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Патент USA US2408625

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ct. l, 1946.
G. A. GOEPFRICH
GUN CHARGER
Filed March 4, 1943
2,405624
'
x
Oct. l, 1946.
2,408,624
G. A. GOEPFRICH
GUN CHARGER
Filed March 4, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
‘5yl
a@ @y ç
2,408,624
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
_UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE',
2,408,624'k
GUN CHARGER
George A. Goepfrich, South Bend, Ind.
Application March 4, 1943, Serial No. 477,975
4 Claims. (Cl. 89-1)
2
1
charging. system for guns of the type mentioned
above which will employ for operation ñ'uid sup
plied by the íiuid pressure system. of an aircraft;
This invention relates generally to automatic
charging devices for automatic guns, and par
ticularly to automatic charging devices for auto
matic guns of the typewhere the reloading oper
A still furtherpbje’ct of the invention is to pro
ation is effected by the expansion of exploded
gases in the barrel and behind the projectile.
Guns of this Itype Will not reload in the event
vide an automatic charging system which, a'ft'er
being put into operation, will not require the at
a dud cartridge has been inserted into the ñring
chamber, since there will be no exploding gases
Yet another object of the invention compre
hends the provision of a» novel control circuit for
tention of the pilot.
_ '
'
to move the breech block rearwardly to eject the
one or more of such guns, Said control circuit be
ñred cartridge and> insert a fresh cartridge. Ac
cordingly, these guns are ordinarily equipped with
a charging cylinder for retracting the breech block
thereof `in order to eject the dud cartridge and
ing adapted to manual charging ofthev guns ydur
ing servicing operations, and to automatic charg
ing of the guns afterr servicing operations have
insert a fresh cartridge in the f'eeclway thereof.
The retraction of the breech block ordinarily is
A feature of the inventionv lies in the provision
of automatic cut-cut means for the .charging
system should one or> more of the' guns become
jammed in such a fashion that neither manual
been concluded.
accompanied by a small movement of a Sear to
hold the breach bloclrin retracted position and
»
- f
no'r automatic charging can be effected.
allow the fresh cartridge ‘to remain in the feed
way ready to be moved forward into the ñring 20 A still further object of the invention compre
hends the inclusion of a novel charging mecha
chamber upon actuation of the Sear. Since guns
nis'ni for one or more of such guns, which will
of this type are ordinarily located remotely from
add but little to the weight of the guns, certain
the operator, as lfor example when mounted in an
of the accessories of the 'gun being readily adapt
aircraft, mechanical or electrical means must be
able to the charging system, thereby decreasing
provided to actuate the se'ar in order to effect
the amount of weight necessary to be added to
automatic firing of the gun.
the aircraft, a very important consideration.
Since guns of this type may at times fire ex
A yet further object is to provide a safety device
plosive projectiles, means must be provided to in
so that charging can be safely accomplished dur
sure against the insertion of a fresh cartridge into
-the feedway of such a gun until after the dud ‘
ing night.
cartridge has been ejected, since there would be
likelihood that a premature explosion might take
place in the breech block of the gun, with the
consequent damage to the gun and to the aircraft
in which it is mounted. YAs has been explained,
since the guns are at times located remotely from
ythe pilot, it becomes necessary to provide auto
These and otherl objects of the invention will be
apparent from a study ofthe description here
inafter, reference being had to the drawings
which show a preferred embodiment of the inven
tion. It is to be understood, however, that the
invention is not limited by the embodiments
shown, nor otherwise than by the terms of the
matic means for recharging one or more of such
claims subjoined.
guns automatically, at the same time insuring
against the possibility of premature explosions.
‘
'e
In the drawings- which illustrate the invention:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary plan view of a gas
operated automatic breech loading gun showing
also in plan a charging cylinder mounted along
one side thereof;
Figure 2 is a longitudinal enlarged horizontal
45 section of the charging cylinder shown in Fig
The invention accordingly makes use of novel
means including a novel electrical circuit for ef
fecting both manual charging of the guns to make
them ready for automatic operation, and auto
matic charging of the guns whenever necessary
ure l;
once automatic operation has begun.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary elevation View of a
It is an object of this invention to provide an
pair of guns of the type shown in Figure 1, show
automatic charging system for gas operated auto
ing schematically a control circuit for the auto
matic breech loading guns.
