel conduit, a ~ ‘ '_ I am aware that certain, components and 'ar 25 diating the heat of combustion» from'a?’ected ra-ngements embodied in my concept have been used prior tomy invention and accordingly dis; avow intent of infringement thereunto, but I parts, including radiating ?ns on exterior- wall-of each cylinder, an air‘ conduit, oriconduits, ai for-j \va'rdly faced inlet opening for said conduit, or claim: conduits; a shell‘ enveloping said radiating i?n's' for 1, An internal-combustion engine of the two 30 each cylinder andv connecting an air conduitwith cycle type comprising a crankshaft, a crankcase an exhaust conduit, means for propelling, or im including oil reservoir, a‘ cylinder secured to said pel-ling, air rearwardly in said air’ and exhaust crankcase, a piston ?tted within the cylinder and conduitsand said shells, and means for directing actingon and by a crank on said crankshaft, e?lux from exhaust conduit, or conduits, ‘rear thru a connecting rod, an air conduit, having a a wardly forjet reaction propu-lsive'thrust for forwardly faced inlet, attached to cylinder head, wardly including a rearw’ardly directed jet open means for controlling the volume of air entering ing; and means for varying the spaced relation said conduit, means for intermittent outlet of betweenrendophery of each cylinder ‘head and ‘air from conduit into cylinder,‘ a port, or ports, head of its piston when at top dead center-in-v so situated in cylinder wall as to be exposed dur— cluding annular shim-plates, whose bore coin ing ?nal phaseof piston’s downstroke and initial cides with bore of cylinder, appropriately inter phase of upstroke and occluded by piston during posed between cylinder head and crank case; balance of strokes, means for substantially co ~ 3'. Structure according to claim 1 wherein inciding the opening and closing of' cylinder’s M means are provided for supplying fuel to them inlet and outlet means, an exhaust conduit hav- ' i‘ jecting means including a pairof fuel lines-lead ing a rearwardly directed outlet aperture,’ said ing from separate sources of fuel supply, a valve exhaust conduit adapted to receive and convey for each fuel line, means for operating each valve gases; from outlet port, or ports, of’ cylinder, : means for creating a forced draft in the air con independently, a common fuel conduit, aconnecL tion for each fuel line with said conduit, and a duit, cylinder, and exhaust conduit when inlet :50 connection, or connections, for said conduit with and outlet means of cylinder are-open for scav the injectingmeans'. ' > enging of combustious product gases and charg ‘ 4. An internal-combustion engine of the two; ing of cylinder with air, means of injecting" fuel cycle type comprising a crankshaft having cranks into cylinder to carburet‘ with air therein to form relatively disposed at 180 degrees, a crankcase a‘combustible mixture, means of igniting said‘ 55 including an oil reservoir; two pairs of'cylinders, combustible mixture, and means for’ radiating the components of each pair being diametrically the heat of combustion from affected parts, in opposed‘ and in axial alinement, and the pairs cluding radiating ?ns on exterior wall of cylin disposed in parallel relation in same plane, se der, an air conduit having a‘ forwardly faced cured to said crankcase; a piston ?tted within inlet, a _ shell ienveloping said radiating ?ns and ' 6O e_ach ' cylinder and acting on and by‘ cranks of ' connecting air conduit with exhaust conduit,v crankshaft‘ thru connecting-rods, the connecting and meansifor controlling the volume of- air en tering said air conduit. rods serving each pair of opposed cylinders bear ing on a common crank; an air conduit having a forwardly faced inlet, means for regulating ‘cycle type comprising a crankshaft, a crankcase including an oil reservoir; a plurality of cylinders 65 volume of air‘ entering said conduit, a connection with each cylinder’ head, a valve for each cylin secured to'said crankcase; a piston ?tted within der permitting passage of air from conduit and each cylinder and reciprocally ‘coacting with a connection into cylinder, a port, or ports, so crank on said crankshaft thru a connecting rod; situated in each cylinder as to be exposed during an air, conduit, or conduits, having a forwardly ?nal phase of piston’s downstroke and initial ' 2. An internal-combustion engine of the two- . faced inlet opening, means for regulating the vol ume ‘of. air entering said conduit, or conduits, a connection for, said conduit, or conduits, with head of. each cylinder, a valve for each cylinder 7 ‘pérmi‘ttingintermittent passage or air from con phase of upstroke and occluded by piston during balance of travel, ,means’for substantially-coin? 