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Oct. 1, 1946. 2,408,516 _c. s. 051 .APPARA'I'US FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY Filed July 14, 1945 , 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 Oct. 1, 1946. ' c. s. 051* APPARATUS 2, v ,576 INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY Filed-July 14, 1945 _ 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 _ eealzemce/ Q51 OMS ) Oct. 1, 1946. v ' c. s. can 2,408,576 A'PPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY Filed July 14, 1945 q "1' . 7 Sheets-Sheets Maw 55%, E] ' 21mm Oct. 1, 1946. ' c. 5. os'r ' 2,408,576 APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT'ENERGY Filéd July 14, 1945 /// 7 Sheets-Sheet ‘4 U d? a 39 awe/Mm Cofcwewe/ as; 0013) @MW Oct. 1, 1946.’ c. s.‘os'r 2,408,576 APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY Filed July 14, 1945 '7 Sheets-Sheet 5 Oct. 1, 1946. } c. s. os'r 2,408,576 APFARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY 'Filed July 14, 1945 '7 She‘ets-Sheet s ' O 53 O W ' o - 3mm 3% @Mw Oct. 1, 1946. c. s. 051' 2,408,576‘ APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATI-NG RADIANT ENERGY Filed July 14, 1945 fig/<15. Q) of? 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 .27. J @ 62 6/ f9 J5 Fgaa WM Patented Oct. 1, 1946 2,408,576 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,408,576 APPARATUS FOR INTEGRATING RADIANT ENERGY Clarence s. 0st, Atlantic City, N. J. Application July 14, 1945, Serial No. 605,124 4 Claims. (01. 250-415) 1 2 My invention relates broadly to a radiant en side in an apparatus which combines high elec tronic ‘and mechanical efficiencies of coacting electronic‘ and mechanical instrumentalitles for ergy integrating apparatus and more particu larly to a combined electronic and mechanical device for integrating intensities of radiant en ergy. One of the objects of my invention is to pro-. vide an improved construction of mechanical and electronic system for measuring radiant en integrating radiant energy over a wide range 01' ?uctuating surging or ?ickering values as is set forth more fully in the speci?cation herein after following by reference to the accompanying drawings in which: ergy by integrating ?uctuating radiant energy Figure 1 is a perspective view showing the ap intensities and automatically varying the duration l0 plication of the system of my invention to photo of time to compensate for such ?uctuating in graphic apparatus for use in the graphic arts; Fig. 2 is an electrical circuit diagram showing tensities. _ . Another object of my invention is to provide a combined mechanical and electronic control sys tem whereby‘ the quantity of radiant energy emitted from any given source may be integrated for controlling the operation of associated electri cal circuits. Still another object of my invention is to pro vide an arrangement of a coacting electronic cir cuit and mechanical system whereby the quantity the coaction of the electronic and mechanical elements of the system of my invention; Fig. 3 is 15 a schematic and diagrammatic view illustrating the coordination of the mechanical and electri cal elements of the system of my invention under conditions where the quantity of radiant energy received is not yet su?icient to "effect an opera 20 tion of the mechanical system; Fig. 4 is a sche .matic view of the mechanical and electrical sys tem in which the quantity of radiant energy of radiant energy emitted from a radiant source may be integrated and when an exact predeter v received has increased to a point at which the mined quantity of radiant energy has been re electronic system is operated and an increment ceived from the source, an electrical control cir 25 of movement secured in the mechanical system; cuit is actuated by the mechanical system for operating an associated electrical circuit. Still another object of my invention is to pro Fig. 5 is a graph, arbitrarily chosen, of the in tensity of ?uctuating light plotted against time; Fig. 6 is a graph of the instantaneous voltage vide a combined electronic and mechanical radi plotted against time across the condenser of the ant energy control circuit and apparatus which 30 condenser discharge circuit of the electronic con is relatively small in physical dimensions and trol system; Fig. 7 is a graph representing either which may be readily utilized for measuring and plate current of the electronic tube circuit or volt controlling radiant energy sources which may age drop across a portion of the input system to ?uctuate over a, relatively wide range for secur the electronic control circuit and illustrating the ing from such sources that integrated quantity characteristics of the repeating pulses of the elec- ' or‘ light necessary to properly produce photo tronic control circuit; Fig. 8 is a front elevational graphic exposures in various industries such as view of the control unit employed in the system photoengraving, photolithcgraphy and the graph of my invention; Fig. 9 is a side elevational view ic arts in general; the measurement of exact of the control unit shown in Fig. 8; Fig. 10 is a amounts of irradiation of various cultures or top plan view of the control unit shown in Figs. vegetation to ultra-violet; the exposure of mate 8 and 9; Fig. 11 is an elevational view of the rials to X-rays, such as the radiography of cast radiant energy integrating unit