Another object is to provide a charging system 50 matic charging system.
Referring now to Figure 1 there is shown a
for manual charging of »the guns to make> them
gun l0 having a breech block casing I2 which has
ready for automatic operation, the manual charg
mounted for reclprocation therein a breech block
ing being generally effected by the service crew
I4. Held bythe breech block casing l2 is an
before the aircraft is engaged in combat.
ejector I6 which serves to y throw downwardly
A further object is to provide an automatic
2,408,624
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4
ñtted with a skirt 25 which is adapted at times
to contact a charging lug 28 formed as a part of
tion of the relay 80 attracts an armature 86 to
the left closing upon point 83 at which position
the breech block I4 to retract, or move rearward
ly,’the breech block I4 in .the event that reload'
ing does not take place during normal operation
1,5 it remains even though relay 80 is deenergized.
position and the rear gun switch 34 is closed by
spent shells which are removed from the iiring
the actuator 3S and switch iinger 32. Switch 34
chamber by the retraction of the breech block
will continue to remain closed even if manual
I4 during normal gun operation.
charging switch 1B is opened, since the breech
Integral with the breech block casing I2 is a
block I4 will be held in retracted position by the
housing I 8 containing a fiuid motor for retracting
sear of gun I0.
.the breech block I4 during manual operation or
A trigger lockout 18 is put into its proper posi
automatic operation of =the charging system
tion for automatic charging by completing a cir
forming this invention. Within the housing I8
cuit that energizes a relay 80„of the trigger lock
is a liner> I9 having mounted for reciprocation
therein a pistonl 20 which is normally urged tol l0 out 18 through a lead 82 branchingfrom lead 60
and through a lead 84 'to ground through switch
the right by a return spring 22 guided by a
arm ‘I5 at manual charging switch 10. Energiza
sleeve 24 supported by housing i8. Piston 20 is
being attracted to the right only when a relay 80
Vis energized, under- conditions later to be de
scribed.
i of the gun. By rearward movement of the charg
Thus far has been described the manually con
ing lug 28, contact is made with a switch actuator f
30, which when moved rearwardly actuates a 20 trolled charging operation which makes the gun
finger 32 to close a switch 34 mounted at theÍ rear
of gun I0. The switch actuator 30 is normally
biased to the right by a spring 36, so -that it clears
ready for automatic charging. With the breech
block I4 in the retracted position a live cartridge
supplied by the ammunition canister 42 is placed
in position in the feedway ofthe gun I0. »
the finger 32 to open switch 34when the block
Preliminary to automatic charging, which oc
I4 is in the forward position. A switch 38 is 25
curs only when defective ammunition has been
mounted at the forward end of the charging hous
supplied to the gun I0 and automatic reloading
ing IB and is adapted to close when the piston 20
does not take place, the following operations take
moves rearwardly as a result of pressure supplied
place in the circuits shown in Figure 3. With
to the housing I 8 at a port 40.
Y
Referring now to Figure 3 of the drawings th 30 the combat switch 56 in the combat position, or
closed on switch points 60 and 52, current is sup
guns I0 are shown with cylindrical ammunition
plied through a lead 92 to the rear gun switch,
canisters 42 which supply ammunition to the
whence it is passed through a lead 94 to energize
guns I0, and which are locked into place by a
a timedelay relay 9B, since the breech ‘block I4
locking device 44.
is in the rear position. It may be noted, also,
For supplying ñuid under pressure to the cha-rg
that the same operation takes place when'the
ing cylinder I8 at port 40 a iiuid pressure system
combat switch 55 is in the manual chargingeposi
comprising a pump 45, accumulator 45 and a res
tion or closed on point 53. Energizing time delay
ervoir 48 is provided. For controlling the admis#
relay 96 attracts its armature 98 to left, opening
sion of iiuid to each charging cylinder I8 a sole
40 its contact point.
noid operated valve 50 is provided.
