close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2408577

код для вставки
Oct. 1, 1946.
2,408,516
_c. s. 051
.APPARA'I'US FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY
Filed July 14, 1945
,
7 Sheets-Sheet 1
Oct. 1, 1946.
' c. s. 051*
APPARATUS
2,
v
,576
INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY
Filed-July 14, 1945
_
7 Sheets-Sheet 2 _
eealzemce/ Q51 OMS )
Oct. 1, 1946. v
'
c. s. can
2,408,576
A'PPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY
Filed July 14, 1945
q
"1'
.
7 Sheets-Sheets
Maw 55%,
E] ' 21mm
Oct. 1, 1946.
'
c. 5. os'r
'
2,408,576
APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT'ENERGY
Filéd July 14, 1945
///
7 Sheets-Sheet ‘4
U d?
a
39
awe/Mm
Cofcwewe/ as; 0013)
@MW
Oct. 1, 1946.’
c. s.‘os'r
2,408,576
APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY
Filed July 14, 1945
'7 Sheets-Sheet 5
Oct. 1, 1946.
}
c. s. os'r
2,408,576
APFARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY
'Filed July 14, 1945
'7 She‘ets-Sheet s '
O
53
O
W
'
o
- 3mm
3% @Mw
Oct. 1, 1946.
c. s. 051'
2,408,576‘
APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATI-NG RADIANT ENERGY
Filed July 14, 1945
fig/<15.
Q)
of?
7 Sheets-Sheet 7
.27.
J
@
62
6/
f9
J5
Fgaa
WM
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
2,408,576
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,576
APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT
ENERGY
Clarence s. 0st, Atlantic City, N. J.
Application July 14, 1945, Serial No. 605,124
4 Claims. (01. 250-415)
1
2
My invention relates broadly to a radiant en
side in an apparatus which combines high elec
tronic ‘and mechanical efficiencies of coacting
electronic‘ and mechanical instrumentalitles for
ergy integrating apparatus and more particu
larly to a combined electronic and mechanical
device for integrating intensities of radiant en
ergy.
One of the objects of my invention is to pro-.
vide an improved construction of mechanical
and electronic system for measuring radiant en
integrating radiant energy over a wide range
01' ?uctuating surging or ?ickering values as is
set forth more fully in the speci?cation herein
after following by reference to the accompanying
drawings in which:
ergy by integrating ?uctuating radiant energy
Figure 1 is a perspective view showing the ap
intensities and automatically varying the duration l0 plication of the system of my invention to photo
of time to compensate for such ?uctuating in
graphic apparatus for use in the graphic arts;
Fig. 2 is an electrical circuit diagram showing
tensities.
_
.
Another object of my invention is to provide
a combined mechanical and electronic control sys
tem whereby‘ the quantity of radiant energy
emitted from any given source may be integrated
for controlling the operation of associated electri
cal circuits.
Still another object of my invention is to pro
vide an arrangement of a coacting electronic cir
cuit and mechanical system whereby the quantity
the coaction of the electronic and mechanical
elements of the system of my invention; Fig. 3 is
15 a schematic and diagrammatic view illustrating
the coordination of the mechanical and electri
cal elements of the system of my invention under
conditions where the quantity of radiant energy
received is not yet su?icient to "effect an opera
20 tion of the mechanical system; Fig. 4 is a sche
.matic view of the mechanical and electrical sys
tem in which the quantity of radiant energy
of radiant energy emitted from a radiant source
may be integrated and when an exact predeter
v received has increased to a point at which the
mined quantity of radiant energy has been re
electronic system is operated and an increment
ceived from the source, an electrical control cir 25 of movement secured in the mechanical system;
cuit is actuated by the mechanical system for
operating an associated electrical circuit.
Still another object of my invention is to pro
Fig. 5 is a graph, arbitrarily chosen, of the in
tensity of ?uctuating light plotted against time;
Fig. 6 is a graph of the instantaneous voltage
vide a combined electronic and mechanical radi
plotted against time across the condenser of the
ant energy control circuit and apparatus which 30 condenser discharge circuit of the electronic con
is relatively small in physical dimensions and
trol system; Fig. 7 is a graph representing either
which may be readily utilized for measuring and
plate current of the electronic tube circuit or volt
controlling radiant energy sources which may
age drop across a portion of the input system to
?uctuate over a, relatively wide range for secur
the electronic control circuit and illustrating the
ing from such sources that integrated quantity
characteristics of the repeating pulses of the elec- '
or‘ light necessary to properly produce photo
tronic control circuit; Fig. 8 is a front elevational
graphic exposures in various industries such as
view of the control unit employed in the system
photoengraving, photolithcgraphy and the graph
of my invention; Fig. 9 is a side elevational view
ic arts in general; the measurement of exact
of the control unit shown in Fig. 8; Fig. 10 is a
amounts of irradiation of various cultures or
top plan view of the control unit shown in Figs.