which is exposed lngs and other industrial applications; the ex to the source of ?uctuating radiant energy; Fig. posure in radiology and roentgenology of the hu 12 is a top plan view of the radiant energy inte man body, etc.; the measurement of gamma rays, grating unit of Fig. 11; Fig. 13 is an end view etc.; exposure of blueprints; and photographic of the radiant energy integrating unit of Figs. 11 and graphic applications generally. and 12 looking in the direction of arrow A; Fig, 14 Still another object of my invention is to pro is an end view of the radiant energy integrat vide a compact device which may be installed ing unit of Figs. 11 and 12 looking in the direc in power areas where wide ?uctuations in line 50 tion of arrow B; Fig. 15 is an enlarged eleva voltage may occur even over a range of plus or tional view showing the mechanical portion of the minus 20% for integrating ?uctuating light in radiant energy integrating unit of Figs. 8-10; Fig. tensities for effecting exact photographic ex 16 is a side elevational view of the control unit of posures in the graphic arts. Fig. 15 looking in the direction of arrow C; Fig. Other and further objects of my invention re 55 17 is a detailed view illustrating the cam mecha 2,408,578 3 4 nism which controls the contacts of the time escapements must take place. The normal speed switch in the radiant energy integrating unit of of seven escapements was chosen because the in Figs. 8-l0 and 15-16; Fig. 18 is an enlarged view strument, due to the purpose for which it was de of the cam operating mechanism oi.‘ the timer 01' signed, must be capable of integrating a radiant Fig. 1'7 in which the contacts are about to be OI energy ?ux of at least ten times the normal level closed by movement of the cam mechanism; Fig. of illumination in order to take care of surges of 19 is a view of the cam mechanism of Fig. 18 showing the time control contactor closed and power, ?ickering, etc. As my instrument is ca pable of operating at speeds of one hundred per about to be snapped open by a counter-clockwise second. it can readily take care of these increases movement of the cam mechanism and Fig. 20 is lu of radiant energy. In my instrument. at the nor a side elevational view of the contactor of Figs. mal operating speed, seven escapements must 18 and 19 showing the relation of the cam mech take place before the exposure dial traverses one anism thereto. division giving a ?neness of control which can My invention is directed to a manually settable actually be set to one-seventh of a second. This control unit which may be mounted remote from 1;, can be made even ?ner by making the normal the apparatus on which it is used and in a con operating speed greater which can easily be done venient position to the operator and electrically connected to the radiant energy integrating unit that is mounted adjacent the work which is sub ject to the ?uctuating light source. The shutter _ in the case of a camera and also the lamps may be operated by an electromagnetic device auto matically operated from the control unit when the exact quantity of radiant energy has been supplied to the work regardless of the ?ickering and ?uctuating oi the radiant energy source. Thus arc lights which are highly desirable for their spectral qualities may be eil'ectlvely utilized in graphic arts processes etc. regardless of the ?icker and ?uctuation thereof. The radiant energy integrating apparatus of my invention comprises a composite electronic and mechanical device, the purpose of which is to measure exact quantities of radiant energy by integrating ?uctuating radiant energy intensities and automatically varying the duration of time to compensate for these ?uctuating intensities. The due to the high top speed inherent in the in— strument. My instrument, due to its novel de sign, will operate satisfactorily at 115 volts plus or minus 20% and retain its calibration regard less of whether the line voltage varies slowly or rapidly. This is an important point in an in strument of this type because the instrument is used to integrate ?uctuating light intensities which are caused principally by line voltage changes. So far as I am aware, no comparable device has ever been developed which occupies so small a space and yet accomplishes such pre cision control. I further increase the efficiency of the radiant energy integrating device of my invention by mounting the vacuum photo tube and the beam power ampli?er tube in close proximity to each other on the integrating unit for preventing leakage of energy to the leads constituting the interconnecting circuit which would otherwise tend to introduce ripples or surges in the direct quantity of radiant energy may be varied con current supply to the anode of the photo tube tinuously from zero to any amount. The device due to the capacitance in the cable which shunts will automatically control any other device such 40 the photo tube and thus would have the effect as a magnetic shutter on a camera for controlling of masking or introducing errors in the instru the amount of exposure; or a magnetic switch ment’s calibration. for turning on and of! a radiant source of energy Referring to the drawings in more detail ref for measuring exact amounts of irradiation of erence character I designates a frame structure various cultures or vegetation; or exposure oi! .