Under normal firing conditions, when the trig
For supplying energy for the control circuit of
ger switch 84 is closed the following circuits are
the guns I0, and for supplying energy to firing
solenoids 52 for operating sears 53 of each gun
I0 a source of energy 54 is provided.
made.
v
One circuit is through trigger switch 64, through
a lead |00 and through a winding |04 of a com
To get the system shown in Figure 3 ready for
pound relay |02 and thence to ground. Energiz
automatic charging the guns I0 must ñrst be
ing winding |84 of relay attracts an armature
manually charged. Where the guns I0 are
§00 thereof to the left closing its contact point;
mounted in aircraft this is ordinarily accom
however, the circuit that is made by closing ar
plished on the ground. The system is so arranged
that the armorer may manually charge each gun 50 mature IGB on its contact point is still open at the
armature 08 of time delay relay 96.
individually withoutl affecting in any way the
Closing of trigger switch simultaneously ener
other guns of the system.
gizes a ñring relay |08 through a lead I I0 which
A combat switch 5S is provided which for man
branches from lead |60, a lead I I2, through arma
ually controlling the charging of the gun may be
ture 86, thence to ground through a lead I|4 to
closed on a contact 58, and for automatically or
an armature IIS of a pressure switch relay |I8.
manually controlling the «charging the gun Vmay
Energizing the firing relayv |08 moves its arma
be closed on a pair of contacts 60 and 62. How
ture |20 to the left to pass current from the lead
ever, closing on contact 58 avoids the possibility
iìß'to energize the firing solenoid 52, to actuate
of accidentally closing a trigger switch 04. With
the scar of the gun I0. The breech block I4 of
combat switch 56 closed on contact 58 current is
the gun will then be released and ñring will start
passed through a lead 63 to a contact 68 of a
and continue automatically as long as the trigger
manual controlled charging switch T0, which
switch 54 is closed. The cycle of reloading and
when closed passes current through a lead 72 to
ñring the gun being shorter than the unloading
a thermal time limit switch 'I4 to the solenoid
period of the time delay relay 96, itcontinues in
operated valve 5E! which opens to admitñuid to
its energized state,l being given a current impulse
the charging housing I8 to retract the breech
each time rear gun switch 34 is closed.
block I4. It will be noted that when the manual
The circuit shown in Figure 3 remains un
controlled charging switch 10 is closed, the ground
changed as long as normal ñring of the gun takes
circuit for thermal time limit switch 14 is open
at a switch arm 16. This will- permit the breech 70 place, but if the gun misi'lres the following func
tions occur:
i
‘
block I4 to be held in retracted position for >an
Since normal reciprocation of the breech 4block
indefinite period as long as manual controlled
I4 will not occur after misñre, the breech block
charging switch 'I0 is closed.
will remain in the forwardV position, thereby
With the closing of the manual charging switch
10 the breech block I4 is moved to- its rearward 75 breaking the circuit periodically made at the rear
2,408,624
5
gunjswitch 34, thus deenergizing time delay relay
energizing time delay relay 96, thus opening the
96, permitting its armature to fall to the right on
circuit to solenoid operated valve 50, _which then
its vcontact point. Current will then be passed
will operate to connect cylinder I8 to the reser
from lead 65, through armature |06 of compound
voir 4B, permitting spring 22 to return piston 20
relay I 02 (which is energized by winding |04 sup GI to its starting position. When .the fluid is com
plied with current by the lead |00), through lead
pletely dissipated from cylinder I3, pressure
|22, through armature 08 of time delay relay 96,
switch |36 will open to 4cleenergize pressure switch
through a, lead |24 which connects to the lead l2
relay IIS to permit armatures I|5 and |34 to
to the solenoid operated valve 50.
close on their contact points.
It will be noted that the heater element of 10
The electrical system may be divided into two
thermal time limit switch 'I4 is now carrying cur
circuits. The first circuit comprises a battery ,54,
rent, ground being made through the switch arm
switch 56, wire $6, armature or switch |20, firing
16 of the manual charging switch lil. If current
solenoid 52, wire 92, relays 80 and HB, pressure
to the solenoid operated valve is on for too long
switch |36, ejection switch |40, switch 14,
a time, which indicates that the breech block |'4 15 solenoid valve 50, relay 90,l wire |32, armature
for some reason cannot be retracted, thermal
|34, wire |26, and winding |228 of compoundre~
time limit switch 'I4 is opened.
lay |02. The second circuit comprises the source
Means are provided for insuring the comple
or battery 54, switch 55, switch 64, Wire |00, wire
tionV of an automatic charging operation, once it
H0, relay |08, wire |.|2, armature 86, wire |.|4,
has been initiated, regardless whether the trig 20 armature IIS, and winding |03 of compound
relay |02.
ger switch 64 has in the meantime been opened.