vegetation to ultra-violet; the exposure of mate
8 and 9; Fig. 11 is an elevational view of the
rials to X-rays, such as the radiography of cast
radiant energy integrating unit which is exposed
lngs and other industrial applications; the ex
to the source of ?uctuating radiant energy; Fig.
posure in radiology and roentgenology of the hu
12 is a top plan view of the radiant energy inte
man body, etc.; the measurement of gamma rays,
grating unit of Fig. 11; Fig. 13 is an end view
etc.; exposure of blueprints; and photographic
of the radiant energy integrating unit of Figs. 11
and graphic applications generally.
and 12 looking in the direction of arrow A; Fig, 14
Still another object of my invention is to pro
is an end view of the radiant energy integrat
vide a compact device which may be installed
ing unit of Figs. 11 and 12 looking in the direc
in power areas where wide ?uctuations in line 50 tion of arrow B; Fig. 15 is an enlarged eleva
voltage may occur even over a range of plus or
tional view showing the mechanical portion of the
minus 20% for integrating ?uctuating light in
radiant energy integrating unit of Figs. 8-10; Fig.
tensities for effecting exact photographic ex
16 is a side elevational view of the control unit of
posures in the graphic arts.
Fig. 15 looking in the direction of arrow C; Fig.
Other and further objects of my invention re 55 17 is a detailed view illustrating the cam mecha
2,408,578
3
4
nism which controls the contacts of the time
escapements must take place. The normal speed
switch in the radiant energy integrating unit of
of seven escapements was chosen because the in
Figs. 8-l0 and 15-16; Fig. 18 is an enlarged view
strument, due to the purpose for which it was de
of the cam operating mechanism oi.‘ the timer 01'
signed, must be capable of integrating a radiant
Fig. 1'7 in which the contacts are about to be OI energy ?ux of at least ten times the normal level
closed by movement of the cam mechanism; Fig.
of illumination in order to take care of surges of
19 is a view of the cam mechanism of Fig. 18
showing the time control contactor closed and
power, ?ickering, etc. As my instrument is ca
pable of operating at speeds of one hundred per
about to be snapped open by a counter-clockwise
second. it can readily take care of these increases
movement of the cam mechanism and Fig. 20 is lu of radiant energy. In my instrument. at the nor
a side elevational view of the contactor of Figs.
mal operating speed, seven escapements must
18 and 19 showing the relation of the cam mech
take place before the exposure dial traverses one
anism thereto.
division giving a ?neness of control which can
My invention is directed to a manually settable
actually be set to one-seventh of a second. This
control unit which may be mounted remote from 1;, can be made even ?ner by making the normal
the apparatus on which it is used and in a con
operating speed greater which can easily be done
venient position to the operator and electrically
connected to the radiant energy integrating unit
that is mounted adjacent the work which is sub
ject to the ?uctuating light source. The shutter _
in the case of a camera and also the lamps may
be operated by an electromagnetic device auto
matically operated from the control unit when
the exact quantity of radiant energy has been
supplied to the work regardless of the ?ickering
and ?uctuating oi the radiant energy source.
Thus arc lights which are highly desirable for
their spectral qualities may be eil'ectlvely utilized
in graphic arts processes etc. regardless of the
?icker and ?uctuation thereof.
The radiant energy integrating apparatus of
my invention comprises a composite electronic
and mechanical device, the purpose of which is
to measure exact quantities of radiant energy by
integrating ?uctuating radiant energy intensities
and automatically varying the duration of time to
compensate for these ?uctuating intensities. The
due to the high top speed inherent in the in—
strument.
My instrument, due to its novel de
sign, will operate satisfactorily at 115 volts plus
or minus 20% and retain its calibration regard
less of whether the line voltage varies slowly or
rapidly.
This is an important point in an in
strument of this type because the instrument is
used to integrate ?uctuating light intensities
which are caused principally by line voltage
changes. So far as I am aware, no comparable
device has ever been developed which occupies so
small a space and yet accomplishes such pre
cision control.
I further increase the efficiency of the radiant
energy integrating device of my invention by
mounting the vacuum photo tube and the beam
power ampli?er tube in close proximity to each
other on the integrating unit for preventing
leakage of energy to the leads constituting the
interconnecting circuit which would otherwise
tend to introduce ripples or surges in the direct
quantity of radiant energy may be varied con
current supply to the anode of the photo tube
tinuously from zero to any amount. The device
due to the capacitance in the cable which shunts
will automatically control any other device such 40 the photo tube and thus would have the effect
as a magnetic shutter on a camera for controlling
of masking or introducing errors in the instru
the amount of exposure; or a magnetic switch
ment’s calibration.
for turning on and of! a radiant source of energy
Referring to the drawings in more detail ref
for measuring exact amounts of irradiation of
erence character I designates a frame structure
various cultures or vegetation; or exposure oi!
