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Патент USA US2408613

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' Oct. 1, 1946. '
Filed June 19, 1943
126- .
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
' 2,408,613
Arthur H. Dickinson, ScarsdalaN. llsassignor to. j >
International Business. Machines Corporation," .
' New York, N. Y.,_ a corporation of New York ‘
Application June 19, 1943, ‘Serial. No.; 491,438
19 Claims.
(01. sis-4205i ,,
Means whereby a single electron valve is op
erated to alternately ?re andshut off a gas tube
' This. application relates'to electron tube cir
cuits and is a continuation-in-part of my appli
cation Serial No. 314,767, ?led January 20, 1940.
A, general object of the invention is the provi
by successive control pulses.
state of a gas tube.
.10 out. in the followingv descriptionand claims and
illustrated in the accompanying drawing, which
A novel methodv and means to control conduc
discloses, byway of, example, the principle of the
tivity of a gas-?lledelectron tube.’
A novel
Other objects. of the inventiongwill be pointed
Other objects of theinvention include the pro
ed from effecting more than one change in the
ghgngi-Ilg the conductive status of an electron
of concurrently applied control pulses, isfprevent
distributionlof electrical effects in a circuit by
extinguishing means, of a single controlpulse or
sion’of a novel method. and'mea-ns to change the >
Delay means whereby application to ?ring'and
invention and the best mode, which has been
contemplated, of applying that principle.
circuit with ' impedance ‘branches
bridged- by an electron tube to change the volt
age. distribution at points of ' the impedance
In the drawing:
branches when current ?ow in the tube is
Fig. l is a circuit diagram of an elemental form
of the invention, -
Electron valving mean-s tolvalve control po
tentials to electrodes of a gas~?lled tube to con
trol shutting off and ignitionofthe tube.
Electron impedances. arranged as ‘voltage di
of the invention, and
Fig. 3' is a circuit diagram of a modification of
the form of invention shown in Fig. 2.
pending application. For convenience, the parts
trolfpotentials togovern operation of the gas
Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram of an advanced form
to circuits-included in my ‘aforementioned co
connected, such imepdances being varied by con
The circuits shown in Figs. 1 and 2 are similar
viders to which electrodes of a gas-?lled tube are
of Figs. 1 and 2 Will be given the same reference
characters as similar parts of the circuits in' the
Parallel voltage dividers, at least one of which
includes an electron impedance, between which
the cathode and anode ofa gas-?lledv tube are
copending application.
Referring to Fig. 1 potential is continuously ap
plied from a suitable D. C. source to plus and
interposed‘, with the impedance being ‘varied in
value by a control potential to shut off the ‘gas 30 minus lines I and 2. Interposed between lines
?lled tube.
I and 2 are a plurality'oi parallel impedance
sections comprised of; voltage dividers. .Al?rst
voltage dividercomprises resistances 38 and par
Another general object of the invention is‘the
provision‘of a novel method and-means whereby
a circuit maybe varied in condition of stability
under control of the ‘circuit itself.
allel/ylvacuu'm tubes 39a and 3% which may be
contained in a singleenvelope vand which are
providedwith acommon'cathode. Tube 39a is
Further, an object of theinvention. is the,pro-'.
a triode, while tube 3% is a. multi-grid tube; spe
ci?cally, a pentode. Connected to point 45 of
vision of a circuit having alternate conditions of_
'stability'and' in which the prevailing condition
controls the effect of a control potential inbring
ing about .the alternate condition.
. '
Other objects of the .invention include
said voltage'divider is a resistance 43. Resist
ance 43 is tapped by a connection to the anode
ofgas-fllled tube-55 which i'spof the three-ele
ment; type.- The cathode of this tube is con
nected to point ‘28' of a second voltage divider
comprised of resistances designated 29- and 30.
and" extinguishing controls fora gas—'?l.led tube
are limited to non-concurrent action ‘upon the, 45 The value of impedance 29 exceeds that of im
pedance 30 so that point 28 is relatively near the
potential of line 2,. When both ‘,of tubes 39a and
Means Whereby?ringand extinguishing con397001. the. ?rst voltage divider are at relatively
trol means for a gas-?lled. tube are made effective
‘Means whereby‘ concurrently activated iiiring
‘by successive pulses to successively ?re and extin-I
guisli the tube.-
:Means whereby a single control pulse is efiec-'
tive either‘to ?re or extinguish a gas-?lled tube .
depending on Whether the tube at the time the
pulse is applied is in a non-conductive or con
_ ductive state, respectively.
high impedance, point 451s relatively near the
50 potential of line 1... ‘In other words, underthis
condition, the impedance values are such that
.thepotential"difference between points 45 and
28 approaches that between lines 1 and 2 and
supplies ionization potential for gas tube 55, but
55 thertu'be will remain shut off until its grid bias
is reduced. It will be noted that the potential
at point 28 is the cathode potential. The grid
of gas triode 55 is connected via protective re
sistance 31 to a point 48 of a third voltage divider.
This voltage divider comprises a resistance des
ignated 4%, a vacuum tube 42a, and a resistance
4|. Resistance 4| is a self-biasing resistance for
impedances 45, 42a, and 4i, of which 42a is a vac
uum tube, serves as a ?ring control. The ?ring
control operates upon a change in the vacuum
tube impedance 42a resulting from application of
a control pulse or potential to its grid.