A lead |25 branches from lead ‘I2 near the ther
As an alternate construction, the switch 38 of
mal time limit switch 'I4 and is connected to a
Figure l is adapted to open when piston 20
second winding |28 of the compound relay |02,
reaches its starting position, in the same manne
insuring that the relay is energized as long as the 25 deenergizing relay I I8 as in Figure 3.
,
~
circuit to the solenoid operated valve 50 is closed,
If the trigger switch 64 has been opened dur'
regardless of the condition of trigger switch G4.
ing the automatic charging operation just de
Simultaneously with the closing of the circuits
scribed, the ñring solenoids will, of course, be
discussed above which occur upon the failure of
deenergized, and the Sear 0f gun I0 will hold
reciprocation of the breech block lé is the closing
breech block I4 in retracted position ready to be
yof another circuit, made through a lead |30
released when the sear is actuated by the closing
branching from lead 'I2 near thermal time limit
of trigger switch 54.
switch 14, to the relay 90, and thence to ground
If the trigger‘switch 64 has been held closed
through a lead |32 and an armature |34 of the
pressure switch relay vI I8. Closing of the circuit
just described energizes relay 90 of the trigger
lockout 'i8 to attract armature 85 to the right
to deenergize relay §08 and break the c'n'cuit to
the ñring solenoid 52. It is now impossible to
lire the guns I 0 even though the trigger switch 6|!
is closed.
‘
The functions described above occur instanta
neously as the armature 98 of time delay relay 06
closes to the right. A fractional part of a second
after these functions take place iiuid will ñow
into charging cylinder I8 and will build up a
pressure suliicient to close a pressure switch |36
operated by a pressure sensitive capsule |38. It
may be noted that the equivalent is shown in
Figure 2, the switch 3d closing as soon as the
piston 20 has moved a suflicient distance to the
left. Closing of switch |36 energizes the pres
sure switch relay II 8, attracting armatures I I6
and i345 to the left, thus opening the circuit to
relay 9d and opening the circuit through arma
ture 86 of the trigger lockout i8. It may be noted
that the armature 86 does not close on Contact
88 when relay 00 is deenergized.
,
For assisting in getting the circuit ready for
normal operation of the gun l0, a case ejection
switch |40 is closed when the spent cartridge case
during the automatic charging operation the
breech 'clock |!| will snap forward with a fresh
cartridge and will thereafter reciprocate during
normal gun operation until for some reason an
automatic charging cycle must once more be
initiated.
-
While the circuit has been described as applied
to one gun it is equally as well applied to two
guns as shown in Figure l, and as shown is, if
desired, under the control of a single trigger
switch.
The invention has been described in terms of a
desirable embodiment thereof, but it is t0 be
understood that the invention is not limited by
the embodiment shown and described, nor other~
Wise than by the appended claims.
I claim:
l. In combination with a gun having a breech
block reciprocable for charging the gun, a iiuid
pressure motor mounted on the gun and con
structed and arranged to engage the breech block
to move the same to a retracted position and
then release it for countermovement, an elec
trical system comprising a iirstI and a second cir
cuitV connected to a >source of current, an electriè
cally operated Valve in the iirst circuit for con
trolling iìuid to. the motor and connected in the
iirst circuitJ through an openable connection, a
time delay relay in the first circuit constructed
is yejected downwardly by the ejector i5 shown
in Figure l. Closing switch M0 energizes relay 80
andarranged to respond to normal reciprocation
of trigger lockout 'i3 t0 attract armature B6 to
of the breech block to open said openable con
the left to close on contact point 88. This opera 65 nection and to respond to abnormal reciprocation
tion would normally energize firing relay> |08
of the breech block- to permit closing of said
when trigger switch 64 is closed, but until the
openable connection, a switch in the iîrstY circuit
uuid is completely exhausted from the cylinder
normally open and constructed and arranged to
I3 to the reservoir 4S the pressure actuated
switch |33 will remain closed to keep energized
pressure switch relay H8 and keep armature ||6
from its Contact, thereby keeping the circuit to
ñring relay |03 open.