'ciding the opening dildClOSiIlgOf cylinder’s inlet land'outlet means, an exhaust conduit,‘ adapted 75 to receive and convey’ gases ‘from'eoutlet- port, 2,408,554 or ports, of cylinder, means ‘for creating a forced draft rearwardly in air and exhaust conduits and thru cylinders when valve-means are’ open for scavenging of combustious vproduct gases and chargingof, cylinders with fresh air; means for injecting fuel into pairs of ‘diagonally opposed cylinders alternately to carburet with the air therein andform a combustible mixture, means of igniting said combustible mixture; means for 8 injector means including a pair of fuel lines lead ing from separate sources of fuel supply, a valve in each fuel line, means for operating each valve independently, a connection for each fuel line with a commonconduit,and a connection, or con nections, for said conduit‘ with said injector means.- a . . 9.. An internal-combustion engine of the two-' cycle type comprising a crankshaft whose cranks form pairs, whose components may or may not radiating the heat of combustion from affected 10 be adjacent, which extend oppositely in a com parts, including radiating ?ns on exterior cylin der walls, an air conduit having a forwardly faced inlet, a, shell which envelopes said radiating mon plane and which pairs are correlatively dis posed to provide uniform intervals therebetween; a crankcase including an oil reservoir; a plu ?ns and connects said air conduit with the ex rality of cylinders, in multiples of four, arranged haust conduit, which has a rearwardly faced out 15 in diametrically opposed banks comprising iden let aperture, means for creating a forced draft tical numbers of cylinders in axial alinement rearwardly in air conduit, thru shell past radi with their respective opposites, secured to said atingj?ns, and rearwardly thru and out of ex crankcase; a piston ?tted in each cylinder and haust conduit; means for lubricating all moving coacting with a crank of said crank shaft by 20 parts and their ‘bearing surfaces, including cyl means of a connecting rod, the connecting rods inder walls and valve action, and means whereby serving each pair of opposed pistons bearing on power impulses are produced simultaneously in the alternate cylinders in opposite banks and act simultaneouslyon both cranks of crankshaft, a common crank; an air conduit, having a for wardly faced inletv opening, for each cylinder bank, means for regulating the volume of air and means for supplying fuel to the injector 25 entering said conduits, a connection for each cyl means including a pair of fuel lines leading from inder head with its respective air conduit, a valve separate fuel supply sources, a valve in each fuel for each cylinder permitting intermittent passage line, means for operating each valve independ of air from conduit and connection into cylinder, ently, a connection for each fuel line with a a port, or ports, so situated in each cylinder as to 30 common conduit, and a connection, or connec be exposed during ?nal phase of piston’s down tions, for said conduit with said injector means. stroke and initial phase of upstroke and other 5. An engine structure according to claim 1, wise occluded by piston, means for substantially wherein'the ducts connecting injection means to coinciding the opening and closing of cylinder’s cylinder, or cylinders, bifurcate and the furca inlet and outlet means, an exhaust conduit, hav tions of each of said ducts have jet openings into ing a rearwardly directed outlet, or outlets, adapt engine, cylinder at substantially diametrically op ed to receive and convey gases from outlet port, posite points. , > or ports, of cylinders, for each cylinder bank, 6. An engine structure according to claim 1, means for creating a forced draft rear-wardly in wherein the means for intermittent outlet of air said air and exhaust conduits and thru cylinders from air conduit into cylinders and the means when valve means are open for scavenging of for substantially coinciding the opening and combustious product gases and charging of cyl closing of cylinder’s inlet and outlet means com inders with fresh air; means for injecting fuel prises an ori?ce in cylinder head with a seat simultaneously into pairs of cylinders, whose coma adapted to accommodate a circular valve, a cage, 45 ponents lie in opposite cylinder banks and whose including a centrally bored disk having sup ports providing interstitial apertures, mounted on cylinder head in symmetrical relation to said ori?ce, a valve having a stem with a disk at its upper terminal, said disk having a conical de pression in its head and the several valve com ponents axially bored to accommodate a rod which is centrally anchored to piston head, ex tends thru and is slidable in valve assembly and terminating in a conoidal head conforming to de pression in disk of valve ensemble, and having an axial bore extending from'a radial bore so sit; uated that it moves from conical depression of valve disk head thru valve stem into valve head .as rod is 'reciprocated by piston, a connection of said axial bore with oil duct of, wrist pin, and a coil spring tensed between top of said cage‘ and disk of valve stem. I 7. An enginestructure according to claim 1', wherein the compression ratio is variable by means of shims or plates having a circular open ing identical with cylinder bore, said shims or plates forming inserts between cylinder, or cyl inders, and crankcase. 