- including a rail system 2 along which the ad blueprints, photo-engraving plates or other plates used in various graphic arts processes; or exposure of materials, the human body, etc. to justable structure 3 carrying the work support 4 and the light sources 5, 6, 1 and 8 is adapted to be adjusted in position with respect to the X-rays. gamma-rays, etc. camera 9. The camera 9 is illustrated mounted The dimensions oi.’ the control unit and the 50 adjacent one end of the frame structure I adja radiant energy integrating unit are exceedingly cent the panel ID from which position the op small. For example, the control unit‘measures erator is enabled to focus the ‘camera 8 on the but 6 inches x 35/8 inches x 11/2 inches, that is, work carried by the support 4. I have shown slightly over 321/; cubic inches. The radiant en the light sources 6 in the form of arc lights which ergy integrating unit measures but 6% inches x 55 while rich in their spectral qualities are, never~ 2% inches x 1% inches, that is, slightly over 22 theless. inherently subject to ?ickers. ?uctuations cubic inches. The radiant energy integrating de and a wide variation in light intensities. How vice of my invention employs but two electron ever, with the light integrating system of my tubes. One of the tubes comprises a beam power invention such variations and intensities are not amplifier with direct current on the anode which, 60 detrimental and do not impair the quality of electronically speaking, is capable of operating the reproduction. millions of times per second, limited only by elec I mount the control unit as represented at it tron-transit time, inter-electrode capacitance, in a convenient position adjacent the panel Ill etc. Mechanically, my instrument is limited in connected through the cable represented at I? speed only by the inertia of the moving parts; 6;, to the electronic light integrating unit shown at principally the escapement mechanism and arma I4 mounted adjacent the work support 4 in the ture, which have purposely been maintained ex path of the light rays from the light source 5, tremely light in weight. The practical limit of 5, l and 8, The cable I2 also includes a branch speed of my device is approximately one hundred circuit extending therefrom as represented at 15 escapements per second. The normal operating 70 to the electromagnetically controlled shutter de speed of my instrument is seven escapements per vice represented at I6 and to the electromagnet second. These seven escapements per second cor ically operated light relay represented at 43 and respond to a movement of the exposure dial 01’ 44. A further extension of the cable system rep one division. In other words, for the dial to resented at IT leads to the power supply system. move a complete cycle or 345°, fourteen hundred 75 The circuits in the radiant energy integrating 2,408,678 5 . unit 14 are represented in the outline I4’ in Fig. 2. The circuits and mechanism contained with in the control unit II are as outlined at I l' in l6 and the relay 43 which controls the contact system 44 leading to the power supply circuit 46 for the lamps 6, 6, 1 and 6. A pilot light 46 is Fig. 2, The binding posts lla, lib, Ile and II! connected in shunt with the electromagnetic ac on the radiant energy integrating unit 14 con tuator 42 and relay winding 43 for indicating the nect through cables to the binding posts which have been shown in respective alignment there with within the outline II’ at 32a, 32b, 32c and 32]. For the purpose of explaining the circuit condition when power is on or off the circuit 4!. The left side of the switch 46 is used to actuate the external system independently of the timing mechanism for purposes of focusing, etc. The connection it will be sufficient to assume jumper 10 right side of switch 46 connects the external sys connections between the respectively aligned tem for automatic operation in connection with binding posts. Binding posts 3lc and 31d of the the timing- mechanism. externally controlled circuit connect through ca Reference character 41 designates a momen bles to binding posts 320 and 32d within control tary contact normally closed switch which is unit Ii outlined at H’. 15 electrically connected in series with the auto Referring to Fig. 2 of the drawings, reference matically controlled switch 46 of the timing character l8 designates a composite tube includ mechanism represented generally at 49. The ing a helf-wave rectifier l9 and a beam power timing mechanism 49 includes a spring wound ampli?er 26. The half-wave recti?er l9 includes motor device 56 which operates upon a shaft 6| cathode l9a and anode 19b in which cathode i9a 20 to which is secured a cam plate 62 and a gear is heated by heater element i9c. The beam pow 53. The cam plate 52 is suitably notched at one er ampli?er tube 26 includes the cathode 26a, the peripheral portion thereof indicated at 64 to anode 26b, the heater element 26c, the screen serve as an acting means for the contactors 66 grid 26d and the control grid 26e. The photo constituting the switch 46. tube 21 which receives the radiant energy from 25 The gear 53 drives spur gear 66 of shaft 61 the ?uctuating light sources 5, 6,‘ 1 and 6 is con which carries gear 56 meshed with gear 59 on nected between the cathode 26a and the positive shaft 66. Shaft 66 carries the escape wheel 6| side of the D. C. power supply through a series which coacts with the double pallet lever escape path