The ?rst voltage divider, comprised of resist
ances 38, andparallel tubes 39!; andH39b, acts as
a selective extinguishing control for the gas tube
55. Each of the tubes 39a and 392) may be used
tube 42a and normally maintains relatively
high grid bias for the tube, so that the tube
impedance is high. Under this condition, 10 . to cause the gas tube to be extinguished. Pos
the potential of point
48 is
closer to that
itive potential applied to a resistance 44 will op
pose negative potential applied by a battery 44a
of line 2 than is the potential of point 28.
to the grid of tube 39a. The grid bias of tube
Since point 28 is connected to the cathode of
39a will thereupon be lowered, increasing current
gas triode 55 and point 48 is connected to its grid,
the potential di?erence between these points is 15 flow through resistance 38 and this tube, as a
result of which the potential at point 45 falls.
the grid bias for the gas triode. Thus, under
The constants of this ?rst voltage divider are
normal condition, with point 48 nearer than point
such that the potential applied to resistance 44
28 to the potential of minus line 2, the grid bias
will cause an ampli?ed drop in potential of point
of the gas triode 55 is high, and it will remain
extinguished. This third voltage divider-40, 42a, 20 45. ‘The decreased potential of this point re
duces the potential on the anode of gas tube 55
‘ll-constitutes a ?ring control section for the
below the ionization potential. Consequently, the
gas tube 55._ When it is desired to ?re the gas
gas tube is extinguished.
tube, positive potential from a suitable source
When it is desired to extinguish the gas tube
is applied to a resistance 41 which is connected
55 under control of tube 391), a switch I0 is
to the grid of vacuum tube 42a. As a result, the
opened. This places a resistance 224 in series
grid bias of the tube 420. is reduced, decreasing
with resistances 294 and 206 of a fourth voltage
the impedance of the tube, so that current ?ow
divider, so that the potential of a point 2l2 is
in the third voltage‘divider increases. Poirg; 48
raised. The point H2 is connected via a switch
thereupon rises in potential suf?ciently to reduce
the gridrbias of the gas tube 55 to the ?ring :30 12 to the screen grid of tube 3%. Now,'with the
point H2 at increased potential, the screen po
value. Since ionization potential also is being
tential of tube 391) is high enough to enable a re
applied to the gas tube, the tube will fire and
duction in its control grid bias to be effective.
conduct current between points 45 and 2B, respec
Such reduction in control grid bias takes place
tively of the ?rst and second voltage dividers.
After ignition of the gas tube, its grid loses con 35 upon application of positive potential to a resist
ance 2350. The pulse on 2350 counteracts the
trol. Hence, potential'may be removed from re
effect of a battery 236 on the control grid of tube
sistance 41 to permit the impedance of the tube
391), reducing its grid bias. The increased con
42a to be increased.
With gas tube 55 now conductive, the electrical
ductivity of tube 391) has the same e?ect as the
conditions at various points of the circuit are . increased conductivity of tube 39a in reducing the
potential at point 45 and causing the gas tube 55
changed. The ignition of the tube 55 has, in ef
to be extinguished.
fect, conductively connected points 45 and 28.
Pulses may be applied at successive times from
Thus, there is increased current ?ow through re
different sources to'resistances 44 and 2350 to
sistors 38 and 3D. The result is a rise in poten
tial of point 28 and a, drop in potential of point 45 cause tubes 39a and 39b to serve successively as
extinguishing controls for the gas tube. Also,
45. The decreased potential of point 45 reduces
tube 391) may be rendered ineffective to serve as
the plate voltage of tubes 39a and 391), further
extinguishing control by lowering its screen po
increasing their impedance. This reacts on the
tential either through the shifting of switch I2
point 45 to raise its potential, compensating to.
some degree for its drop of potential resulting 50 or the closing of switch I0. Selective means are
thus provided for acting singly or in succession to
from conductivity of the gas triode 55. The net
control extinction of the arc in the gas tube 55.
effect is that while the potential of point 28~has
_ It will be understood that the ?ring control
risen, the potential difference between points
tube 42a may serve as an ampli?er or merely as
45 and 28 is still high enough to maintain ioniza
tion of the gas, triode. As long as gas tube 55 is 55 a pulse~valving device,‘depending on whether it
is or is not desired to amplify the pulse appear
conductive, there is grid current ?ow through re
sistances 3'! and 4|. The potential at point 48
rises, increasing the self-bias of tube 42a, so that
impedance of this tube, with potential now re
moved from resistance 41, increases above its
initial value. Accordingly, the potential at any
‘ point along resistance 40 will rise. In brief, with
the gas triode 55 ignited, the potential at any
point along resistor 38 falls to some extent, and
the potential of points along resistors 40,41, 29,’
and 3D rises. These changes may be utilized for
To illustrate, simply, the effect
of conductivity of the gas tube 55, Fig. 1 shows
in dotted lines a work magnet or relay R which
may be connected by a switch S between the
cathode of the gas tube and point 28. With the
gas tube conductive, magnet R will be energized
'to perform a desired task.
The ?ring of‘the gas tube 55 has been ex
_ ‘control purposes.
plained. Brie?y, a voltage divider comprised of
ing onyresistance 41.