.- including a rail system 2 along which the ad
blueprints,
photo-engraving
plates
or
other
plates used in various graphic arts processes; or
exposure of materials, the human body, etc. to
justable structure 3 carrying the work support
4 and the light sources 5, 6, 1 and 8 is adapted
to be adjusted in position with respect to the
X-rays. gamma-rays, etc.
camera 9. The camera 9 is illustrated mounted
The dimensions oi.’ the control unit and the 50 adjacent one end of the frame structure I adja
radiant energy integrating unit are exceedingly
cent the panel ID from which position the op
small. For example, the control unit‘measures
erator is enabled to focus the ‘camera 8 on the
but 6 inches x 35/8 inches x 11/2 inches, that is,
work carried by the support 4. I have shown
slightly over 321/; cubic inches. The radiant en
the light sources 6 in the form of arc lights which
ergy integrating unit measures but 6% inches x 55 while rich in their spectral qualities are, never~
2% inches x 1% inches, that is, slightly over 22
theless. inherently subject to ?ickers. ?uctuations
cubic inches. The radiant energy integrating de
and a wide variation in light intensities. How
vice of my invention employs but two electron
ever, with the light integrating system of my
tubes. One of the tubes comprises a beam power
invention such variations and intensities are not
amplifier with direct current on the anode which, 60 detrimental and do not impair the quality of
electronically speaking, is capable of operating
the reproduction.
millions of times per second, limited only by elec
I mount the control unit as represented at it
tron-transit time, inter-electrode capacitance,
in a convenient position adjacent the panel Ill
etc. Mechanically, my instrument is limited in
connected through the cable represented at I?
speed only by the inertia of the moving parts; 6;, to the electronic light integrating unit shown at
principally the escapement mechanism and arma
I4 mounted adjacent the work support 4 in the
ture, which have purposely been maintained ex
path of the light rays from the light source 5,
tremely light in weight. The practical limit of
5, l and 8, The cable I2 also includes a branch
speed of my device is approximately one hundred
circuit extending therefrom as represented at 15
escapements per second. The normal operating 70 to the electromagnetically controlled shutter de
speed of my instrument is seven escapements per
vice represented at I6 and to the electromagnet
second. These seven escapements per second cor
ically operated light relay represented at 43 and
respond to a movement of the exposure dial 01’
44. A further extension of the cable system rep
one division. In other words, for the dial to
resented at IT leads to the power supply system.
move a complete cycle or 345°, fourteen hundred 75 The circuits in the radiant energy integrating
2,408,678
5
.
unit 14 are represented in the outline I4’ in Fig.
2. The circuits and mechanism contained with
in the control unit II are as outlined at I l' in
l6 and the relay 43 which controls the contact
system 44 leading to the power supply circuit 46
for the lamps 6, 6, 1 and 6. A pilot light 46 is
Fig. 2, The binding posts lla, lib, Ile and II!
connected in shunt with the electromagnetic ac
on the radiant energy integrating unit 14 con
tuator 42 and relay winding 43 for indicating the
nect through cables to the binding posts which
have been shown in respective alignment there
with within the outline II’ at 32a, 32b, 32c and
32]. For the purpose of explaining the circuit
condition when power is on or off the circuit 4!.
The left side of the switch 46 is used to actuate
the external system independently of the timing
mechanism for purposes of focusing, etc. The
connection it will be sufficient to assume jumper 10 right side of switch 46 connects the external sys
connections between the respectively aligned
tem for automatic operation in connection with
binding posts. Binding posts 3lc and 31d of the
the timing- mechanism.
externally controlled circuit connect through ca
Reference character 41 designates a momen
bles to binding posts 320 and 32d within control
tary contact normally closed switch which is
unit Ii outlined at H’.
15 electrically connected in series with the auto
Referring to Fig. 2 of the drawings, reference
matically controlled switch 46 of the timing
character l8 designates a composite tube includ
mechanism represented generally at 49. The
ing a helf-wave rectifier l9 and a beam power
timing mechanism 49 includes a spring wound
ampli?er 26. The half-wave recti?er l9 includes
motor device 56 which operates upon a shaft 6|
cathode l9a and anode 19b in which cathode i9a 20 to which is secured a cam plate 62 and a gear
is heated by heater element i9c. The beam pow
53. The cam plate 52 is suitably notched at one
er ampli?er tube 26 includes the cathode 26a, the
peripheral portion thereof indicated at 64 to
anode 26b, the heater element 26c, the screen
serve as an acting means for the contactors 66
grid 26d and the control grid 26e. The photo
constituting the switch 46.
