Патент USA US2408613код для вставки
' Oct. 1, 1946. ' A. H. DICKINSON 2,408,613 ' ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Filed June 19, 1943 FIGJ. ‘ 29 $204 /2 1,40 2/2 28 !,206 1286 I36 ‘ / 144/: 126- . I22 5/2 BY m ' ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 1, 1946 ' 2,408,613 ‘UNITED STATES.2.4081613PATENT orrics " f ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Arthur H. Dickinson, ScarsdalaN. llsassignor to. j > International Business. Machines Corporation," . ' New York, N. Y.,_ a corporation of New York ‘ Application June 19, 1943, ‘Serial. No.; 491,438 19 Claims. . g (01. sis-4205i ,, 2 1. Means whereby a single electron valve is op erated to alternately ?re andshut off a gas tube ' This. application relates'to electron tube cir cuits and is a continuation-in-part of my appli cation Serial No. 314,767, ?led January 20, 1940. A, general object of the invention is the provi by successive control pulses. ' ' I - state of a gas tube. ’ " ~ ’ . , _ ‘ .10 out. in the followingv descriptionand claims and I illustrated in the accompanying drawing, which A novel methodv and means to control conduc discloses, byway of, example, the principle of the tivity of a gas-?lledelectron tube.’ A novel . Other objects. of the inventiongwill be pointed Other objects of theinvention include the pro visionxof: ~ ed from effecting more than one change in the ghgngi-Ilg the conductive status of an electron ‘ ' of concurrently applied control pulses, isfprevent distributionlof electrical effects in a circuit by e. ' extinguishing means, of a single controlpulse or sion’of a novel method. and'mea-ns to change the > u ’ Delay means whereby application to ?ring'and invention and the best mode, which has been contemplated, of applying that principle. circuit with ' impedance ‘branches bridged- by an electron tube to change the volt age. distribution at points of ' the impedance In the drawing: branches when current ?ow in the tube is Fig. l is a circuit diagram of an elemental form changed. . of the invention, - Electron valving mean-s tolvalve control po tentials to electrodes of a gas~?lled tube to con trol shutting off and ignitionofthe tube. 20 Electron impedances. arranged as ‘voltage di ' of the invention, and I ' , . Fig. 3' is a circuit diagram of a modification of the form of invention shown in Fig. 2. ' . , pending application. For convenience, the parts trolfpotentials togovern operation of the gas ' ' Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram of an advanced form to circuits-included in my ‘aforementioned co connected, such imepdances being varied by con ' . The circuits shown in Figs. 1 and 2 are similar viders to which electrodes of a gas-?lled tube are ?lledtu-be. . of Figs. 1 and 2 Will be given the same reference characters as similar parts of the circuits in' the ~ Parallel voltage dividers, at least one of which includes an electron impedance, between which the cathode and anode ofa gas-?lledv tube are copending application. ’ Referring to Fig. 1 potential is continuously ap plied from a suitable D. C. source to plus and interposed‘, with the impedance being ‘varied in value by a control potential to shut off the ‘gas 30 minus lines I and 2. Interposed between lines ?lled tube. ' I and 2 are a plurality'oi parallel impedance . sections comprised of; voltage dividers. .Al?rst voltage dividercomprises resistances 38 and par Another general object of the invention is‘the provision‘of a novel method and-means whereby a circuit maybe varied in condition of stability under control of the ‘circuit itself. ' allel/ylvacuu'm tubes 39a and 3% which may be contained in a singleenvelope vand which are " providedwith acommon'cathode. Tube 39a is Further, an object of theinvention. is the,pro-'. a triode, while tube 3% is a. multi-grid tube; spe ci?cally, a pentode. Connected to point 45 of vision of a circuit having alternate conditions of_ 'stability'and' in which the prevailing condition controls the effect of a control potential inbring ing about .the alternate condition. _ . ' v . ~ Other objects of the .invention include ' . “4o pro said voltage'divider is a resistance 43. Resist ance 43 is tapped by a connection to the anode ofgas-fllled tube-55 which i'spof the three-ele ment; type.- The cathode of this tube is con nected to point ‘28' of a second voltage divider comprised of resistances designated 29- and 30. and" extinguishing controls fora gas—'?l.led tube are limited to non-concurrent action ‘upon the, 45 The value of impedance 29 exceeds that of im pedance 30 so that point 28 is relatively near the potential of line 2,. When both ‘,of tubes 39a and Means Whereby?ringand extinguishing con397001. the. ?rst voltage divider are at relatively trol means for a gas-?lled. tube are made effective vision-of: . I - I - < - . ‘Means whereby‘ concurrently activated iiiring *tube. ~ - - ' ‘by successive pulses to successively ?re and extin-I guisli the tube.- ' ' . - :Means whereby a single control pulse is efiec-' tive either‘to ?re or extinguish a gas-?lled tube . depending on Whether the tube at the time the pulse is applied is in a non-conductive or con _ ductive state, respectively. high impedance, point 451s relatively near the 50 potential of line 1... ‘In other words, underthis condition, the impedance values are such that .thepotential"difference between points 45 and 28 approaches that between lines 1 and 2 and supplies ionization potential for gas tube 55, but 55 thertu'be will remain shut off until its grid bias 2,408,613 4 3 is reduced. It will be noted that the potential at point 28 is the cathode potential. The grid of gas triode 55 is connected via protective re sistance 31 to a point 48 of a third voltage divider. This voltage divider comprises a resistance des ignated 4%, a vacuum tube 42a, and a resistance 4|. Resistance 4| is a self-biasing resistance for impedances 45, 42a, and 4i, of which 42a is a vac uum tube, serves as a ?ring