As the breech block I4 reaches itsv retracted
position rear gun switch 34 will be closed, thereby 75
be closed by the breech block when in a retracted
position to connect the time delay relay in the
first circuit, a normally open trigger switch in
the second circuit, a ñring mechanism in the
iirst circuit and mounted on the gun for holding
the breech block in a retracted position to be re»
leased at a predetermined time, said mechanism
2,408,624
7
being ~connected in the first circuit through a
normally open connection, a relay in the second
vcircuit constructed and arranged to- respond to
closing of the `triggerswitch for closing said nor
mally open connection to said mechanism to
cause release of the said breech block, said relay
being connected in said second circuit through
an openable connection, a relay in the ñrst circuit
constructed and arranged to open said openable
connection to said relay in the second circuit to
vprevent connecting the firing mechanism in the
-iirst circuit before the fluid in the iluid motor
has been completely exhausted to allow the
breech block to return rto its >normal firing posi
tion, and a switch in the ñrst circuit constructed
and-»arranged to respond to fluid pressure in the
motor for connecting the last mentioned relay in
theiirst circuit to said circuit.
8
structed and arranged to engage the breech block
to move the same to a retracted position and then
release it for countermovement, an electrical
system comprising a iirst and a second circuit
connected to a source of current, an electrically
operated valve in the iirst circuit for controlling
fluid to the motor and connected in the ñrst cir
cuit through two cpenable connections in series,
a time delay relay intheV first circuit constructed
and arranged to respond to normal reciprocation
of the breech block to open one of said two open
able connections and to respond to abnormal re
ciprocation of the breech block to permit closing e
of said one openable connection, a switch in the
nrst circuit normally open and constructed and
arranged to be closed by the breech block when
tem comprising a iirst and a second circuit con- l
in a retracted position to connect the timev delay
relay in the ñrst circuit, a normally open trigger
switch in the second circuit, a firing mechanism
in the ñrst circuit and mounted on the gun for
holding the breech block in a retracted position
to be. released at a predetermined time, said
mechanism being connected in the first circuit
through a normally open connection, a relay in
the second circuit constructed and arranged to
nected toa source of current, an electrically op
respond to closing the trigger switch for closing ’
»Y 2. In combination with a gun having a breech
block reciprocable for charging the gun, a' fluid
pressure motor mounted on the gun and con
structed and arranged to engage the breech block
to move the same to a retracted position and then
release it for countermovement, an electrical sys
erated valve in the ñrst circuit for controlling
said normally open connection to Said mecha
ñuid to the motor and connected in the íirst cir- o
nism to cause release of the Asaid breech block,
cuit through two openable connections in series, a
time delay relay in the first circuit constructed
and arranged to respond to normal reciprocation
of the breech block to open one of said two open
able connections and to respond to' abnormal re
ciprocation of the breech blockyto permit closing
said relay being connected in said second circuit
through an openable connection, a relay in the
ñrst circuit constructed and arranged'to open
said openable connection tc said relay in the
second circuit to prevent connecting the firing
mechanism to the ñrst circuit before the fluid in
the iluid motor has been completely exhausted to
allow the breech block to return to its normal
of said one openable'connection, a switch in the
ñrst circuit normally open and constructed and
ñring position, a switch in the ñrst circuit con
arranged tc be closed by the breech block when in
structed and arranged to respond to duid pres
a retracted position to connect the time delay re
sure in the mo-tor for connecting the last men
lay in the ñrst circuit, a normally open trigger
switch. in the second circuit, a iiring» mechanism 40 tioned relay in the iirst circuit to said circuit, a
compound relay in the -ñrst and second circuits
in the first circuit and mounted on the gun for
and constructed and arranged to control the
holding the breech block in a retracted position
other of said two openable connections in the
to be released at a predetermined time, said
ñrst circuit, said compound relay being connected
mechanism being connected in the iirst circuit
in the second circuit through the trigger switch
through a normally cpen connection, a relay in
during normal gun operation, to close said other
the second circuit constructed and arranged to
openable connection, and connected in the ñrst
respond to closing of the trigger switch for clos
circuit through said two openable connections
ing said normally open connection to said mech
during charging of the gun, so that a charging
anism to cause release of the said breech block,
said relay being connected in Said second- circuit 50 cycle once initiated will be completed irrespective
of the position of the trigger switch, and a trigger
lthrough an openable connection, a relay in the
lock-out mechanism in the first circuit and con
nrst circuit constructed and arranged to open
structed and arranged therein to disconnect the
said openable connection to said relay in the
relay in the second circuit therefrom during a
second circuit to prevent `connecting the firing
mechanism to the first circuit before the fluid in 55 charging cycle and to reconnect said relay in the
Second circuit when charging is completed,
the fluid motor has been completely exhausted
whereby said ñring mechanism is rendered in
to allow the breech block to return to its nor
operative at times of charging.
mal liring position, a switch in the ñrst circuit
constructed and arranged to respond to fluid
4. In combination with a gun having a breech
pressure in the motor for connecting the last 60 block reciprocable for charging the gun, a fluid
pressure motor mounted on the gun and con
mentioned relay in the first circuit to said circuit,
and a compound relay in the ñrst and second
structed and arranged to engage the breech
circuits and constructed and arranged to con-1
block to move the same to a retracted position
trol the other of said two openable connections
,and then release it for countermovement, an
in the first circuit, said compound relay being
electrical system comprising a ñrst and a second
connected in the second circuit through the trig
circuit connected to a source of current, an elec
'ger switch during normal gun operation, to close
trically operated valve in the first circuit for
controlling ñuid to the motor and connected in
' said other openable connection, and connected in
the first circuit through two openable connections
the ñrst circuit through said two openable con
nections during charging of the gun, whereby a
in series, a time delay relay in the first circuit
charging cycle once initiated will be completed
constructed and arranged to respond to normal
reciprocation of the breech yblock to open one
irrespective of the position of the trigger switch.
of said two openable connections and to respond
3. In combination with a gun having a breech
to abnormal reciprocation of the breech block to
block recîprocable for charging the gun, a fluid
permit closing of said one openable connection,
pressure motor mounted on the gun and con
2,408,624
10
a switch in the first circuit normally open and
constructed and arranged to be closed by the
breech block when in a retracted position to
connect the time delay relay in the iirst circuit,
relay in the ñrst and second circuits and con
structed and arranged to control the other of
said two openable connections in the first circuit,
said compound relay being connected in the sec
ond circuit through the trigger switch during
normal gun operation, to close said other open
able connection, and connected in the ñrst circuit
a normally open trigger switch in the second
circuit, a iiring mechanism in the iirst circuit
and mounted on the gun for holding the breech
through said two openable connections during
block in a retracted position to be released at a
charging of the gun so that a charging cycle
predetermined time, said mechanism being con
nected in the ñrst circuit through a normally 10 once initiated will be completed irrespective of
the position of the trigger switch, a trigger lock
open connection, a relay in the second circuit
out mechanism in the first circuit and constructed
constructed and arranged to respond to closing
and arranged therein to disconnect the relay in
the trigger switch for closing said normally open
the second circuit therefrom during a charging
connection to said mechanism to cause release
of the said breech block, said relay being con 15 cycle and to reconnect said relay in the second
circuit when charging is completed, to render
nected in said second circuit through an open
said firing mechanism inoperative at times of
able connection, a relay in the lirst circuit con
charging, and means in the ñrst circuit for
structed and arranged to open said openable
manually controlling charging of the gun, said
connection to said relay in the second circuit
to prevent connecting the ñring mechanism to 20 means being constructed and arranged in the
ñrst circuit to connect the electrically operated
the ñrst circuit before the fluid in the fluid motor
Valve in the ñrst circuit to control iiuid to the
has been completely exhausted to allow the
motor and to connect the trigger lock-out mech
breech block to return to its normal firing posi
anism in the ñrst circuit, whereby the gun and
tion, a switch in the ñrst circuit constructed and
arranged to respond to fluid pressure in the 25 electrical system are put in order for normal
gun operation and for automatic charging.
motor for connecting the last mentioned relay
GEORGE A. GOEPFRICH.
in the ñrst circuit to said circuit, a compound
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