8. An engine structure according to claim 1, comprising means for ignition by heat of com pression including means for regulating volume of air admitted to cylinders for carburetion, means for substantially regulating operating tem per'ature'of engine, means for varying compres pistons coact with cranks extending oppositely in a common plane, to carburet with the air therein and form a combustible mixture; means for igniting said combustible mixture simultane 50 ously in said opposed pairs of cylinders; means for radiating theheat of combustion from af fected parts including, radiating ?ns on the ex terior wall of each cylinder, an air conduit, hav ingja forwardly faced inlet opening and means 55 for controlling the volume of air entering therein, for each cylinder bank, a shell which envelopes said radiating ?ns and connects the air and ex haust conduits for each cylinder bank respec tively, means for creating a forced draft rear wardly in said air conduits, thru shell past ra diating ?ns, and rearwardly thru and out of ex haust conduits; means for varying the spaced re lation, uniformly for all cylinders, between the interior of each cylinder head and its piston when at top dead center including annular, shim plates, whose bores coincide with cylinder bores, appropriately interposed between each cylinder and its head, or between each cylinder and the crankcase; and means for supplying fuel to the injector means including a pair of fuel lines leading from separate'sources of fuel supply, a valve in each fuelline, means for operating said valves independently of each other, a common fuel conduit, a connection for each fuel line with sion ratio,_ and'm'eans for supplying fuel to'the 75 "said conduit, and a connection, or connections, 2,408,554 for said common conduit with the fuel injecting means. 10 air; means for injecting fuel simultaneously into pairs of opposed cylinders to carburet with the 10. Structure according to claim 9 wherein air therein'to form a combustible mixture, means said cylinder banks are disposed to form a dihe for igniting said combustible mixture in oppos dral angle whose degree is identical with that of 5 ing pairs of cylinders simultaneously; means for the angle of crank unit relativity and the sector radiating the heat of combustion from affected of crankshaft revolution described during inter parts; means for altering the ratio of compres val between power impulses. sion for said cylinders uniformly including an 11. An internal-combustion engine of the two nular shim-plates, whose bore coincides with cyl cycle type comprising, a crankshaft, a crankcase 10 inder bore, interposed between each cylinder and including oil reservoir, a plurality of cylinders ex its head, or between each cylinder and the crank tending radially from said crankcase to form case; and means for supplying fuel to the in a plurality of, diametrically opposed pairs, a pis jector means including a plurality of fuel sup ton ?tted within each cylinder and coacting with ply lines, each leading from a separate source of a. crank on said crankshaft by means of a con fuel supply, a valve for each fuel line, means for necting-rod; an air conduit, or scoop, communi operating said valves independently of each other, eating with each cylinder head, means for reg a common fuel conduit, a connection for each fuel ulating the volume of air entering said conduits, line wtih said conduit, and a connection, or con or scoops, a valve for each cylinder permitting in— nections, for said conduit with the fuel injecting termittent passage of air from conduit, or scoop, into the cylinder, 8, port, or ports, so situated in each cylinder as to be exposed during ?nal phase of piston’s downstroke and initial phase of up stroke and otherwise occluded by piston, means for substantially coinciding opening and closing of the inlet and outlet Valves for each cylinder, an exhaust. stack, having a rearwardly directed out let opening, adapted to receive and convey gases from outlet port, or ports, of cylinders, means for creating a forced draft rearwardly in said air and exhaust conduits and thru cylinders when valve means are open for scavenging combustious product gases and charging cylinders with fresh means. 12. Structure according to claim 1 wherein the exhaust conduit is provided with a rearwardly directed jet opening, and wherein means are pro vided for propelling, or impelling, air rearwardly in both of said air conduits, thru said shells ex ternally past cylinder, internally thru cylinder when inlet and outlet means thereof are open, for propelling, or impelling, exhaust gases and coolant air rearwardly in said exhaust conduit and expelling same from said jet opening for pro ducing a jet reaction propulsive e?ect forwardly. JOHN LEWIS HAIGHT, JR.