control. The ?ring control operates upon a change in the vacuum tube impedance 42a resulting from application of a control pulse or potential to its grid. The ?rst voltage divider, comprised of resist ances 38, andparallel tubes 39!; andH39b, acts as a selective extinguishing control for the gas tube 55. Each of the tubes 39a and 392) may be used tube 42a and normally maintains relatively high grid bias for the tube, so that the tube impedance is high. Under this condition, 10 . to cause the gas tube to be extinguished. Pos the potential of point 48 is closer to that itive potential applied to a resistance 44 will op pose negative potential applied by a battery 44a of line 2 than is the potential of point 28. to the grid of tube 39a. The grid bias of tube Since point 28 is connected to the cathode of 39a will thereupon be lowered, increasing current gas triode 55 and point 48 is connected to its grid, the potential di?erence between these points is 15 flow through resistance 38 and this tube, as a result of which the potential at point 45 falls. the grid bias for the gas triode. Thus, under The constants of this ?rst voltage divider are normal condition, with point 48 nearer than point such that the potential applied to resistance 44 28 to the potential of minus line 2, the grid bias will cause an ampli?ed drop in potential of point of the gas triode 55 is high, and it will remain extinguished. This third voltage divider-40, 42a, 20 45. ‘The decreased potential of this point re duces the potential on the anode of gas tube 55 ‘ll-constitutes a ?ring control section for the below the ionization potential. Consequently, the gas tube 55._ When it is desired to ?re the gas gas tube is extinguished. tube, positive potential from a suitable source When it is desired to extinguish the gas tube is applied to a resistance 41 which is connected 55 under control of tube 391), a switch I0 is to the grid of vacuum tube 42a. As a result, the opened. This places a resistance 224 in series grid bias of the tube 420. is reduced, decreasing with resistances 294 and 206 of a fourth voltage the impedance of the tube, so that current ?ow divider, so that the potential of a point 2l2 is in the third voltage‘divider increases. Poirg; 48 raised. The point H2 is connected via a switch thereupon rises in potential suf?ciently to reduce the gridrbias of the gas tube 55 to the ?ring :30 12 to the screen grid of tube 3%. Now,'with the point H2 at increased potential, the screen po value. Since ionization potential also is being tential of tube 391) is high enough to enable a re applied to the gas tube, the tube will fire and duction in its control grid bias to be effective. conduct current between points 45 and 2B, respec Such reduction in control grid bias takes place tively of the ?rst and second voltage dividers. After ignition of the gas tube, its grid loses con 35 upon application of positive potential to a resist ance 2350. The pulse on 2350 counteracts the trol. Hence, potential'may be removed from re effect of a battery 236 on the control grid of tube sistance 41 to permit the impedance of the tube 391), reducing its grid bias. The increased con 42a to be increased. With gas tube 55 now conductive, the electrical ductivity of tube 391) has the same e?ect as the conditions at various points of the circuit are . increased conductivity of tube 39a in reducing the potential at point 45 and causing the gas tube 55 changed. The ignition of the tube 55 has, in ef to be extinguished. ' fect, conductively connected points 45 and 28. Pulses may be applied at successive times from Thus, there is increased current ?ow through re different sources to'resistances 44 and 2350 to sistors 38 and 3D. The result is a rise in poten tial of point 28 and a, drop in potential of point 45 cause tubes 39a and 39b to serve successively as extinguishing controls for the gas tube. Also, 45. The decreased potential of point 45 reduces tube 391) may be rendered ineffective to serve as the plate voltage of tubes 39a and 391), further extinguishing control by lowering its screen po increasing their impedance. This reacts on the tential either through the shifting of switch I2 point 45 to raise its potential, compensating to. some degree for its drop of potential resulting 50 or the closing of switch I0. Selective means are thus provided for acting singly or in succession to from conductivity of the gas triode 55. The net control extinction of the arc in the gas tube 55. effect is that while the potential of point 28~has _ It will be understood that the ?ring control risen, the potential difference between points tube 42a may serve as an ampli?er or merely as 45 and 28 is still high enough to maintain ioniza tion of the gas, triode. As long as gas tube 55 is 55 a pulse~valving device,‘depending on whether it is or is not desired to amplify the pulse appear conductive, there is grid current ?ow through re sistances 3'! and 4|. The potential at point 48 rises, increasing the self-bias of tube 42a, so that impedance of this tube, with potential now re moved from resistance 41, increases above its initial value. Accordingly, the potential at any ‘ point along resistance 40 will rise. In brief, with the gas triode 55 ignited, the potential at any point along resistor 38 falls to some extent, and the potential of points along resistors 40,41, 29,’ and 3D rises. These changes may be utilized for To illustrate, simply, the effect of conductivity of the gas tube 55, Fig. 1 shows in dotted lines a work magnet or relay R which may be connected by a switch S between the cathode of the gas tube and point 28. With the gas tube conductive, magnet R will be energized 'to perform a desired task. The ?ring of‘the gas tube 55 has been ex _ ‘control purposes. plained. Brie?y, a voltage divider comprised of ing onyresistance 41. ' Fig. 2 shows another form of the invention ‘which presents certain‘advances over .the form 0 shown in Fig. 1. Similarly to