tube 21 which receives the radiant energy from 25
The gear 53 drives spur gear 66 of shaft 61
the ?uctuating light sources 5, 6,‘ 1 and 6 is con
which carries gear 56 meshed with gear 59 on
nected between the cathode 26a and the positive
shaft 66. Shaft 66 carries the escape wheel 6|
side of the D. C. power supply through a series
which coacts with the double pallet lever escape
path which includes by-pass condenser 22 shunt
ment 62 pivoted at 63. The double pallet lever
ed by cathode bias resistor 23 connected in se 30 escapement 62 is provided with arms extending
ries with condenser 24. The control grid Me is
approximately normal to each other and provided
connected to one electrode of gaseous discharge
with inwardly directed teeth 64 and 66 which are
tube 26 and also to the negative side of the D. C.
alternately engageable and disengageable from
power supply through the grid resistor 21, The
the peripheral teeth of the escape wheel 6|. The
other electrode of gaseous discharge tube 26 is 35 double pallet lever escapement 62 has an ex
connected to the positive side of condenser 24
tension 66 thereon which carries soft iron arma
and also to the cathode of photo tube 2|. The
ture 61 which is attracted to the pole piece 68 of
gaseous discharge tube 26 and resistor 21 pro
electromagnetic winding 69 against the tension
vide a path for discharge of condenser 24. The
of spring 10. The electromagnetic winding 69 is
heater elements I90 and 260 are energized from
electrically connected in the plate circuit of the
the alternating current power line circuit repre
beam power ampli?er tube 26 by the connection
sented at 28 through switch 29. The alternating
through the contact system 36-38 and On bind
current from the power line circuit 28 is supplied
ing posts 32e—3ie; and 32 f-3Ij, the connection
to the half-wave recti?er l9 through the connec
being established through anode 26b of beam
tion to the anode 19b thereof as shown and the
power ampli?er tube 26 as shown.
recti?ed voltage across the ?lter condenser 36
The shaft SI of the spring wound motor device
used as an anode and screen supply for the beam
56 has a manually operable grip or handle 1i
power ampli?er tube 26 and also as an anode
thereon which terminates in a pointer 12 which
supply for the photo tube 2|.
is operative over the scale 13 on the front panel
Cathode resistor 23 and by-pass condenser 22 50 -14 of the control unit Ii. The scale 13 is divided
supply the proper negative bias voltage for the
by suitable graduations which may extend
control grid 26e of the beam power ampli?er 26.
through various divisions. The pointer 12 is per
A condenser 24 is charged through photo tube
manently fixed to move with the cam plate 62
2| to the ionization potential of gaseous dis
and may be revolved by grasping handle 1i and
charge tube 26 through which it discharges via 55 revolving shaft 6| for storing energy in spring
resistor 21. The anode supply voltage of ‘photo
wound motor device 56. Shaft 51 is fastened to
tube 2i is greater than the ionization potential
gear 53 through a friction clutch which allows
of gaseous discharge tube 26 so that it is assured
the handle device 1i to be moved manually for
that series condenser 24 will be charged up to
the purpose of setting without moving gears 63,
this ionization potential.
60 56 or escape wheel 6!. The action of spring
An operating winding 33 of relay 34 serves to
~ wound motor device 56 is to shift cam plate 52 in a
control through a suitable movable armature a
counter-clockwise direction to a position in which
the peripheral notch 54 moves into registration
ing of leaf springs 35 and 36 movable with re
with the end of leaf spring 15 for opening the
spect to coacting contacts 31 and 38 which are 65 contactors 55 constituting the switch 48 after
normally opened when the armature of relay 34
the exact quantity of radiant energy has been
is in the unenergized position. Reference char
integrated due to the rate of operation of the
acter 39 comprises a momentary contact switch
double pallet lever escapement 62 which is per
device which is normally open. Reference char
mitted by the frequency of the impulses which
acter 46 designates a single pole double throw 70 excite electromagnetic winding 69 and by the
movement transmitted through the train of gears
switch which when thrown to the left is used for
from the escapement 6i through gears 59, 56, 66
applying line voltage to terminals 320 and 32d
and 53. The notch or recess 54 in the cam plate
which connect through leads 4! to any desired
6: is aligned with the zero position of the grad
external system to be controlled such as the elec
tromagnetic actuator 42 of the camera shutter 75 uated scale 13 at which time contactor 65 is open
double pole single throw contact system consist
2,408,576
7
and the circuit through the beam power am
pli?er tube 2. is de-energized so that the elec
tronic operating system is deactivated.
The de-activated position of the contactors 55
has been shown more clearly in Fig. 18 from
which it will be seen that the cam plate 52 car
ries an angular-1y shiftable plate member or dog
18 pivotally mounted at 11 adjacent the periph
cry of cam plate I! and disposed centrally with
from the outside of the control box the active
or inactive condition or the circuits.