Fig. 2 shows another form of the invention
‘which presents certain‘advances over .the form
0 shown in Fig. 1. Similarly to the Fig. 1 circuit,
the circuit of .Fig. 2 includes voltage dividers
which have vacuum tubes varied in impedance by
control pulses to ?re and extinguish a gas tube.
As with the Fig. l circuit, the ?ring of ‘the gas
65 tube in'the Fig. 2 ‘circuit changes the electrical
condition of various points of the circuit. An
additional feature of the Fig. 2 :circuit involves
means whereby concurrently pulsed ?ring ‘and
extinguishing controls nevertheless are caused to
act singly; i. e., either the ?ring or extinguishing
control is rendered effective at'anyfone time.
Another feature of they Fig.2 circuit is means
whereby the status of the circuit itself, which is
dependent on the status of the gas triode, deter
mines which of the concurrently pulsed ?ring and
extinguishing controls ‘is to'be effective. As will
"causing pointlll 34'to drop in potential to an extent
be ' pointed out,» the ‘gas 'triode when ‘ conductive
such as to' cause the gas triode tobe extinguished. Y
enablesa control potential to act throughthe ex
Tubes] 28!), therefore,. serves asv an. extinguishing
tinguishingcontrol to render thegas triode non
conductive, while the gas tube when extinguished
enables control potential to act through a ?ring
control to ignite the gas tube. Another feature
of‘the'FigJ 2 circuit is delay means whereby'a
single pulse, or concurrent pulses, will cause only
onereversal of the statusof the circuit;:i.e., of
the status-of the gas tube‘.
~ In detail,
'2 has‘ a plus and minus lines I
and 2 tov which potential is applied from a directv
current source. "Threevoltage' dividers are across
‘the lines I and 2. “The ?rst voltage ‘divider com- .
resistance I 21' and pentode vacuum tube
control in the same‘ manner as; explained for
tube 392) of Fig. 1.
The changes in potential at various points of
Fig., 2-:cir'cuit may .be utilized. for .ccnt‘rolrpur
poses in the ‘same manner as the potential
changes in'theFig. 1 circuit. In'addition, one
‘control purpose in the Fig. 2 circuit is .to' self
'condition the circuit,'as a result ‘of ignitionof
the gas tube, so as to prepare the‘gas tube to be
Resistors I32 andIM may be connected, as in
dicated by the dotted line 430 toa single pulse
source. In that event; bothi resistances I32 and
i282). > These elements are similar to the resist
‘I44’ will be pulsed simultaneously from a common
mice 33 and tube 3% of the Fig. 1 circuit.
source and are equivalent to ‘a single resistor
A sec
tapped by connections to the grids of tubes I25a
EM, and I22 and a condenser I23 shunting're v20 and I281)- On the other hand, resistances I32
1ond voltage divider comprises resistances I23,
and I 44 may be pulsed concurrently from sepa
sistance, I722. ‘The gas tube I'23'is interposed be
tween- the ?rst and secondvoltage dividers.
rate sources‘.
With resistances I32van'd I44 pulsed simulta
Thus, the point I34 of the ?rst voltage divider is
neously, the ?ring and extinguishing controls tend
connected to a current limiting resistor I30
tapped by a -;connection to the anode of the gas 25 to act concurrently and counteract each other.
triode I23, while the cathode of the gas triode is I However, when the'gas tube is extinguished, con
current pulsing or the ?ring and extinguishing
connected to the‘ point I35 of the second Voltage
controls will ?rst take effect upon the ?ring con-~
divider. The ?ring control includes a third volt
a'ge divider comprised of resistances I24, tube
925a and resistance I255.
These elements of the ;
. trol since the screen voltage of the extinguishing
» control tube I281) is now at the lower of two
third voltage divider are similar to elements 40,
42a, andéB of the ?ring control section of the
values. The ?ring of the gas tube I29 causes the
potential at point ‘I43 to rise, but this rise is ex
Fig; 1
ponential owing to the presence of the condenser
“With tube'IZSb at high-impedance, point I34
‘is near the potential of line I. The relation of
the resistances ‘I23, HI,‘ and I22 is such that
point ‘I35 is near the potential of line. 2.
fore, the'potential di?erence between. points I34
I23. The action of the condenser delays the rise
in voltage of point I43 to prevent the screen po
tential of the pentode I281) from increasing to an
effectivevalue until after the pulsing interval.
Thus, tube I281)‘ remains at high impedance, and
point I34 at relatively high potential, until after
‘and I 35 approaches that between'lines I and 2
‘and is sui?‘cient to apply ionization potential to 40 the pulsing interval in which‘the g'astube'was
‘?red. Accordingly, the gas tube I29. will not be
they gas tube, the tube, however, remaining shut
re-extinguished in the same pulsing interval in
' off until its grid bias is reduced. The grid of the
gas tube is connected via a' variable ‘resistance I3I
_ which it was ?red. Thus, delaymeans are pro
vided whereby when the gas tube is shut off,
to the point 135 of the‘third voltage divider.