the Fig. 1 circuit, the circuit of .Fig. 2 includes voltage dividers which have vacuum tubes varied in impedance by control pulses to ?re and extinguish a gas tube. As with the Fig. l circuit, the ?ring of ‘the gas 65 tube in'the Fig. 2 ‘circuit changes the electrical condition of various points of the circuit. An additional feature of the Fig. 2 :circuit involves means whereby concurrently pulsed ?ring ‘and extinguishing controls nevertheless are caused to act singly; i. e., either the ?ring or extinguishing control is rendered effective at'anyfone time. Another feature of they Fig.2 circuit is means whereby the status of the circuit itself, which is dependent on the status of the gas triode, deter mines which of the concurrently pulsed ?ring and 2,408,613 5 extinguishing controls ‘is to'be effective. As will 6 "causing pointlll 34'to drop in potential to an extent be ' pointed out,» the ‘gas 'triode when ‘ conductive such as to' cause the gas triode tobe extinguished. Y enablesa control potential to act throughthe ex Tubes] 28!), therefore,. serves asv an. extinguishing tinguishingcontrol to render thegas triode non conductive, while the gas tube when extinguished enables control potential to act through a ?ring control to ignite the gas tube. Another feature of‘the'FigJ 2 circuit is delay means whereby'a single pulse, or concurrent pulses, will cause only onereversal of the statusof the circuit;:i.e., of the status-of the gas tube‘. ~ In detail, '2 has‘ a plus and minus lines I and 2 tov which potential is applied from a directv current source. "Threevoltage' dividers are across ‘the lines I and 2. “The ?rst voltage ‘divider com- . prises resistance I 21' and pentode vacuum tube control in the same‘ manner as; explained for tube 392) of Fig. 1. - j. a l. - The changes in potential at various points of Fig., 2-:cir'cuit may .be utilized. for .ccnt‘rolrpur poses in the ‘same manner as the potential changes in'theFig. 1 circuit. In'addition, one ‘control purpose in the Fig. 2 circuit is .to' self 'condition the circuit,'as a result ‘of ignitionof the gas tube, so as to prepare the‘gas tube to be shutoff. ‘ ‘ Resistors I32 andIM may be connected, as in dicated by the dotted line 430 toa single pulse source. In that event; bothi resistances I32 and i282). > These elements are similar to the resist ‘I44’ will be pulsed simultaneously from a common mice 33 and tube 3% of the Fig. 1 circuit. source and are equivalent to ‘a single resistor A sec tapped by connections to the grids of tubes I25a EM, and I22 and a condenser I23 shunting're v20 and I281)- On the other hand, resistances I32 1ond voltage divider comprises resistances I23, and I 44 may be pulsed concurrently from sepa sistance, I722. ‘The gas tube I'23'is interposed be tween- the ?rst and secondvoltage dividers. rate sources‘. I ’ . With resistances I32van'd I44 pulsed simulta Thus, the point I34 of the ?rst voltage divider is neously, the ?ring and extinguishing controls tend connected to a current limiting resistor I30 tapped by a -;connection to the anode of the gas 25 to act concurrently and counteract each other. triode I23, while the cathode of the gas triode is I However, when the'gas tube is extinguished, con current pulsing or the ?ring and extinguishing connected to the‘ point I35 of the second Voltage controls will ?rst take effect upon the ?ring con-~ divider. The ?ring control includes a third volt a'ge divider comprised of resistances I24, tube 925a and resistance I255. These elements of the ; . trol since the screen voltage of the extinguishing » control tube I281) is now at the lower of two third voltage divider are similar to elements 40, 42a, andéB of the ?ring control section of the values. The ?ring of the gas tube I29 causes the potential at point ‘I43 to rise, but this rise is ex Fig; 1 ponential owing to the presence of the condenser circuit. . ' - ‘ » “With tube'IZSb at high-impedance, point I34 ‘is near the potential of line I. The relation of the resistances ‘I23, HI,‘ and I22 is such that point ‘I35 is near the potential of line. 2. There fore, the'potential di?erence between. points I34 I23. The action of the condenser delays the rise in voltage of point I43 to prevent the screen po tential of the pentode I281) from increasing to an effectivevalue until after the pulsing interval. Thus, tube I281)‘ remains at high impedance, and point I34 at relatively high potential, until after ‘and I 35 approaches that between'lines I and 2 ‘and is sui?‘cient to apply ionization potential to 40 the pulsing interval in which‘the g'astube'was ‘?red. Accordingly, the gas tube I29. will not be they gas tube, the tube, however, remaining shut re-extinguished in the same pulsing interval in ' off until its grid bias is reduced. The grid of the gas tube is connected via a' variable ‘resistance I3I _ which it was ?red. Thus, delaymeans are pro vided whereby when the gas tube is shut off, to the point 135 of the‘third voltage divider. pulses concurrently applied to thep?ring andiex Resistance I26 is a selfwbiasing control for tube tinguishing controls are effective only to ignite I25a and maintains the tube at normally high impedance. Under this condition, point I36 is nearer than point I35 to the ‘potential of line 2 and the grid bias of gas tube I29 is relatively the gas tube. ' ‘ I . high. Upon application of a positive potential The delay means, comprising condenser I23, also serves for preventing the gas tube from being extinguished and re-?red during the same pulsing to resistor IN, the grid bias'of tube I250, is re ‘interval. Assuming the gas tube to be in a con duced, decreasing the impedance of the tube, so that point 536 rises in potential. As a result, the grid bias oi? gas tube I29 is lowered to the ?ring ductive state, point Iii-3 is at high potential,v so that the screen oftube I28b'is maintained at high voltage. Thus, the next pulse applied to re sistance I32 will be effective to. reduce the im pedance of tube I281) to such extent as'to reduce point. ' ‘ I ‘ , ' When the tube IE9 is conductive, there is in’ creased current flow through resistances IZland the potential at point I34‘below ionizationpo I22.