Electrical connection is established between the
control unit H, the light integrating unit l4 and
the electromagnetically controlled shutter device
i5 and electromagnetically operated light relay
43 through the cable [2 terminating in plug 32.
the springs of which ?t into and engage the sock
et 83 in the wall of the control unit.
respect to the peripheral notch 54. The angularly 10
The light integrating unit i4 is illustrated more
shiitable plate member ‘III is formed to provide
clearly in Figs. 11-14 irom which it will be seen
a guide surface over which the end of leaf-spring
that the beam power ampli?er tube 20 is direct
ly mounted in one end of the casing represented
the angularly shiftable plate member 18 is cut
at B4 to provide short length leads to the photo
away as represented at 16a for allowing the end 15 tube 2|. The casing 84 includes the circuits of
01' leaf spring member 15 to drop quickly within
the unit [4 represented within the limits of the
the peripheral notch 54 ot the cam plate 52 for
dotted line 14' in Fig. 2. Casing 84 is provided
opening the contactors 55 to the positions repre
with ?anged extensions 85 at opposite ends there
sented in Figs. 17 and 18. The cam plate 52 car
of to facilitate mounting of the structure on a
ries a par 0! limiting stop; ‘I! and ‘I8 thereon 20 suitable
supporting surface. The beam power
which restrict the angular movement of the an
ampli?er
tube 20, when plugged into the socket
gularly shittable dog 16 to the opposite limiting
in one end of the casing 84 is mechanically pro
positions shown in Figs. 18 and 19; the position
tected and electrically shieldable by means of
illustrated in Fig. 18 providing for the quick open
tubular casing 81. The tubular casing 81 is
ing oi’ contactors 55 and the position illustrated 25 ?anged at 88 to provide means for securing the
in Fig. 19 providing for the closing of contactors
casing 81 to the casing 84 and includes perfora~
II. The upper limiting end oi’ the angularly shift
tions 89 distributed over the sides and end there
able plate member 16 is beveled as represented
of to provide adequate ventilation for the beam
at no and "0 so that when the handle 1| (Fig.
16) is manually gripped for shifting the shaft 30 power ampli?er tube 20. The electrical circuits
illustrated in Fig. 2 are brought out to terminals
5| clockwise for winding the spring wound motor
in the receptacle 90 in the end of casing 84 pre
device III the end of leaf spring member 15 rides
pared
for connection to a coacting plug connected
up upon the side face 80 of the peripheral notch
to a cable extending from cable I! shown in Fig.
54 closing the circuit through the contactors 55.
1 and having connecting members 32a, 32b, 32c
When the cam plate 52 continues to rotate in
and
32)‘ thereon adapted to establish connection
the clockwise direction as mentioned, the leaf
respectively with the contacts 31a, 3lb, 31c and
spring member ‘I5, after riding up on the side face
SH in receptacle 90.
ll of the peripheral notch 54, contacts the bev
Fig. 5 is a curve diagram showing the intensity
eled surface 160 of the dog 16 and it forces the
of
light plotted against time in the usual ?uctu
dog 1‘ back against the stop 18 and on the con 40
ating light source with which the light integrat
tinued rotation of the plate, the leaf spring mem
ing system of my invention is required to oper
ber drops down until it contacts with the periph
ate. The curve shows the photo tube current or
ery of the cam plate 52 thus holding the con
the intensity of light as ordinates plotted against
tactors 55 in their closed position.
time and inasmuch as the photo tube current
When the cam plate 52 rotates in a counter
is directly proportional to the intensity of light
clockwise direction under control of the escape
the curves are superimposed as they are identical
ment mechanism, the leaf spring member 15 will
in shape.
contact with the beveled surface 161; of the dog
Fig. 6 is a curve diagram showing the instan~
16 and forces the dog to the right until the same
taneous voltage across condenser 24. The ordi
contacts with the stop 19. The end of the leaf
spring member will then continue to ride up the ' nate K3 is a constant determined by the poten
tial across condenser 24 at which gaseous dis
surface 16b until it reaches the apex and on the
charge tube 25 de-ionizes. The peak of the curve
continued rotation of the cam plate 52, after the
in Fig. 6 is also a constant at K4, the magnitude
leaf spring member passes the apex, it will con
of which is determined by the ionization poten~
tact with the beveled surface 16c of the dog forc
tial of gaseous discharge tube 26.
ing the dog out 01' the way, Permitting the leaf
Fig. 7 is a curve diagram representing either
spring member 15 to move quickly into the notch
the plate current of beam power ampli?er tube
54 and thus quickly break the contact between the
20 or the I. R. drop across resistor 21. In the
contactors 55.
case where the curve represents plate current
By providing an arrangement of this kind, all
the advantages of a quick electrical break are ob 60 the ordinate K1 is a constant which shows the
steady anode current and ordinate K2 is a con
tained.