which includes by-pass condenser 22 shunt ment 62 pivoted at 63. The double pallet lever ed by cathode bias resistor 23 connected in se 30 escapement 62 is provided with arms extending ries with condenser 24. The control grid Me is approximately normal to each other and provided connected to one electrode of gaseous discharge with inwardly directed teeth 64 and 66 which are tube 26 and also to the negative side of the D. C. alternately engageable and disengageable from power supply through the grid resistor 21, The the peripheral teeth of the escape wheel 6|. The other electrode of gaseous discharge tube 26 is 35 double pallet lever escapement 62 has an ex connected to the positive side of condenser 24 tension 66 thereon which carries soft iron arma and also to the cathode of photo tube 2|. The ture 61 which is attracted to the pole piece 68 of gaseous discharge tube 26 and resistor 21 pro electromagnetic winding 69 against the tension vide a path for discharge of condenser 24. The of spring 10. The electromagnetic winding 69 is heater elements I90 and 260 are energized from electrically connected in the plate circuit of the the alternating current power line circuit repre beam power ampli?er tube 26 by the connection sented at 28 through switch 29. The alternating through the contact system 36-38 and On bind current from the power line circuit 28 is supplied ing posts 32e—3ie; and 32 f-3Ij, the connection to the half-wave recti?er l9 through the connec being established through anode 26b of beam tion to the anode 19b thereof as shown and the power ampli?er tube 26 as shown. recti?ed voltage across the ?lter condenser 36 The shaft SI of the spring wound motor device used as an anode and screen supply for the beam 56 has a manually operable grip or handle 1i power ampli?er tube 26 and also as an anode thereon which terminates in a pointer 12 which supply for the photo tube 2|. is operative over the scale 13 on the front panel Cathode resistor 23 and by-pass condenser 22 50 -14 of the control unit Ii. The scale 13 is divided supply the proper negative bias voltage for the by suitable graduations which may extend control grid 26e of the beam power ampli?er 26. through various divisions. The pointer 12 is per A condenser 24 is charged through photo tube manently fixed to move with the cam plate 62 2| to the ionization potential of gaseous dis and may be revolved by grasping handle 1i and charge tube 26 through which it discharges via 55 revolving shaft 6| for storing energy in spring resistor 21. The anode supply voltage of ‘photo wound motor device 56. Shaft 51 is fastened to tube 2i is greater than the ionization potential gear 53 through a friction clutch which allows of gaseous discharge tube 26 so that it is assured the handle device 1i to be moved manually for that series condenser 24 will be charged up to the purpose of setting without moving gears 63, this ionization potential. 60 56 or escape wheel 6!. The action of spring An operating winding 33 of relay 34 serves to ~ wound motor device 56 is to shift cam plate 52 in a control through a suitable movable armature a counter-clockwise direction to a position in which the peripheral notch 54 moves into registration ing of leaf springs 35 and 36 movable with re with the end of leaf spring 15 for opening the spect to coacting contacts 31 and 38 which are 65 contactors 55 constituting the switch 48 after normally opened when the armature of relay 34 the exact quantity of radiant energy has been is in the unenergized position. Reference char integrated due to the rate of operation of the acter 39 comprises a momentary contact switch double pallet lever escapement 62 which is per device which is normally open. Reference char mitted by the frequency of the impulses which acter 46 designates a single pole double throw 70 excite electromagnetic winding 69 and by the movement transmitted through the train of gears switch which when thrown to the left is used for from the escapement 6i through gears 59, 56, 66 applying line voltage to terminals 320 and 32d and 53. The notch or recess 54 in the cam plate which connect through leads 4! to any desired 6: is aligned with the zero position of the grad external system to be controlled such as the elec tromagnetic actuator 42 of the camera shutter 75 uated scale 13 at which time contactor 65 is open double pole single throw contact system consist 2,408,576 7 and the circuit through the beam power am pli?er tube 2. is de-energized so that the elec tronic operating system is deactivated. The de-activated position of the contactors 55 has been shown more clearly in Fig. 18 from which it will be seen that the cam plate 52 car ries an angular-1y shiftable plate member or dog 18 pivotally mounted at 11 adjacent the periph cry of cam plate I! and disposed centrally with from the outside of the control box the active or inactive condition or the circuits. Electrical connection is established between the control unit H, the light integrating unit l4 and the electromagnetically controlled shutter device i5 and electromagnetically operated light relay 43 through the cable [2 terminating in plug 32. the springs of which ?t into and engage the sock et 83 in the wall of the control unit. respect to the peripheral notch 54. The angularly 10 The light integrating unit i4 is illustrated more shiitable plate member ‘III is formed to provide clearly in Figs. 11-14 irom which it will be seen a guide surface over which the end of leaf-spring that the beam power ampli?er tube 20 is direct ly mounted in one end of the casing represented the angularly shiftable plate member 18 is cut at B4 to provide short length leads to the photo away as represented at 16a for allowing the end 15 tube 2|. The casing 84 includes the circuits of 01' leaf spring member 15 to drop quickly within the unit [4 represented within the limits of the the peripheral notch 54 ot the cam plate 52 for dotted line 14' in Fig. 2. Casing 84 is provided opening the contactors 55 to the positions repre with ?anged extensions 85 at opposite ends there sented in Figs. 17 and 18. The cam plate 52 car of to facilitate mounting of the structure on a ries a par 0! limiting stop; ‘I! and ‘I8 thereon 20 suitable supporting surface. The beam power which restrict the angular movement of the an ampli?er tube 20, when plugged into the socket gularly shittable dog 16 to the opposite limiting in one end of the casing 84 is mechanically pro positions shown in Figs. 18 and 19; the position tected and electrically shieldable by means of illustrated in Fig. 18 providing for the quick open tubular casing 81. The tubular casing 81 is ing oi’ contactors 55 and the position illustrated 25 ?anged at 88 to provide means for securing the in Fig. 19 providing for the closing of contactors casing 81 to the casing 84 and includes perfora~ II. The upper limiting end oi’ the angularly shift tions 89 distributed over the sides and end there able plate member 16 is beveled as represented of to provide adequate ventilation for the beam at no and "0 so that when the handle 1| (Fig. 16) is manually gripped for shifting the shaft 30 power ampli?er tube 20. The electrical circuits illustrated in Fig. 2 are brought out to terminals 5| clockwise for winding the spring wound motor in the receptacle 90 in the end of casing 84 pre device III the end of leaf spring member 15 rides pared for connection to a coacting plug connected up upon the side face 80 of the peripheral notch to a cable extending from cable I! shown in Fig. 54 closing the circuit through the contactors 55. 1 and having connecting members 32a, 32b, 32c When the cam plate 52 continues to rotate in and 32)‘ thereon adapted to establish connection the clockwise direction as mentioned, the leaf respectively with the contacts 31a, 3lb, 31c and spring member ‘I5, after riding up on the side face SH in receptacle 90. ll of the peripheral notch 54, contacts the bev Fig. 5 is a curve diagram showing the intensity eled surface 160 of the dog 16 and it forces the of light plotted against time in the usual ?uctu dog 1‘ back against the stop 18 and on the con 40 ating light source with which the light integrat tinued rotation of the plate, the leaf spring mem ing system of my invention is required to oper ber drops down until it contacts with the periph ate. The curve shows the photo tube current or ery of the cam plate 52 thus holding the con the intensity of light as ordinates plotted against tactors 55 in their closed position. time and inasmuch as the photo tube current When the cam plate 52 rotates in a counter is directly proportional to the intensity of light clockwise direction under control of the escape the curves are superimposed as they are identical ment mechanism, the leaf spring member 15 will in shape. contact with the beveled surface 161; of the dog Fig. 6 is a curve diagram showing the instan~ 16 and forces the dog to the right until the same taneous voltage across condenser 24. The ordi contacts with the stop 19. The end of the leaf spring member will then continue to ride up the ' nate K3 is a constant determined by the poten tial across condenser 24 at which gaseous dis surface 16b until it reaches the apex and on the charge tube 25 de-ionizes. The peak of the curve continued rotation of the cam plate 52, after the in Fig. 6 is also a constant at K4, the magnitude leaf spring member passes the apex, it will con of which is determined by the ionization poten~ tact with the beveled surface 16c of the dog forc tial of gaseous discharge tube 26. ing the dog out 01' the way, Permitting the leaf Fig. 7 is a curve diagram representing either spring member 15 to move quickly into the notch the plate current of beam power ampli?er tube 54 and thus quickly break the contact between the 20 or the I. R. drop across resistor 21. In the contactors 55. case where the curve represents plate current By providing an arrangement of this kind, all the advantages of a quick electrical break are ob 60 the ordinate K1 is a constant which shows the steady anode current and ordinate K2 is a con tained. stant representing the peak anode current of In Fig. 16 I ‘represent in side elevation the elements of the radiant energy integrating de each discharge pulse. In the case Where the vice corresponding to the plan view of Fig. 15 curve represents the I. R. drop across resistor and the circuit diagram of Fig. 2. It will be seen 65 27, the constant K1 becomes zero and the con that the relay 34 is mounted adjacent the tim stant K2 represents the peak I. R. drop across ing mechanism and in compact association with resistor 2‘! determined by the ionization poten the pilot lamp 46 and the momentary normally tial of gaseous discharge tube 26. closed contact switch 41 and the focusing switch 70 The space or time intervals between the dis 40. The momentary normally opened contact charge pulses which constitute the curve of Fig. 3 switch 39 is also arranged in compact relation integrate the irregular curve of Fig. 1. This can to the elements as hereinbeiore described. A be seen by comparing the areas under the sections bull's eye lens 8| is mounted on panel 14 im of the curve divided by the discharge pulses. member ‘II may be displaced. ' The periphery of mediately above lamp 46 for readily indicating 76 They should all be equal showing the products of 2,408, 576 time and light intensity between each pulse as being equal. 10 The left side of switch 40 is also used in addi tion to its "oif” function for applying line volt age to terminals 32c and 32d 'for controlling the external devices without operating the escape ment wheel 6| or relay 34. In the operation of the system of my invention terminals 23 are connected to the power supply and the line switch 29 is closed. A few minutes The charge fed by photo tube 2| to condenser are allowed for the heaters 200 and I90‘ of beam 24 is dependent upon the intensity of radiant power ampli?er 20 and half wave recti?er l9 to energy striking its cathode surface and this stabilize. Single pole double throw switch 40 is charge is essentially linear, depending entirely thrown to the right. Pointer 12 is set on scale 13 to the desired quantity which automatically 10 upon photo cathode emission and is practically independent of anode potential. closes switch 48. Momentary contact switch 39 The beam power amplifier tube 20 is capable is pressed which energizes relay 34 and closes of operating millions of times per second, limited contacts 31-36 and 38-36. Relay 34 remains energized through its now closed magnetically only by electron-transit time, inter-electrode held contacts 3'|-36. Closed contacts 38—36 15 capacitance, etc. Mechanically, my instrument is limited in speed only by the inertia of the mov complete anode circuit of beam power ampli?er ing parts; mainly, the escapement mechanism tube 20 with electromagnetic windings 69 as its and armature 66, which have been purposely load. ' ‘ kept in weight. The practical limit of speed of Photo tube 2| within housing 84, supplied with or without ?lters, receives a portion of the ?uc 20 my device is approximately one hundred es capements per second. The exposure dial 13 on tuating radiant energy to which the subject or my instrument is graduated from 0 to 200 in ap material is being exposed. Photo tube 2| feeds proximately 345°. The normal operating speed a charge to the condenser 24 the magnitude, at of my instrument is seven escapements per sec any instant, being in direct proportion to the intensity of radiant energy, at any instant, which 25 ond. These seven escapements per second cor respond to a movement of the exposure dial of is received by photo tube 2|. Voltage across one division. In other words, for the dial to condenser 24 builds up until it reaches the ioniza tion potential of gaseous discharge tube 26 at move a complete cycle or 345°, fourteen hundred escapements must take place. The normal speed which time gaseous discharge tube 26 ionizes and discharges condenser 24 through resistor 30 of seven escapements was chosen because the instrument, due to the purpose for which it was 21. The I. R. drop across resistor 21, the designed, must be capable of integrating a light upper part being positive, is applied in series flux of at least ten times the normal level of.’ with the bias voltage between cathode 20a, and control grid 2|Ie of beam power ampli?er illumination in order to take care of surges of tube 20. Plate current flows in beam power 35 power, ?ickering, etc. As my instrument is ca ampli?er tube 20 through electromagnetic wind pable of operating at speeds of one hundred per ing 69 pulling armature 61 and allowing one tooth second, it can easily take care of these increases of escape wheel 6| to escape. Fig. 3 indicates of light. In my instrument, at the normal op the condition of escape wheelv 6| while con erating speed, seven escapements must take place denser 24 is storing up a charge received from before the exposure dial traverses one division photo tube 2|. Fig. 4 shows the movement im giving a ?neness of control which can actually parted to escape wheel 6| as condenser 24 dis charges through gaseousdischarge tube 26 there be set to one-seventh of a second. This can be made even ?ner by making the normal operating speed greater which can easily be done due to by producing an I. R. drop across resistor 21 and decreasing the bias on control grid 20e and in 45 the high top speed inherent in the instrument. creasing the current ?ow through winding 69. The fact that the photo tube 2| in the device However, the spring ‘Ill immediately restores the of my invention is immediately adjacent the double pallet lever 62 to the position shown in Fig. beam power ampli?er tube 20 and not connected 3. This sequence continues until pointer 12 re through a high resistance element, or long cable turns to zero when switch 48 opens, removing line 50 remote from the grid of the beam power ampli?er voltage from winding 33 which opens contacts tube 20 reduces opportunity or danger of leak 31-35 and 36-36 and also removing line voltage age, stray voltages, etc. Also, due to the short from terminals 320 and 32d which contact through ness of the connection between photo tube 2| terminals 3| 0 and 3| d to the controlling devices and beam power ampli?er tube 20, any ripple or such as electromagnetically controlled shutter l6 55 surges in the D. C. supply to the anode of the and electromagnetic control 43 to the lamps, 5, photo tube 2| due to the capacitance in the cable 6, ‘i and 8. Contacts 38—36 remove anode cur which shunts the photo tube cannot have the rent from winding 69, stopping escapement effect of masking or introducing errors in the mechanism from operating. instrument's calibration. The condenser 24 and resistor 21 are selected 60 My instrument, due to its novel design, will of such capacity and resistance that the time of operate satisfactorily at 115 volts plus or minus discharge of condenser 24 is sumcient to swing 20% and retain its calibration regardless of the control grid in beam power ampli?er 20 less whether the line voltage varies slowly or rapidly. negative and hold it less negative for a su?i This is ‘important in an instrument of this type cient time to overcome the inertia of the arma 65 because the instrument is normally used to inte ture 67 and thus allow step by step movement of grate widely varying or ?uctuating light intensi the double pallet lever 62 under control of elec ties which are caused principally by line voltage tromagnet 68. The time of discharge of con changes. denser 24 is such as to effect the movement of While I have described my invention in one the armature for controlling the escapement 6| 70 of its preferred embodiments, I realize that tooth by tooth. The capacity of condenser 24 changes in details may be made and I desire is not so small that photo tube 2| would lend to that it be understood that no limitations upon continuously charge the condenser 24 at the my invention are intended other than those which same rate or greater rate than it is discharging may be imposed by the scope or the appended through gaseous discharge tube 26. 75 claims. 2,408,576 11 What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is as follows: 1. In a radiant energy integrating system for automatically predetermining exposures :by a source of spectral rays of variable light intensi~ ties; a control circuit; an electronic circuit in cluding a light responsive device subjected to the variable light intensities; a power ampli?er tube, including a cathode, a control grid, and an anode; an anode circuit connected between said anode and cathode and including electro-mag netic means therein; a source of D. C. poten tial connected in circuit with said electro-mag netic means, one side of said light responsive de vice being connected to said source of D. C. po tential; a cold cathode gaseous discharge tube of the two element type connected from its one side to the other side of said light responsive de vice, and the other side of said gaseous discharge tube connected to said control grid; a condenser and resistor connected in series and disposed in shunt to said gaseous discharge tube; biasing means disposed between said cathode and the junction point between said resistor and said condenser, whereby the charge delivered by 12 gaseous discharge tube and applying a change of potential to said control grid for controlling cur rent flow in said anode circuit, thereby energizing the electro-magnetic means therein at a rate de— pendent upon the intensity of light to which said light responsive device is subjected; an electric switch disposed in said control circuit; a selec tively settable actuator for operating said elec tric switch; a double pallet lever escapement mechanism for controlling the movement of said actuator; said electro-magnetic means control ling the movement of said double pallet lever es capement mechanism at a rate proportional to the rate of operation of said electronic circuit for affecting the operation of said electric switch when a predetermined quantity of light has been incident upon said light responsive device, 3. In a radiant energy integrating system for automatically predetermining exposures by a source of spectral rays of variable light intensi ties; a control circuit; an electronic circuit in cluding a light responsive device subjected to the variable light intensities; a power ampli?er tube in close proximity thereto and including a cathode, a control grid and an anode; an anode circuit con said light responsive device charges said con nected between said anode and cathode and in denser at a rate dependent upon the intensity cluding electro-magnetic means therein; a source of light to which said light responsive device is of D. 0. potential connected in circuit with said subjected, for affecting a discharge through said gaseous discharge tube and applying a change 30 electro-magnetic means, one side of said light re sponsive device being connected to said source of of potential to said control grid, for controlling D. 0. potential; a cold cathode gaseous discharge current flow in said anode circuit, thereby ener tube of the two element type connected from its gizing the electro-magnetic means therein at a one side to the other side of said light respon rate dependent upon the intensity of light to which said light responsive device is subjected; 35 sive device, and the other side of said gaseous discharge tube connected to said control grid; an electric switch disposed in said control cir a condenser and resistor connected in series and cuit, a selectively settable actuator for operating disposed in shunt to said gaseous discharge tube; said electric switch; an escapement mechanism biasing means disposed between said cathode for controlling the movement of said actuator; and the junction point between said resistor and said electro-magnetic means controlling the said condenser, whereby the charge delivered by movement of said escapement mechanism at a said light responsive device charges said con rate proportional to the rate of operation of said denser at a rate dependent upon the intensity of electronic circuit for a?ecting the operation of light to which said light responsive device is sub~ said electric switch when a predetermined quan jected, for affecting a discharge through said tity of light has been incident upon said light gaseous discharge tube and applying a change of responsive device. potential to said control grid, for controlling 2. In a radiant energy integrating system for current ?ow in said anode circuit, thereby ener automatically predetermining exposures by a gizing the electro-magnetic means therein at a source of spectral rays of variable light intensi rate dependent upon the intensity of light to ties; a control circuit; an electronic circuit in which said light responsive device is subjected; an cluding a light responsive device subjected to the electric switch connected in said control circuit, variable light intensities; a power ampli?er tube a selectively settable actuator for operating said including a cathode, a control grid, a screen grid, electric switch; an escapement mechanism for and an anode; an anode circuit connected be~ controlling the movement of said actuator, the tween said anode and cathode and including elec 55 speed of the escapement mechanism being un tro-magnetic means therein; a source of D. C. limited electronically, due to the vacuum type potential connected in circuit with said electro power ampli?er tube, and limited mechanically magnetic means, one side of said light responsive . in speed only by the inertia of the moving parts; device being connected to said source of D. C. said electro-magnetic means controlling the potential; a cold cathode gaseous discharge tube 60 movement of said escapement mechanism at a of the two element type connected from its one rate proportional to the rate of operation of said side to the other side of said light responsive de electronic circuit for affecting the operation of vice, and the other side of said gaseous discharge said electric switch when a predetermined quan tube connected to said control grid; a condenser tity of light has been incident upon said light and resistor connected in series and disposed in responsive device. shunt to said gaseous discharge tube; a cathode 4. In a radiant energy integrating system for bias resistor and bypass condenser connected in automatically predetermining exposures by a shunt and disposed between said cathode and source of spectral rays of variable light intensities; the junction point between said ?rst mentioned a control circuit; an electronic circuit including a resistor and said ?rst mentioned condenser, light responsive device subjected to the variable whereby the charge delivered by said light re light intensities; a power ampli?er tube in close sponsive device charges said ?rst mentioned con proximity thereto and including a cathode, a denser at a rate dependent upon the intensity control grid and an anode; an anode circuit con of light to which said light responsive device is nected between said anode and cathode and in subjected for affecting a discharge through said 76 cluding electro-magnetic means therein; a source 2,408,578 13 of D. 0. potential connected in circuit with said current ?ow in said anode circuit, thereby ener electro-magnetic means, one side 01' said light re sponsive device being connected to said source of D. C. potential; a cold‘ cathode gaseous dis rate dependent upon the intensity of light to which said light responsive device is subjected; an elec charge tube of the two element type connected from its one side to the other side of said light responsive device, and the other side of said gaseous discharge tube connected to said control grid; a condenser and resistor connected in series and disposed in shunt to said gaseous discharge 10 gizing the electro-magnetic means therein at a tric switch connected in said control circuit, a selectively settable actuator for operating said elec tric switch; an escapement mechanism ‘for con- v trolling the movement of said actuator, the nor- ' mal speed of the escapement mechanism being seven times a second and capable of operating at one hundred times per second; said electro-rnagnetic means controlling the movement of said escapement mechanism at a rate proportional said condenser, whereby the charge delivered by to the rate of operation qt said electronic cir said light responsive device charges said con denser at a rate dependent upon the intensity of 15 cuit for a?ecting the operation of said electric tube; biasing means disposed between said cathode. _ and the junction point between said resistor and light to which said light responsive device is subjected, for affecting a discharge through said gaseous discharge tube and applying a change of potential to said control grid, for controlling switch when a predetermined quantity of light has been incident upon said light responsive device. CLARENCE S. 0ST.