‘ There is also gridv cur-rent'?ow through re tential. Accordingly, tube I 23 will ‘be extin guished. The decrease in potential of point I33 sistances I3! and I26. The increased current I flow through resistance I21 lowers the potential 60 resulting from increased current ?ow in tube I28b at point I361. The increased current flow in re will be counteracted to some extent by the rise sistance I22 produces a rise in .thepotential of in potential of this point ‘consequent upon the points M3 and I35. The changes'in potentials shutting off of the gas tube‘ I29. ‘ Should points of points, 434 and I35 do not, however, reduce the I43 and I35 drop instantly to their-lower poten~ potential difference between them below the re-, a Cl 'tials upon the shutting off of'the‘ gas tube, the quired'ionization potential for the gas tube ‘I29.’ screen voltage of tube 5281) will be lowered by The rise in potential of point I33 increases the the‘ potential fall of point M3 to such extent that screen grid potential of the tube I 28b. Tube point 134‘Wi1l‘rise to ionization potential while the pulses are still acting concurrently on ,re I 2231) thereby is prepared for a material change in ' impedance upon reduction of its control grid bias. 70 "sistances‘ I32 and It'll. Also; the decreased po The reduction of? control grid bias of the tube tential of pointjI35 and the increased potential I 231) is eiTected ‘upon application of a positive .‘ on the grid of the gas‘ tube resulting from the pulse applied to‘ resistancellid will produce a re— ‘pulse to resistance I32 which counteracts the ef fect of the battery I33. . Upon reduction of the duced grid biasv for the gastube suf?-cient to re ?re .the gas tube. The, condenser "1I23,'however, grid ‘bias of tube I281), its impedance is lowered, ' 2,408,613 7 -8 serves to delay the fall in potential of points I35 and I43 upon the shutting off of the gas tube. As soon as points I 43 and I35 begin to drop in potential, condenser I23 which has been charged up to the potential obtaining between point I35 ' As in the two previous embodiments, the values nearer line 502 in potential. and line 2, commences to discharge through re sistor I22. The discharge of the condenser tends potential between points 504 and 5I6 furnishes ionization potential for gas tube 509. of the impedances are so related that, with tube 505 at high impedance, point 504 is relatively near the potential of line 50I and point 5I6 is The di?erence in to hold the points I35 and I43 at high potential. The values of the resistances of the second and Accordingly, the screen voltage of tube I28b tends third voltage dividers are so related that point to remain high, so that its impedance will con~ 5 I2 normally is closerthan point 5 I6 to the poten tial of line 502. The di?erence in potential be tween points 5I2 and BIG is the grid bias 'for the‘gas tube and normally is of su?icient magni tude to prevent ignition of the gas tube. tinue low and point £34 will be maintained below ionization potential. Further, the maintained high potential of point I35 counteracts the rise in potential of the grid of the gas tube which re sults from the pulse applied to the resistance I54 15 concurrent with the pulse on resistance I32. In other words, the discharge of the condenser serves to maintain a diiference in potential be The screen grid of tube 505 is connected to a point 520 of the second voltage divider. when gas triode 508 is in non-conductive condition, the potential at point 520 is‘ at the lower of two pos sible values for this point. Accordingly, when tween points I35 and I36 which is su?icient to prevent ignition of the gas tube even though a 20 the gas triode is in an extinguished status, the screen potential of thepentode 505 is at a rel pulse is being applied to resistance I44. atively low value. The control grid of tube 505 The time taken for points I35 and I43 'to drop is- connected to a bias battery 505 which has a in potential when the gas tube is extinguished is connection to a resistor 50'! ‘for receiving pulses determined by the time constant of resistance I22 .from a suitable source. It may be mentioned and the condenser I23 and is such as to delay the > drop of potential of these points exponentially that, assuming the circuit constants to be sub until after the pulsing interval. stantially the same as in Fig. 2, the potential The net result of pulses applied to‘resistor 501 of Fig. 3 should be higher than thatof a pulse or pulses applied pulse on resistance I32, the points I43 and I35 will be maintained at increased potential and the 30 to the resistors I32 and IM-of Fig, 2. Assume that gas triode 509 is extingished, and point I34 at lowered potential at least for as long a positive pulse is applied to resistor 501. Such as the pulses are acting concurrently on resist pulse opposes bias battery 506, reducing the con ances I32 and I44. In other words, the gas tube trol grid bias of tube 505. In view of the rela will be held at low anode potential and high grid bias until after the shut-off pulse has ceased to 35 tively 10w screen potential of the tube 505, the reduction of the control grid bias of this tube act. causes only a slight current rise through the The foregoing has described a ‘method and voltage divider comprised of resistance 503 and means for alternately ?ring and extinguishing a the tube. This slight rise in current tends to gas tube during successive pulsing intervals, in reduce the potential at point 504 slightly. How each of which a ?ring control and an extinguish ever, a second, controlling result of the decrease ing control are concurrently pulsed. As pointed in grid bias of the tube 505 is an increase in screen out the Fig, 2 circuit has alternative conditions, grid current flow of