stant representing the peak anode current of
In Fig. 16 I ‘represent in side elevation the
elements of the radiant energy integrating de
each discharge pulse. In the case Where the
vice corresponding to the plan view of Fig. 15
curve represents the I. R. drop across resistor
and the circuit diagram of Fig. 2. It will be seen 65 27, the constant K1 becomes zero and the con
that the relay 34 is mounted adjacent the tim
stant K2 represents the peak I. R. drop across
ing mechanism and in compact association with
resistor 2‘! determined by the ionization poten
the pilot lamp 46 and the momentary normally
tial of gaseous discharge tube 26.
closed contact switch 41 and the focusing switch 70
The space or time intervals between the dis
40. The momentary normally opened contact
charge pulses which constitute the curve of Fig. 3
switch 39 is also arranged in compact relation
integrate the irregular curve of Fig. 1. This can
to the elements as hereinbeiore described. A
be seen by comparing the areas under the sections
bull's eye lens 8| is mounted on panel 14 im
of the curve divided by the discharge pulses.
member ‘II may be displaced. ' The periphery of
mediately above lamp 46 for readily indicating 76 They should all be equal showing the products of
2,408, 576
time and light intensity between each pulse as
being equal.
10
The left side of switch 40 is also used in addi
tion to its "oif” function for applying line volt
age to terminals 32c and 32d 'for controlling the
external devices without operating the escape
ment wheel 6| or relay 34.
In the operation of the system of my invention
terminals 23 are connected to the power supply
and the line switch 29 is closed. A few minutes
The charge fed by photo tube 2| to condenser
are allowed for the heaters 200 and I90‘ of beam
24 is dependent upon the intensity of radiant
power ampli?er 20 and half wave recti?er l9 to
energy striking its cathode surface and this
stabilize. Single pole double throw switch 40 is
charge is essentially linear, depending entirely
thrown to the right. Pointer 12 is set on scale
13 to the desired quantity which automatically 10 upon photo cathode emission and is practically
independent of anode potential.
closes switch 48. Momentary contact switch 39
The beam power amplifier tube 20 is capable
is pressed which energizes relay 34 and closes
of operating millions of times per second, limited
contacts 31-36 and 38-36. Relay 34 remains
energized through its now closed magnetically
only by electron-transit time, inter-electrode
held contacts 3'|-36. Closed contacts 38—36 15 capacitance, etc. Mechanically, my instrument
is limited in speed only by the inertia of the mov
complete anode circuit of beam power ampli?er
ing parts; mainly, the escapement mechanism
tube 20 with electromagnetic windings 69 as its
and armature 66, which have been purposely
load.
'
‘
kept in weight. The practical limit of speed of
Photo tube 2| within housing 84, supplied with
or without ?lters, receives a portion of the ?uc 20 my device is approximately one hundred es
capements per second. The exposure dial 13 on
tuating radiant energy to which the subject or
my instrument is graduated from 0 to 200 in ap
material is being exposed. Photo tube 2| feeds
proximately 345°. The normal operating speed
a charge to the condenser 24 the magnitude, at
of my instrument is seven escapements per sec
any instant, being in direct proportion to the
intensity of radiant energy, at any instant, which 25 ond. These seven escapements per second cor
respond to a movement of the exposure dial of
is received by photo tube 2|. Voltage across
one division. In other words, for the dial to
condenser 24 builds up until it reaches the ioniza
tion potential of gaseous discharge tube 26 at
move a complete cycle or 345°, fourteen hundred
escapements must take place. The normal speed
which time gaseous discharge tube 26 ionizes
and discharges condenser 24 through resistor 30 of seven escapements was chosen because the
instrument, due to the purpose for which it was
21. The I. R. drop across resistor 21, the
designed, must be capable of integrating a light
upper part being positive, is applied in series
flux of at least ten times the normal level of.’
with the bias voltage between cathode 20a,
and control grid 2|Ie of beam power ampli?er
illumination in order to take care of surges of
tube 20. Plate current flows in beam power 35 power, ?ickering, etc. As my instrument is ca
ampli?er tube 20 through electromagnetic wind
pable of operating at speeds of one hundred per
ing 69 pulling armature 61 and allowing one tooth
second, it can easily take care of these increases
of escape wheel 6| to escape. Fig. 3 indicates
of light. In my instrument, at the normal op
the condition of escape wheelv 6| while con
erating speed, seven escapements must take place
denser 24 is storing up a charge received from
before the exposure dial traverses one division
photo tube 2|. Fig. 4 shows the movement im
giving a ?neness of control which can actually
parted to escape wheel 6| as condenser 24 dis
charges through gaseousdischarge tube 26 there
be set to one-seventh of a second. This can be
made even ?ner by making the normal operating
speed greater which can easily be done due to
by producing an I. R. drop across resistor 21 and
decreasing the bias on control grid 20e and in 45 the high top speed inherent in the instrument.
creasing the current ?ow through winding 69.