pulses concurrently applied to thep?ring andiex
Resistance I26 is a selfwbiasing control for tube
tinguishing controls are effective only to ignite
I25a and maintains the tube at normally high
impedance. Under this condition, point I36 is
nearer than point I35 to the ‘potential of line 2
and the grid bias of gas tube I29 is relatively
the gas tube. '
high. Upon application of a positive potential
The delay means, comprising condenser I23,
also serves for preventing the gas tube from being
extinguished and re-?red during the same pulsing
to resistor IN, the grid bias'of tube I250, is re
‘interval. Assuming the gas tube to be in a con
duced, decreasing the impedance of the tube, so
that point 536 rises in potential. As a result, the
grid bias oi? gas tube I29 is lowered to the ?ring
ductive state, point Iii-3 is at high potential,v so
that the screen oftube I28b'is maintained at
high voltage. Thus, the next pulse applied to re
sistance I32 will be effective to. reduce the im
pedance of tube I281) to such extent as'to reduce
When the tube IE9 is conductive, there is in’
creased current flow through resistances IZland
the potential at point I34‘below ionizationpo
I22.‘ There is also gridv cur-rent'?ow through re
tential. Accordingly, tube I 23 will ‘be extin
guished. The decrease in potential of point I33
sistances I3! and I26. The increased current I
flow through resistance I21 lowers the potential 60 resulting from increased current ?ow in tube I28b
at point I361. The increased current flow in re
will be counteracted to some extent by the rise
sistance I22 produces a rise in .thepotential of
in potential of this point ‘consequent upon the
points M3 and I35. The changes'in potentials
shutting off of the gas tube‘ I29. ‘ Should points
of points, 434 and I35 do not, however, reduce the
I43 and I35 drop instantly to their-lower poten~
potential difference between them below the re-, a Cl 'tials upon the shutting off of'the‘ gas tube, the
quired'ionization potential for the gas tube ‘I29.’
screen voltage of tube 5281) will be lowered by
The rise in potential of point I33 increases the
the‘ potential fall of point M3 to such extent that
screen grid potential of the tube I 28b. Tube
point 134‘Wi1l‘rise to ionization potential while
the pulses are still acting concurrently on ,re
I 2231) thereby is prepared for a material change in '
impedance upon reduction of its control grid bias. 70 "sistances‘ I32 and It'll. Also; the decreased po
The reduction of? control grid bias of the tube
tential of pointjI35 and the increased potential
I 231) is eiTected ‘upon application of a positive .‘ on the grid of the gas‘ tube resulting from the
pulse applied to‘ resistancellid will produce a re—
‘pulse to resistance I32 which counteracts the ef
fect of the battery I33. . Upon reduction of the
duced grid biasv for the gastube suf?-cient to re
?re .the gas tube. The, condenser "1I23,'however,
grid ‘bias of tube I281), its impedance is lowered, '
serves to delay the fall in potential of points I35
and I43 upon the shutting off of the gas tube.
As soon as points I 43 and I35 begin to drop in
potential, condenser I23 which has been charged
up to the potential obtaining between point I35
' As in the two previous embodiments, the values
nearer line 502 in potential.
and line 2, commences to discharge through re
sistor I22. The discharge of the condenser tends
potential between points 504 and 5I6 furnishes
ionization potential for gas tube 509.
of the impedances are so related that, with tube
505 at high impedance, point 504 is relatively
near the potential of line 50I and point 5I6 is
The di?erence in
to hold the points I35 and I43 at high potential.
The values of the resistances of the second and
Accordingly, the screen voltage of tube I28b tends
third voltage dividers are so related that point
to remain high, so that its impedance will con~
5 I2 normally is closerthan point 5 I6 to the poten
tial of line 502. The di?erence in potential be
tween points 5I2 and BIG is the grid bias 'for
the‘gas tube and normally is of su?icient magni
tude to prevent ignition of the gas tube.
tinue low and point £34 will be maintained below
ionization potential. Further, the maintained
high potential of point I35 counteracts the rise
in potential of the grid of the gas tube which re
sults from the pulse applied to the resistance I54 15
concurrent with the pulse on resistance I32. In
other words, the discharge of the condenser
serves to maintain a diiference in potential be
The screen grid of tube 505 is connected to a
point 520 of the second voltage divider. when
gas triode 508 is in non-conductive condition, the
potential at point 520 is‘ at the lower of two pos
sible values for this point. Accordingly, when
tween points I35 and I36 which is su?icient to
prevent ignition of the gas tube even though a 20 the gas triode is in an extinguished status, the
screen potential of thepentode 505 is at a rel
pulse is being applied to resistance I44.
atively low value. The control grid of tube 505
The time taken for points I35 and I43 'to drop
is- connected to a bias battery 505 which has a
in potential when the gas tube is extinguished is
connection to a resistor 50'! ‘for receiving pulses
determined by the time constant of resistance I22
.from a suitable source. It may be mentioned
and the condenser I23 and is such as to delay the >
drop of potential of these points exponentially
that, assuming the circuit constants to be sub
until after the pulsing interval.
stantially the same as in Fig. 2, the potential
The net result
of pulses applied to‘resistor 501 of Fig. 3 should
be higher than thatof a pulse or pulses applied
pulse on resistance I32, the points I43 and I35
will be maintained at increased potential and the 30 to the resistors I32 and IM-of Fig, 2.
Assume that gas triode 509 is extingished, and
point I34 at lowered potential at least for as long
a positive pulse is applied to resistor 501. Such
as the pulses are acting concurrently on resist
pulse opposes bias battery 506, reducing the con
ances I32 and I44. In other words, the gas tube
trol grid bias of tube 505. In view of the rela
will be held at low anode potential and high grid
bias until after the shut-off pulse has ceased to 35 tively 10w screen potential of the tube 505, the
reduction of the control grid bias of this tube
causes only a slight current rise through the
The foregoing has described a ‘method and
voltage divider comprised of resistance 503 and
means for alternately ?ring and extinguishing a
the tube. This slight rise in current tends to
gas tube during successive pulsing intervals, in
reduce the potential at point 504 slightly. How
each of which a ?ring control and an extinguish
ever, a second, controlling result of the decrease
ing control are concurrently pulsed. As pointed
in grid bias of the tube 505 is an increase in screen
out the Fig, 2 circuit has alternative conditions,
grid current flow of this tube. As a result, point
and is self-governing so that when in either of
.520'is brought nearer line 502 in potential. One
these conditions, it enables control pulses or a
effect of this is a lower screen potential for tube
pulse to reverse the condition. In other words,
505, so that its impedance increases, tending to
the condition of the circuit itself determines in
maintain point 504 at its initial higher poten
which direction the condition of the circuit will
tial ‘which it had before the pulse was applied to
be changed. Further, it has been explained that
resistor 501. A second and principal effect of
the gas tube when conductive will allow a pulse
the lowered potential of point 520 is a reduction
to shut oiT the tube and, when shut oil‘, will allow
in current flow through resistors 5I5 and 5".
a pulse to ignite the tube. Thus, successive pulses
Consequently, point 5I5 approaches closer to the
will alternately ?re and extinguish a gas tube
potential of line 502. One result of such fall
under control of the tube itself. In the Fig. 2
in potential of point 5I6 is that the potential dif
circuit, the pulses or pulse were concurrently ap- ‘
ierence between this point and point 504 in
plied to two voltage dividers, one serving as a
- is that when the tube I29 is extinguished by a
?ring control for a gas tube and the other as the
extinguishing control.
creases; i. e., the anode potential of gas triode
500 increases. A, second result of the drop in
potential at point 5I5 is that the potential dif
Fig. 3 shows a modi?cation in which a single
ference between this point and the point 5I2 of
vacuum tube serves both as extinguishing and
?ring control means and in which the grid of the 60 the third voltage divider is reduced; i. e., the
grid bias of the gas triode 509 is decreased. The
gas tube remains at ?xed potential while the
cumulative effect of the increase in anode poten
cathode potential is reduced to cause ignition.
tial and decrease of grid bias of the gas tube
In detail, 5M and 502 designate the plus and
509 is that the tube is ignited. After the tube is
Between these lines
is a ?rst voltage divider comprised of resist 65 ignited, the control potential or pulse may cease
to act on the resistor 501.
ance 503 and pentode 505. The point 504 of
As in the other embodiments, with the gas
this voltage divider connects via variable resist
triode in a conductive state, points 520' and 5I6
ance 508 to the anode of gas-?lled tube 509. The
rise in potential, and such change may be utilized
cathode of this gas tube is connected to point 5I6
of a second voltage divider, comprised of re 70 for control purposes. The change in potential at
point 520 serves also to determine that the next
sistances 5M, 5I5, 5H, and condenser 5"!‘ which
pulse applied to _resistor 50‘! shall extinguish the
shunts resistance 5I‘I. The grid of gas tube 509
is connected via variable resistance 5| 0 to a point
gas tube 509. Thus, with point 520 at the higher
5I2 of a third voltage divider comprising resist
of its two‘ possible potentials, the screen poten
75 tial of pentode 505 is also relatively high. It
ances5II and5l3.
5 minus D. C. source lines.
should-benoted that the higher potential at point
tails of the ‘devices illustrated and‘ in their 0per~
ation may be made by those vskilled in the art,
515, obtainingwhile the gas tube-is ‘i'nl conduci
without departing from the ,spirit'of the inven
tive'ycondition, increasespthe grid bias‘ of the gas
tion. It is the intention, therefore, to be limited
tube- above the critical value.‘- This has no effect"
now; however, on theiconductivity-of the gas-tube‘ 5.. only’ as indicated by the scope of thefollowing
since the grid of the tube loses control when the
tubev is ignited. Assume, nowgthati-t is ‘desired
to extinguish the gas ,tube'55'9. Ajpulseis again
What is claimed is:
1. An electrical system comprising a power
applied to resistor ‘5M, reducing the controlgrid
source, parallel voltage dividers connected there
bias of the pentode. The two new concurrently‘ 1,0 to, a‘ gas-?lled electron tube including anode,
operating factors, high‘ screen" potential? and re—'
duced grid bias for the pentode 505,- oombine to
materially reduce its impedance.- The resulting
cathode, and grid electrodes and having the
anode and ‘cathode connected to points of two
said dividers to bridgethem conductively-when
ignited, ‘said points being so chosen that cathode
increase in current flow through resistance 503
and‘ pentode’ 505 causes point 504 to'drop in po-
15 potential is lower than anode potential and high;
tential to an ampli?ed extent with respect to the
er than grid potential, said tube being ignited
upon a reduction in potential dilference between
parameter the control pulse applied ‘to resis
tor 501. With point 504» at'the lowered poten
tial, insui?cient potential difference prevails -between the anode and "cathode-of the gas tube 509
potential, and’ means responsive to an electrical
to enable ther'tube to remain conductive. .Ac
pulsefor further reducing the potential at the
cordingly, the gas tube is’ extinguished
Condenser 5l8‘in Fig; 3 has the same func-v
times condenser ‘I23 in-Fig. 2. ' ‘Brie?y, it main- -
tains point 520 at the higher-potential, after the
cathode and grid and upon such ignition reducing,
the anode potential and increasing the‘ cathode
anode~connected point to such extent as to de
prive the anode‘of the potential required to
maintain thegtube ignited, whereupon the tube is
gas tube‘ is extinguished,- until after the shut-off
2. An electrical system as in ciaim 1, and pulse
pulse has ceased to act. Secondly, it maintains
responsive means comprising an electronic dis
point 5l6 at the higher potential 'until after the
charge tube in the voltage divider to a point of
shut-off pulse has ceased to act, thereby main
which the anode of the gas-?lled tube is con
taining the grid bias of the gas tube 509 suffi 30 nected, said discharge tube upon applicationv of
ciently high to prevent ionization or re-ignition.
a ‘pulse thereto being reduced in impedance and
When, following extinction of ‘the arc in the gas
thereby causing current flow in the latter volt
tube by one‘control pulse, anext such 'pulsewill
age divider to increase and reduce the potential
?re the gas-tube by causing a reduction in poten
at the anode-connected point below the value re
tial at point 5 l5 and,hence, of'the cathode poten-' 35 quired to sustain ignition of the gas-?lled tube.
tial, in the manner described.‘ The condenser I23
3. An electrical system comprising a power
will maintain point 5 l 6 at lowe'redcathode poten
source, and an electrical network'connected to
' tial and point 520 at ‘lowered screen controlling
saidsource and includingzparallel voltage di
petentialuntil aiter'the ?ring pulse has ceased,
viders and agas tubeibridging said dividers, said
' to act.
40 tube including an anode electrode connected to
The foregoing ‘has described a ‘method and
a point of a ?rst one of said dividers and a cath
means of ?ring and shutting off a gas triode by
a pulse applied to a common point of the circuit
and to~~only one circuit elementanamely, a single
variable impedance comprisedof a vacuum tube 45
This single
element of the ‘circuit, 'inlresponse to successive ‘
pulses applied ‘at; a common point,’ will cause
alternate ?ring and shutting off the .gas .triode.
_ serving as part of-a voltage divider.
The determination of whether "the single ele- ,
ment shall respond to the pulse for ?ring the gas
tube or for extinguishing-the gas tube is made
by the circuit itself- in accordance with the-pre- ~
vai-ling status of the gas tube. Thus,v with the
gas tube conductive, the single element will uti
lize the control pulse asan extinguishing pulse.
On vthe other‘ hand, with thegas tube in non-con
ode electrode connected to a point of a second
one of'said dividers and a control grid electrode
at lower potential than the cathode‘ potential,
the diiierence in potential between cathode and
grid electrodes being reduced by utilizing an. elec
trical pulse to changethe potential of one ‘of the}
latter electrodes whereby thetube is ignited, said
?rst voltage divider including a variable imped
ance electronic ‘discharge vdevice reduced in im
pedance by an applied potentialsov as to‘ increase‘
current flow in the ?rst voltage divider and there;
'by lower the potential at the (anode-connected
point below the value necessary to sustain igni
tion of the gas tube.
I '
' " r
4. An electrical‘ system comprising a power
source, and ‘an velectrical circuit network con
ductive ‘state,’ the ‘single elementwwilhapply. the
nected to said source and including parallel volt- 1
control pulse (as- a ?ring .pulse._» The voltage
age dividers and a gas tube including an anode
divider including resistance-i583 andtube 505 (50 connected to a’point of a ?rst one of said di
serves ‘as a combined ?ringiand extinguishing
control means for the gas tube. It will be noted,
further, that the control pulse is effective, when
the gas tr-iode is extinguished, to increase the
potential between anode and?cathode of the gas, -,
triode and-concurrently decrease its gridv bias so
as to» cause ignition. Further, it will be noted
viders and a cathode connected to a point ofa
second ‘one of said dividers and also including a
control grid normally at such bias-asto prevent
ignition of the tube, means'tor‘reducing the grid
bias. so as to ignite ‘the tubewhereby the dis
tribution of "electrical Pvalues ‘about the vnetwork
is changed‘in such manner'as to reduce the po-:
that the grid potentialof~ the gastube remains
tential .at the anode-connected point and 5111-:
substantilly "fixed ‘and its 'grid'bias' is "varied by:
changing the potentialjo-f 'thei'caithodei
70 crease the-potential, at ‘the :.cathode-connected
point,~and ‘means responsive to an electricalpulse
" While there have been shown and described-and
forturther ‘reducing ‘the potential at‘ the anode
pointed out the fundamental" novel features of
connected :point to such extent as _' to‘ lower the
the invention as appliedtoiseveral embodiments,
it will be understood that various omissions and ' anode potential :below a :‘critical ignition-.sustainsubstitutions ‘and "changes in. lthebfo'rm and de 75 ing'value; so‘ that? the tube istextinguished to :‘BS
tablish an alternative distribution of electrical
values about the network.
5. An electrical system comprising a power
source, and an electrical circuit network con
tential di?ererice between the grid and cathode to
an extent such as to trip the tube from a non
conductive state to a conductive state, and means
for reducing the potential at said point of the ?rst
divider to an extent such as to lower the anode
potential below, a value required to maintain the
dividers and a trigger tube having an anode and
tube conductive, whereby the tube trips to its
cathode and control grid, a connection from the
non-conductive state. ,
anode tapping a chosen point of a ?rst one of said
9. An electrical system ‘comprising a power
dividers and a connection from the cathode tap
ping a chosen point of a second one of said di 10 source and an electrical network connected there
nected thereto and including parallel voltage
viders, said dividers being so proportioned and
the points so chosen as to provide potential dif
i‘erence between the anode and cathode sufficient
to enable the tube to be triggered to a conductive
state upon reduction of the cathode-to-grid po
tential, means whereby such reduction is ef
fected, and means responsive to an electrical
signal for increasing current flow in the ?rst
divider so as to reduce the potential at the tapped
point thereof sufficiently to cause the tube to
trigger back to a non-conductive state.
6. An electrical system comprising a power
to and including a pair of parallel voltage di
viders and a gas-?lled trigger tube bridging points
of said dividers, one of said dividers including
parallel variable impedance electronic discharge
devices, either of which upon a change in its im
pedance alters the potential at said point of the
latter‘ divider to such extent as to change the
status of the tube, and means for rendering said
discharge devices selectively effective, in response
to electrical pulses applied thereto, to thus alter
the potential at said point of the latter divider.
10. An electrical system comprising a power
source, and an electrical network connected
source, and a circuit network connected
thereto and including parallel voltage dividers
thereto and including parallel voltage dividers
and a gas tube bridging the dividers, with an 25 and a gaseous discharge tube bridging said di
viders, with an anode connected to a point of one
anode connected to a point of a ?rst one of said
said divider and a cathode to a point of another
dividers and a cathode connected to a point of
said divider, said tube also having a control grid
a second one of said dividers, said points being so
normally biased to prevent ignition of the tube
chosen as to provide sui?cient anode-to-cathode
potential to maintain an arc in the tube after 30 and reduced in bias to cause ignition of the tube,
said tube upon being ignited changing the dis
such are has been started, said tube including a
tribution of electrical values about said network,
starting grid normally below cathode potential,
a variable impedance electronic discharge device
prepared by such change for responding to an
sponding to one said pulse to reduce the poten
tial di?erence between cathode and grid sur? 35 electrical pulse to reduce the anode to cathode
potential of the gaseous discharge tube below ig
ciently to start an arc in the tube and responding
nition-sustaining value, and means for applying
to another pulse of the same polarity for reduc
said pulse to said discharge device to effect its
ing anode to cathode potential below arc-sus
response, after being prepared therefor, so as to
taining value, whereby the tube is alternated in
reduce the anode to cathode potential below ig
condition by successive pulses of the same
nition-sustaining value for the gaseous discharge
'7. An electrical system comprising a power
11. A circuit comprising a pair of impedance
source, and an electrical circuit network con
branches, a gas-?lled tube bridging said branches
nected to said source and including parallel volt
- and including a control grid, one said branch in
age dividers and a trigger tube interposed be
cluding a variable impedance electronic discharge
tween said dividers so as to establish certain
device, the constants of said circuit being so ad-,
electrical values about the network when in trig
justed that upon an alteration in impedance of
gered state and other electrical values when in
the discharge device the tube is quenched, means
reverse state, said tube including an anode, cath
ode, and grid of which the anode and cathode are 50 for applying potential to said grid tending to ig
means for receiving electrical pulses and re
respectively connected to points of a ?rst one of
said voltage dividers and second one of said di
viders so chosen as to apply su?icient anode to
cathode potential to enable the tube to be tripped
to triggered state by reduction of grid bias and
to maintain the tube in such state while the
?rst mentioned electrical values prevail about the
network, and means receiving an electrical pulse
for reducing the potential at said point of the
?rst divider tov an extent depriving the anode
of suf?cient potential to maintain the tube in
triggered state, whereupon the tube trips to re
verse state and establishes said ‘other electrical
values about the network.
8. An electrical system comprising current
supply lines and a circuit network supplied by
said lines and including three parallel voltage
dividers, a trigger tube having an anode con
nected to a point of a ?rst one of said dividers to
derive anode potential therefrom and having a
cathode and control grid connected respectively,
to points of a second one of said dividers and third
one of said dividers, means impressing acontrol
potential upon the circuit network to ‘react on
one 01’ the latter two dividers to reduce the po 75
nite the tube and concurrently applying potene
tial to said discharge device tending to quench
the tube, and means controlled by the electrical
condition of the circuit itself, and including de
lay means, for rendering only the discharge device
or the grid effective to act in response to the con
currently applied potential to e?fect its function. ~
12. .A self -governing circuit comprising a pair of
impedance branches, a gaseous discharge tube
bridging-said branches and including a control
grid, one said branch including a variable im
pedance electronic discharge device e?ective upon
reduction of its impedance to quench the tube,
means for applying potential to the discharge de
vice tending to reduce its impedance and quench
the tubeand concurrently applying potential to
the control grid tending to ignite the tube, and
means controlled by the tube itself, and including
delay means, for selectivelyjrendering the poten
tial effective when the-tube is in a non-conductive
status to act through said grid to ignite the tube
and effective when the tube is in conductive status
to act through said discharge device to extinguish
the tube.
13. An electrical system comprising a power
source and an electrical network connected there
to and including parallel impedance‘ branches and
a gaseous discharge tube bridging said impedance
branches and effective when in a conductive state
to produce a desired potential at a point of one
trode whereby a succeeding one of said pulses by
reason of the higher potential of the ?rst elec
trode su?iciently reduces the impedance of the
variable impedance electronic tube to‘ thereby
U! reduce the anode potential of the trigger tube
said impedance branch, a variable impedance
electronic discharge device including a control
suf?ciently to extinguish the trigger'tube.
electrode connected to a pulse applying means
and another control electrode deriving potential
trigger tube including anode, cathode, and grid
electrodes, a variable impedance electronic dis
charge tube, means electrically connecting the
from said point and effective when said point is
at said desired potential toenable the pulse ap
plied to the ?rst'electrode to e?ectively change
17. A circuit comprising a gas-?lled electronic
discharge tube into the anode-cathode circuit of
the ‘trigger tube so as to quench the trigger tube
upon a change in impedance of the discharge
the impedance of the device, said device being so
tube, said discharge tube including a control elec
connected into the network as to extinguish the
15 trode connected to the output of the trigger tube
tube upon said change in impedance.
and varying in potential in accordance with the
14. A circuit comprising current supply lines,
quenched or ignited status of the trigger tube,
a gas-?lled trigger tube including anode, cath
and control means in the discharge tube respon
ode, and grid electrodes, means so connecting
sive to successive electrical pulses for cooperat-‘
the electrodes to the supply lines as normally to
ing with the control electrode when the trigger
provide su?icient anode-cathode ionization po
tube is in quenched state to reduce the cathode
tential and cathode-grid potential above trip
grid potential of the trigger tube to effect its ig
ping value, a variable impedance electronic dis
nition and for cooperating with the control elec
charge tube so connected into the circuit and to
trode when the tube is in ignited status for ef
said gas-?lled. tube as to be effective in response
fecting said change in impedance of the dis
to a ?rst electrical pulse to reduce the cathode
charge tube so as to quench the trigger tube,
- grid potential and trip the tube to ionized state
whereby the trigger tube is alternately ignited
and in response to a following pulse to reduce
anode-cathode potential toquench the tube, and
means for applying said pulses successively to the
andquenched, under control of the trigger tube
itself, by successive pulses applied to the control
electronic discharge tube so as to effect such suc 30 means of the discharge tube.
18. In combination, a gaseous discharge de-'
cessive alternations in the status of the gas-?lled ,
vice with an anode and a cathode and a grid,
a ?rst electron emission device, a power source
15. A circuit comprising current supply lines,
an impedance bridging said lines, and means for
therefor, means for adjusting, the electronic ?ow
‘ alternately increasing and reducing potential at
from said source through said emission device,
means conductively connecting said cathode to
a point of said impedance comprising a single
variable impedance electronic discharge tube hav
1 ing anode and cathode electrodes connected to
said power source, means connecting said anode
and said electron emission device so that anode
potential is altered upon adjustment of said elec
to said point and also including a control grid, 40 tronic flow, a second electron emission device
connected to said source, means for altering elec
means for applying successive pulses of the same
tronic ?ow from said source through the second
polarity to said control grid, one such pulse being
emission device, means conductively connecting
eil’ective when the screen grid is at high potential
said grid and the second emission device so that
to materially increase current ?ow in the tube
and another such pulse being e?ective when the > grid potential is altered upon adjustment of elec
tronic ?ow through the second emission device,
screen grid is at low potential for increasing
said gaseous'discharge device being ignited upon
screen grid current ?ow, and means responsive
said alteration of the grid potential and
to the increase in current flow‘ of the tube for
quenched upon said alteration of the anode po
reducing the potential at said point and respon
sive to the increased screen grid current ?ow for v tential.
19. An electrical flip-?op circuit including a
increasing the potential at said point, whereby
plurality of resistors vforming a voltage divider,
successive pulses of the same polarity applied to
a plurality of impedances including an electron
said control grid effect successive opposite
emission device forming a second voltage divider,
changes in potential‘ at said point.
16. A circuit ‘network comprising a gas ?lled 55 means electrically connecting said electron emis
sion device to said ?rst divider, a gaseous dis
trigger tubeincluding an anode and a cathode, a
charge device, means electrically connecting said
variable impedance electronic tube including an
gaseous discharge device to each of said voltage
anode, cathode and a plurality of control elec
dividers, control means ‘to which successive volt
trodes, means connecting the anode of the vari
able impedance tube to the anode of the trigger (it age impulses are applied, and means, including
' said lines and including a screen grid connected
tube, means connecting a ?rst one of said elec
trodes to the cathode of the trigger tube, means
for applying successive pulses of the same po
larity to the second one of said electrodes, one
of said pulses reacting upon the ?rst electrode
to reduce its potential and thereby to reduce the
cathode potential of the trigger tube su?lciently
to cause its ignition, said trigger tube upon ig
nition increasing the potential of the ?rst elec
said electronic device and a condenser shunting
one of said resistors, for alternately igniting and
, quenching said discharge device upon successive
‘ applications of voltage impulses to said control
means whereby said desired potential is produced
' only upon each second application of said po
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