this tube. As a result, point and is self-governing so that when in either of .520'is brought nearer line 502 in potential. One these conditions, it enables control pulses or a effect of this is a lower screen potential for tube pulse to reverse the condition. In other words, 505, so that its impedance increases, tending to the condition of the circuit itself determines in maintain point 504 at its initial higher poten which direction the condition of the circuit will tial ‘which it had before the pulse was applied to be changed. Further, it has been explained that resistor 501. A second and principal effect of the gas tube when conductive will allow a pulse the lowered potential of point 520 is a reduction to shut oiT the tube and, when shut oil‘, will allow in current flow through resistors 5I5 and 5". a pulse to ignite the tube. Thus, successive pulses Consequently, point 5I5 approaches closer to the will alternately ?re and extinguish a gas tube potential of line 502. One result of such fall under control of the tube itself. In the Fig. 2 in potential of point 5I6 is that the potential dif circuit, the pulses or pulse were concurrently ap- ‘ ierence between this point and point 504 in plied to two voltage dividers, one serving as a - is that when the tube I29 is extinguished by a ?ring control for a gas tube and the other as the extinguishing control. creases; i. e., the anode potential of gas triode 500 increases. A, second result of the drop in potential at point 5I5 is that the potential dif Fig. 3 shows a modi?cation in which a single ference between this point and the point 5I2 of vacuum tube serves both as extinguishing and ?ring control means and in which the grid of the 60 the third voltage divider is reduced; i. e., the grid bias of the gas triode 509 is decreased. The gas tube remains at ?xed potential while the cumulative effect of the increase in anode poten cathode potential is reduced to cause ignition. tial and decrease of grid bias of the gas tube In detail, 5M and 502 designate the plus and 509 is that the tube is ignited. After the tube is Between these lines is a ?rst voltage divider comprised of resist 65 ignited, the control potential or pulse may cease to act on the resistor 501. ance 503 and pentode 505. The point 504 of As in the other embodiments, with the gas this voltage divider connects via variable resist triode in a conductive state, points 520' and 5I6 ance 508 to the anode of gas-?lled tube 509. The rise in potential, and such change may be utilized cathode of this gas tube is connected to point 5I6 of a second voltage divider, comprised of re 70 for control purposes. The change in potential at point 520 serves also to determine that the next sistances 5M, 5I5, 5H, and condenser 5"!‘ which pulse applied to _resistor 50‘! shall extinguish the shunts resistance 5I‘I. The grid of gas tube 509 is connected via variable resistance 5| 0 to a point gas tube 509. Thus, with point 520 at the higher 5I2 of a third voltage divider comprising resist of its two‘ possible potentials, the screen poten 75 tial of pentode 505 is also relatively high. It ances5II and5l3. 5 minus D. C. source lines. 2,408,613 ITO? ' should-benoted that the higher potential at point tails of the ‘devices illustrated and‘ in their 0per~ ation may be made by those vskilled in the art, 515, obtainingwhile the gas tube-is ‘i'nl conduci without departing from the ,spirit'of the inven tive'ycondition, increasespthe grid bias‘ of the gas tion. It is the intention, therefore, to be limited tube- above the critical value.‘- This has no effect" now; however, on theiconductivity-of the gas-tube‘ 5.. only’ as indicated by the scope of thefollowing since the grid of the tube loses control when the tubev is ignited. Assume, nowgthati-t is ‘desired to extinguish the gas ,tube'55'9. Ajpulseis again claims.» ' . ‘ What is claimed is: . . ' . . 1. An electrical system comprising a power applied to resistor ‘5M, reducing the controlgrid source, parallel voltage dividers connected there bias of the pentode. The two new concurrently‘ 1,0 to, a‘ gas-?lled electron tube including anode, operating factors, high‘ screen" potential? and re—' duced grid bias for the pentode 505,- oombine to materially reduce its impedance.- The resulting cathode, and grid electrodes and having the anode and ‘cathode connected to points of two said dividers to bridgethem conductively-when ignited, ‘said points being so chosen that cathode increase in current flow through resistance 503 and‘ pentode’ 505 causes point 504 to'drop in po- 15 potential is lower than anode potential and high; tential to an ampli?ed extent with respect to the er than grid potential, said tube being ignited upon a reduction in potential dilference between parameter the control pulse applied ‘to resis tor 501. With point 504» at'the lowered poten tial, insui?cient potential difference prevails -between the anode and "cathode-of the gas tube 509 potential, and’ means responsive to an electrical to enable ther'tube to remain conductive. .Ac pulsefor further reducing the potential at the cordingly, the gas tube is’ extinguished ' Condenser 5l8‘in Fig; 3 has the same func-v times condenser ‘I23 in-Fig. 2. ' ‘Brie?y, it main- - tains point 520 at the higher-potential, after the cathode and grid and upon such ignition reducing, the anode potential and increasing the‘ cathode anode~connected point to such extent as to de prive the anode‘of the potential required to maintain thegtube ignited, whereupon the tube is extinguished. ' _ ' _ gas tube‘ is extinguished,- until after the shut-off 2. An electrical system as in ciaim 1, and pulse pulse has ceased to act. Secondly, it maintains responsive means comprising an electronic dis point 5l6 at the higher potential 'until after the charge tube in the voltage divider to a point of shut-off pulse has ceased to act, thereby main which the anode of the gas-?lled tube is con taining the grid bias of the gas tube 509 suffi 30 nected, said discharge tube upon applicationv of ciently high to prevent ionization or re-ignition. a ‘pulse thereto being reduced in impedance and When, following extinction of ‘the arc in the gas thereby causing current flow in the latter volt tube by one‘control pulse, anext such 'pulsewill age divider to increase and reduce the potential ?re the gas-tube by causing a reduction in poten at the anode-connected point below the value re tial at point 5 l5 and,hence, of'the cathode poten-' 35 quired to sustain ignition of the gas-?lled tube. tial, in the manner described.‘ The condenser I23 3. An electrical system comprising a power will maintain point 5 l 6 at lowe'redcathode poten source, and an electrical network'connected to ' tial and point 520 at ‘lowered screen controlling saidsource and includingzparallel voltage di petentialuntil aiter'the ?ring pulse has ceased, viders and agas tubeibridging said dividers, said ' to act. . 40 tube including an anode electrode connected to The foregoing ‘has described a ‘method and a point of a ?rst one of said dividers and a cath means of ?ring and shutting off a gas triode by a pulse applied to a common point of the circuit and to~~only one circuit elementanamely, a single variable impedance comprisedof a vacuum tube 45 This single element of the ‘circuit, 'inlresponse to successive ‘ pulses applied ‘at; a common point,’ will cause alternate ?ring and shutting off the .gas .triode. _ serving as part of-a voltage divider. The determination of whether "the single ele- , ment shall respond to the pulse for ?ring the gas tube or for extinguishing-the gas tube is made by the circuit itself- in accordance with the-pre- ~ vai-ling status of the gas tube. Thus,v with the gas tube conductive, the single element will uti lize the control pulse asan extinguishing pulse. On vthe other‘ hand, with thegas tube in non-con ode electrode connected to a point of a second one of'said dividers and a control grid electrode at lower potential than the cathode‘ potential, the diiierence in potential between cathode and grid electrodes being reduced by utilizing an. elec trical pulse to changethe potential of one ‘of the} latter electrodes whereby thetube is ignited, said ?rst voltage divider including a variable imped ance electronic ‘discharge vdevice reduced in im pedance by an applied potentialsov as to‘ increase‘ current flow in the ?rst voltage divider and there; 'by lower the potential at the (anode-connected point below the value necessary to sustain igni tion of the gas tube. I ' ' " r _ 4. An electrical‘ system comprising a power source, and ‘an velectrical circuit network con ductive ‘state,’ the ‘single elementwwilhapply. the nected to said source and including parallel volt- 1 control pulse (as- a ?ring .pulse._» The voltage age dividers and a gas tube including an anode divider including resistance-i583 andtube 505 (50 connected to a’point of a ?rst one of said di serves ‘as a combined ?ringiand extinguishing control means for the gas tube. It will be noted, further, that the control pulse is effective, when the gas tr-iode is extinguished, to increase the potential between anode and?cathode of the gas, -, triode and-concurrently decrease its gridv bias so as to» cause ignition. Further, it will be noted viders and a cathode connected to a point ofa second ‘one of said dividers and also including a control grid normally at such bias-asto prevent ignition of the tube, means'tor‘reducing the grid bias. so as to ignite ‘the tubewhereby the dis tribution of "electrical Pvalues ‘about the vnetwork is changed‘in such manner'as to reduce the po-: that the grid potentialof~ the gastube remains tential .at the anode-connected point and 5111-: substantilly "fixed ‘and its 'grid'bias' is "varied by: changing the potentialjo-f 'thei'caithodei 70 crease the-potential, at ‘the :.cathode-connected point,~and ‘means responsive to an electricalpulse " While there have been shown and described-and forturther ‘reducing ‘the potential at‘ the anode pointed out the fundamental" novel features of connected :point to such extent as _' to‘ lower the the invention as appliedtoiseveral embodiments, it will be understood that various omissions and ' anode potential :below a :‘critical ignition-.sustainsubstitutions ‘and "changes in. lthebfo'rm and de 75 ing'value; so‘ that? the tube istextinguished to :‘BS . 2,408,613 11 tablish an alternative distribution of electrical values about the network. 5. An electrical system comprising a power source, and an electrical circuit network con tential di?ererice between the grid and cathode to an extent such as to trip the tube from a non conductive state to a conductive state, and means for reducing the potential at said point of the ?rst divider to an extent such as to lower the anode potential below, a value required to maintain the dividers and a trigger tube having an anode and tube conductive, whereby the tube trips to its cathode and control grid, a connection from the non-conductive state. , anode tapping a chosen point of a ?rst one of said 9. An electrical system ‘comprising a power dividers and a connection from the cathode tap ping a chosen point of a second one of said di 10 source and an electrical network connected there nected thereto and including parallel voltage viders, said dividers being so proportioned and the points so chosen as to provide potential dif i‘erence between the anode and cathode sufficient to enable the tube to be triggered to a conductive state upon reduction of the cathode-to-grid po tential, means whereby such reduction is ef fected, and means responsive to an electrical signal for increasing current flow in the ?rst divider so as to reduce the potential at the tapped point thereof sufficiently to cause the tube to trigger back to a non-conductive state. 