The fact that the photo tube 2| in the device
However, the spring ‘Ill immediately restores the
of my invention is immediately adjacent the
double pallet lever 62 to the position shown in Fig.
beam power ampli?er tube 20 and not connected
3. This sequence continues until pointer 12 re
through a high resistance element, or long cable
turns to zero when switch 48 opens, removing line 50 remote from the grid of the beam power ampli?er
voltage from winding 33 which opens contacts
tube 20 reduces opportunity or danger of leak
31-35 and 36-36 and also removing line voltage
age, stray voltages, etc. Also, due to the short
from terminals 320 and 32d which contact through
ness of the connection between photo tube 2|
terminals 3| 0 and 3| d to the controlling devices
and beam power ampli?er tube 20, any ripple or
such as electromagnetically controlled shutter l6 55 surges in the D. C. supply to the anode of the
and electromagnetic control 43 to the lamps, 5,
photo tube 2| due to the capacitance in the cable
6, ‘i and 8. Contacts 38—36 remove anode cur
which shunts the photo tube cannot have the
rent from winding 69, stopping escapement
effect of masking or introducing errors in the
mechanism from operating.
instrument's calibration.
The condenser 24 and resistor 21 are selected 60 My instrument, due to its novel design, will
of such capacity and resistance that the time of
operate satisfactorily at 115 volts plus or minus
discharge of condenser 24 is sumcient to swing
20% and retain its calibration regardless of
the control grid in beam power ampli?er 20 less
whether the line voltage varies slowly or rapidly.
negative and hold it less negative for a su?i
This is ‘important in an instrument of this type
cient time to overcome the inertia of the arma 65 because the instrument is normally used to inte
ture 67 and thus allow step by step movement of
grate widely varying or ?uctuating light intensi
the double pallet lever 62 under control of elec
ties which are caused principally by line voltage
tromagnet 68. The time of discharge of con
changes.
denser 24 is such as to effect the movement of
While I have described my invention in one
the armature for controlling the escapement 6| 70 of its preferred embodiments, I realize that
tooth by tooth. The capacity of condenser 24
changes in details may be made and I desire
is not so small that photo tube 2| would lend to
that it be understood that no limitations upon
continuously charge the condenser 24 at the
my invention are intended other than those which
same rate or greater rate than it is discharging
may be imposed by the scope or the appended
through gaseous discharge tube 26.
75 claims.
2,408,576
11
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent of the United States is as follows:
1. In a radiant energy integrating system for
automatically predetermining exposures :by a
source of spectral rays of variable light intensi~
ties; a control circuit; an electronic circuit in
cluding a light responsive device subjected to
the variable light intensities; a power ampli?er
tube, including a cathode, a control grid, and an
anode; an anode circuit connected between said
anode and cathode and including electro-mag
netic means therein; a source of D. C. poten
tial connected in circuit with said electro-mag
netic means, one side of said light responsive de
vice being connected to said source of D. C. po
tential; a cold cathode gaseous discharge tube
of the two element type connected from its one
side to the other side of said light responsive de
vice, and the other side of said gaseous discharge
tube connected to said control grid; a condenser
and resistor connected in series and disposed in
shunt to said gaseous discharge tube; biasing
means disposed between said cathode and
the junction point between said resistor and
said condenser, whereby the charge delivered by
12
gaseous discharge tube and applying a change of
potential to said control grid for controlling cur
rent flow in said anode circuit, thereby energizing
the electro-magnetic means therein at a rate de—
pendent upon the intensity of light to which said
light responsive device is subjected; an electric
switch disposed in said control circuit; a selec
tively settable actuator for operating said elec
tric switch; a double pallet lever escapement
mechanism for controlling the movement of said
actuator; said electro-magnetic means control
ling the movement of said double pallet lever es
capement mechanism at a rate proportional to
the rate of operation of said electronic circuit
for affecting the operation of said electric switch
when a predetermined quantity of light has been
incident upon said light responsive device,
3. In a radiant energy integrating system for
automatically predetermining exposures by a
source of spectral rays of variable light intensi
ties; a control circuit; an electronic circuit in
cluding a light responsive device subjected to the
variable light intensities; a power ampli?er tube
in close proximity thereto and including a cathode,
a control grid and an anode; an anode circuit con
said light responsive device charges said con
nected
between said anode and cathode and in
denser at a rate dependent upon the intensity
cluding electro-magnetic means therein; a source
of light to which said light responsive device is
of D. 0. potential connected in circuit with said
subjected, for affecting a discharge through said
gaseous discharge tube and applying a change 30 electro-magnetic means, one side of said light re
sponsive device being connected to said source of
of potential to said control grid, for controlling
D. 0. potential; a cold cathode gaseous discharge
current flow in said anode circuit, thereby ener
tube of the two element type connected from its
gizing the electro-magnetic means therein at a
one
side to the other side of said light respon
rate dependent upon the intensity of light to
which said light responsive device is subjected; 35 sive device, and the other side of said gaseous
discharge tube connected to said control grid;
an electric switch disposed in said control cir
a
condenser and resistor connected in series and
cuit, a selectively settable actuator for operating
disposed in shunt to said gaseous discharge tube;
said electric switch; an escapement mechanism
biasing means disposed between said cathode
for controlling the movement of said actuator;
and the junction point between said resistor and
said electro-magnetic means controlling the
said condenser, whereby the charge delivered by
movement of said escapement mechanism at a
said light responsive device charges said con
rate proportional to the rate of operation of said
denser at a rate dependent upon the intensity of
electronic circuit for a?ecting the operation of
light to which said light responsive device is sub~
said electric switch when a predetermined quan
jected, for affecting a discharge through said
tity of light has been incident upon said light
gaseous discharge tube and applying a change of
responsive device.