6. An electrical system comprising a power to and including a pair of parallel voltage di viders and a gas-?lled trigger tube bridging points of said dividers, one of said dividers including parallel variable impedance electronic discharge devices, either of which upon a change in its im pedance alters the potential at said point of the latter‘ divider to such extent as to change the status of the tube, and means for rendering said discharge devices selectively effective, in response to electrical pulses applied thereto, to thus alter the potential at said point of the latter divider. 10. An electrical system comprising a power source, and an electrical network connected source, and a circuit network connected thereto and including parallel voltage dividers thereto and including parallel voltage dividers and a gas tube bridging the dividers, with an 25 and a gaseous discharge tube bridging said di viders, with an anode connected to a point of one anode connected to a point of a ?rst one of said said divider and a cathode to a point of another dividers and a cathode connected to a point of said divider, said tube also having a control grid a second one of said dividers, said points being so normally biased to prevent ignition of the tube chosen as to provide sui?cient anode-to-cathode potential to maintain an arc in the tube after 30 and reduced in bias to cause ignition of the tube, said tube upon being ignited changing the dis such are has been started, said tube including a tribution of electrical values about said network, starting grid normally below cathode potential, a variable impedance electronic discharge device prepared by such change for responding to an sponding to one said pulse to reduce the poten tial di?erence between cathode and grid sur? 35 electrical pulse to reduce the anode to cathode potential of the gaseous discharge tube below ig ciently to start an arc in the tube and responding nition-sustaining value, and means for applying to another pulse of the same polarity for reduc said pulse to said discharge device to effect its ing anode to cathode potential below arc-sus response, after being prepared therefor, so as to taining value, whereby the tube is alternated in reduce the anode to cathode potential below ig condition by successive pulses of the same nition-sustaining value for the gaseous discharge polarity. tube. '7. An electrical system comprising a power 11. A circuit comprising a pair of impedance source, and an electrical circuit network con branches, a gas-?lled tube bridging said branches nected to said source and including parallel volt - and including a control grid, one said branch in age dividers and a trigger tube interposed be cluding a variable impedance electronic discharge tween said dividers so as to establish certain device, the constants of said circuit being so ad-, electrical values about the network when in trig justed that upon an alteration in impedance of gered state and other electrical values when in the discharge device the tube is quenched, means reverse state, said tube including an anode, cath ode, and grid of which the anode and cathode are 50 for applying potential to said grid tending to ig means for receiving electrical pulses and re respectively connected to points of a ?rst one of said voltage dividers and second one of said di viders so chosen as to apply su?icient anode to cathode potential to enable the tube to be tripped to triggered state by reduction of grid bias and VI GI to maintain the tube in such state while the ?rst mentioned electrical values prevail about the network, and means receiving an electrical pulse for reducing the potential at said point of the ?rst divider tov an extent depriving the anode of suf?cient potential to maintain the tube in triggered state, whereupon the tube trips to re verse state and establishes said ‘other electrical values about the network. ' 8. An electrical system comprising current supply lines and a circuit network supplied by said lines and including three parallel voltage dividers, a trigger tube having an anode con nected to a point of a ?rst one of said dividers to derive anode potential therefrom and having a cathode and control grid connected respectively, to points of a second one of said dividers and third one of said dividers, means impressing acontrol potential upon the circuit network to ‘react on one 01’ the latter two dividers to reduce the po 75 nite the tube and concurrently applying potene tial to said discharge device tending to quench the tube, and means controlled by the electrical condition of the circuit itself, and including de lay means, for rendering only the discharge device or the grid effective to act in response to the con currently applied potential to e?fect its function. ~ 12. .A self -governing circuit comprising a pair of impedance branches, a gaseous discharge tube bridging-said branches and including a control grid, one said branch including a variable im pedance electronic discharge device e?ective upon reduction of its impedance to quench the tube, means for applying potential to the discharge de vice tending to reduce its impedance and quench the tubeand concurrently applying potential to the control grid tending to ignite the tube, and means controlled by the tube itself, and including delay means, for selectivelyjrendering the poten tial effective when the-tube is in a non-conductive status to act through said grid to ignite the tube and effective when the tube is in conductive status to act through said discharge device to extinguish the tube. ; . » I i i 13. An electrical system comprising a power 2,408,613 source and an electrical network connected there to and including parallel impedance‘ branches and a gaseous discharge tube bridging said impedance branches and effective when in a conductive state to produce a desired potential at a point of one 14 trode whereby a succeeding one of said pulses by reason of the higher potential of the ?rst elec trode su?iciently reduces the impedance of the variable impedance electronic tube to‘ thereby U! reduce the anode potential of the trigger tube said impedance branch, a variable impedance electronic discharge device including a control suf?ciently to extinguish the trigger'tube. electrode connected to a pulse applying means and another control electrode deriving potential trigger tube including anode, cathode, and grid electrodes, a variable impedance electronic dis charge tube, means electrically connecting the from said point and effective when said point is at said desired potential toenable the pulse ap plied to the ?rst'electrode to e?ectively change 17. A circuit comprising a gas-?lled electronic discharge tube into the anode-cathode circuit of the ‘trigger tube so as to quench the trigger tube upon a change in impedance of the discharge the impedance of the device, said device being so tube, said discharge tube including a control elec connected into the network as to extinguish the 15 trode connected to the output of the trigger tube tube upon said change in impedance. and varying in potential in accordance with the 14. A circuit comprising current supply lines, quenched or ignited status of the trigger tube, a gas-?lled trigger tube including anode, cath and control means in the discharge tube respon ode, and grid electrodes, means so connecting sive to successive electrical pulses for cooperat-‘ the electrodes to the supply lines as normally to ing with the control electrode when the trigger provide su?icient anode-cathode ionization po tube is in quenched state to reduce the cathode tential and cathode-grid potential above trip grid potential of the trigger tube to effect its ig ping value, a variable impedance electronic dis nition and for cooperating with the control elec charge tube so connected into the circuit and to trode when the tube is in ignited status for ef said gas-?lled. tube as to be effective in response fecting said change in impedance of the dis to a ?rst electrical pulse to reduce the cathode charge tube so as to quench the trigger tube, - grid potential and trip the tube to ionized state whereby the trigger tube is alternately ignited and in response to a following pulse to reduce anode-cathode potential toquench the tube, and means for applying said pulses successively to the andquenched, under control of the trigger tube itself, by successive pulses applied to the control electronic discharge tube so as to effect such suc 30 means of the discharge tube. 18. In combination, a gaseous discharge de-' cessive alternations in the status of the gas-?lled , vice with an anode and a cathode and a grid, tube. a ?rst electron emission device, a power source 15. A circuit comprising current supply lines, an impedance bridging said lines, and means for therefor, means for adjusting, the electronic ?ow ‘ alternately increasing and reducing potential at from said source through said emission device, means conductively connecting said cathode to a point of said impedance comprising a single variable impedance electronic discharge tube hav 1 ing anode and cathode electrodes connected to said power source, means connecting said anode and said electron emission device so that anode potential is altered upon adjustment of said elec to said point and also including a control grid, 40 tronic flow, a second electron emission device connected to said source, means for altering elec means for applying successive pulses of the same tronic ?ow from said source through the second polarity to said control grid, one such pulse being emission device, means conductively connecting eil’ective when the screen grid is at high potential said grid and the second emission device so that to materially increase current ?ow in the tube and another such pulse being e?ective when the > grid potential is altered upon adjustment of elec tronic ?ow through the second emission device, screen grid is at low potential for increasing said gaseous'discharge device being ignited upon screen grid current ?ow, and means responsive said alteration of the grid potential and to the increase in current flow‘ of the tube for quenched upon said alteration of the anode po reducing the potential at said point and respon ' sive to the increased screen grid current ?ow for v tential. 19. An electrical flip-?op circuit including a increasing the potential at said point, whereby plurality of resistors vforming a voltage divider, successive pulses of the same polarity applied to a plurality of impedances including an electron said control grid effect successive opposite emission device forming a second voltage divider, changes in potential‘ at said point. 16. A circuit ‘network comprising a gas ?lled 55 means electrically connecting said electron emis sion device to said ?rst divider, a gaseous dis trigger tubeincluding an anode and a cathode, a charge device, means electrically connecting said variable impedance electronic tube including an gaseous discharge device to each of said voltage anode, cathode and a plurality of control elec dividers, control means ‘to which successive volt trodes, means connecting the anode of the vari able impedance tube to the anode of the trigger (it age impulses are applied, and means, including ' said lines and including a screen grid connected tube, means connecting a ?rst one of said elec trodes to the cathode of the trigger tube, means for applying successive pulses of the same po larity to the second one of said electrodes, one of said pulses reacting upon the ?rst electrode to reduce its potential and thereby to reduce the cathode potential of the trigger tube su?lciently to cause its ignition, said trigger tube upon ig nition increasing the potential of the ?rst elec said electronic device and a condenser shunting one of said resistors, for alternately igniting and , quenching said discharge device upon successive ‘ applications of voltage impulses to said control means whereby said desired potential is produced ' only upon each second application of said po tential. ARTHUR H. DICKINSON.