potential to said control grid, for controlling
2. In a radiant energy integrating system for
current
?ow in said anode circuit, thereby ener
automatically predetermining exposures by a
gizing the electro-magnetic means therein at a
source of spectral rays of variable light intensi
rate dependent upon the intensity of light to
ties; a control circuit; an electronic circuit in
which said light responsive device is subjected; an
cluding a light responsive device subjected to the
electric switch connected in said control circuit,
variable light intensities; a power ampli?er tube
a selectively settable actuator for operating said
including a cathode, a control grid, a screen grid,
electric switch; an escapement mechanism for
and an anode; an anode circuit connected be~
controlling
the movement of said actuator, the
tween said anode and cathode and including elec 55 speed of the escapement mechanism being un
tro-magnetic means therein; a source of D. C.
limited electronically, due to the vacuum type
potential connected in circuit with said electro
power ampli?er tube, and limited mechanically
magnetic means, one side of said light responsive . in speed only by the inertia of the moving parts;
device being connected to said source of D. C.
said electro-magnetic means controlling the
potential; a cold cathode gaseous discharge tube 60 movement of said escapement mechanism at a
of the two element type connected from its one
rate proportional to the rate of operation of said
side to the other side of said light responsive de
electronic circuit for affecting the operation of
vice, and the other side of said gaseous discharge
said electric switch when a predetermined quan
tube connected to said control grid; a condenser
tity of light has been incident upon said light
and resistor connected in series and disposed in
responsive device.
shunt to said gaseous discharge tube; a cathode
4. In a radiant energy integrating system for
bias resistor and bypass condenser connected in
automatically predetermining exposures by a
shunt and disposed between said cathode and
source of spectral rays of variable light intensities;
the junction point between said ?rst mentioned
a control circuit; an electronic circuit including a
resistor and said ?rst mentioned condenser,
light responsive device subjected to the variable
whereby the charge delivered by said light re
light intensities; a power ampli?er tube in close
sponsive device charges said ?rst mentioned con
proximity thereto and including a cathode, a
denser at a rate dependent upon the intensity
control grid and an anode; an anode circuit con
of light to which said light responsive device is
nected between said anode and cathode and in
subjected for affecting a discharge through said 76 cluding
electro-magnetic means therein; a source
2,408,578
13
of D. 0. potential connected in circuit with said
current ?ow in said anode circuit, thereby ener
electro-magnetic means, one side 01' said light re
sponsive device being connected to said source
of D. C. potential; a cold‘ cathode gaseous dis
rate dependent upon the intensity of light to which
said light responsive device is subjected; an elec
charge tube of the two element type connected
from its one side to the other side of said light
responsive device, and the other side of said
gaseous discharge tube connected to said control
grid; a condenser and resistor connected in series
and disposed in shunt to said gaseous discharge 10
gizing the electro-magnetic means therein at a
tric switch connected in said control circuit, a
selectively settable actuator for operating said elec
tric switch; an escapement mechanism ‘for con- v
trolling the movement of said actuator, the nor- '
mal speed of the escapement mechanism being
seven times a second and capable of operating at
one hundred times per second; said electro-rnagnetic means controlling the movement of said
escapement mechanism at a rate proportional
said condenser, whereby the charge delivered by
to the rate of operation qt said electronic cir
said light responsive device charges said con
denser at a rate dependent upon the intensity of 15 cuit for a?ecting the operation of said electric
tube; biasing means disposed between said cathode.
_ and the junction point between said resistor and
light to which said light responsive device is
subjected, for affecting a discharge through said
gaseous discharge tube and applying a change of
potential to said control grid, for controlling
switch when a predetermined quantity of light
has been incident upon said light responsive
device.
CLARENCE S. 0ST.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 400 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа