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Патент USA US2408646

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Oct» 1A, 1946.
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*'„Loom
Filed June 24, 1944
2,408,545
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Oct. I, 1946.
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J. o.- HUNT
2,408,545,
LOOM
Filed Jane 24, 1944
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0a. v1, 1946.>
J. Q_ HUNT
2,408,645
Loom
Filed June 24, 1944
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2,498,645
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
UNITED'STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,645
.
LOOM
John 0. Hunt, Greenville, S. C., assigfnor to
Mountain City Foundry and Machine Co.,
Greenville, S. C., a corporation of South Caro
lina
Application Junel 24, 1944, Serial No. 541,893’
4 Claims. (Cl. 139-55)
.
1
,
This invention relates to looms for weaving
fabrics and of the type in which the warp threads
arer manipulated in groups by heddle frames to
form the shed through which the shuttle is passed
in the weaving operation. More particularly, the
invention is concerned with a loom equipped with
a novel motion for actuating the heddles in such
manner that they perform their functions With
out injuring the warp threads by wear or abra
sive action. A loom equipped with the new mo 10
tion can, accordingly, be operated with less inter
ruptions arising' from breakage of Warp threads,
has a greater output, and produces material of
better quality than looms of present construction.
A simple heddle loom of present conventional
form includes two heddle frames which lie in par
allel vertical planes and> are reciprocated in those
planes by suitable mechanism.
Each frame is
2
during the formation 0f the sheds for about 29
picks. As each thread must lie first in the top
of a shed and then in the bottom for each cycle
of 2 picks, it follows that each point on the warp
thread will pass both back and forth through its
eye two times for each cycle, or each point will
move through its eye in one direction or the other
a total of the order of 2><29`=58 times before the
point ywill have finally passed beyond the eye to
Ward the fell.
The large number of movements of the warp
threads through their heddle eyes during Weav
ing, as above described, causes abrasion and wear
on the threads and leads to breakage of the
threads at thin spots. When such a breakage
occurs, the loom stops automatically and the
weaver must find and tie the ends of the broken
thread before the loom can be started. As a re
sult, looms of present construction lose produc
provided with a set of vertical wires having eyes
through which a group of warp threads pass and, 20 tion because ofthe wear and abrasion of the
warp threads and the tying of broken warp
as one heddle is raised, the other is lowered, so
threads results in imperfections in the fabric.
that the threads of one group form the top of
The present invention is directed t0 the >pro
the shed and the threads of the other group form
vision-of a novel heddle loom, in which'abrasion
the bottom. In their movements, the threads
swing about the fell of the goods as an axis.
25 of the warp threads as a result of their movement
back and forth through the heddle eyes during
Since the frames move in vertical planes While
the formation of the shed, is avoided and break
the threads swing about the fell, it follows- that
a point on a thread which lies in contact with a
heddle eye when the frames are level'will lie for
ing of the threads produced by such abrasion is
eliminated. In they new loom, these results are ob
ward of the eye toward theßfell when the frames v30 tained by imparting to the heddle frames a com
pound movement in which the frames moveV both
are in their extreme upper and lower positions.
edgewise and broadside on in forming the shed.
In order that that point may reach such a po
The movement of the frames is such that their
sition, the thread must move through its eye and
eyes describe arcs about the fell 0f the fabric
an advance of %” of that point toward the fell
as a center as the frames move from their level
during the formation of the shed is not unusual.
to their extreme positions. Accordingly, as the
This means that, in the formation of a shed, the
frames move to form a shed, the point on each
point on each warp thread, which lies, for exam
warp thread which was in contact with a heddle
ple, 3/8" ‘to the rear of ther heddle eye for that
eyev when the frames werelevel, remains in. con
thread, when the frames are level, will advance
to lie in contact> with the eye in the extreme po# 40 tact with that eye throughout the movement of
sition of its frame and every point on each thread
the frames to their extreme positions and during
to the rear of the eye within a length of `%"
their return. The result is that there is no
will pass through that eye. When the frames
movement of the warp threads back and forth
move back to level position, the warp threads are
through theeyes during shedding `and thus the
drawn backward through the eyes, butthe point 45 threads do not rub on the surfaces of the eyes
on each thread that previously lay in contact with
the eye in the level position of the frames will
noW lie forward of the eye by the width 0f one
pick. In a fabric having 80 picks to the inch,
and become worn through.
~
‘
The mechanism by which «the heddlek frames
are moved as described may take various forms
whichv is a common construction, %"' of warp 50 and may include, for example, lever arms con
nected to onev end of each frame and guides
thread represents about 30 picks, so that before
which control the movement of the other end ofv
a point on a warp thread lying %” to therear
the frame. In another construction, both ends
of a heddle eye, when the frames are level, will
of each frame are guided to have the desired
have finally passedon through the eye, that point
will have moved back and forth kthrough the eye 55 movement and the frames are actuated by con
2,408,645
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necting rods which may be driven by a crank
ment screws 43 which enter the ends of the re
spective side frame members and may be ad
shaft or in any other suitable way.
For a better understanding of the invention,
justed to vary the spacing of the cross-bars. The
top cross-bar 31 is provided with a pair of pins
4I which extend through openings in the top por
drawings, in which
tions 42 of hooks 43, such portions overlying the
Fig. 1 is a View in side elevation through a
cross-bar. The hooks can be raised relative to
loom equipped with the new heddle motion, cer
the cross-bar, as indicated in Fig. 10, but can
tain parts being broken away and others omit
not be removed therefrom without removal of the
ted;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary plan View of a part of 10 pins.
reference may be made to the accompanying
the loom;
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view through a
part of the loom showing a modified drive for
the heddle frames;
Fig. 4 is an elevational view of a detail of Fig. 3; 15
Hooks 43 support an upper cross-bar 44 form
ing part of a sub-frame, which includes side mem
bers 45, the upper ends of which overlie cross
bar 44 while the lower ends support a lower cross
bar 45. An upper horizontal member ¿l1 is sup
ported in the sub-frame by means of hooks 48
engaging the cross-bar 44 and also by means of
modified drive for the frames;
Fig. 6 is a view in elevation of a crank shaft
wires 49 formed with loops 50 which may be
employed in connection with the parts shown in
snapped through openings in the side members 45.
Fig. 5;
2.0 A lower horizontal member 5|, which is similar
Fig. ’7 is a view similar to Fig. 5 of another
to member 41, is mounted on the side members 45
by wires 52 of the same general construction as
modified drive for the frames;
`
Fig. 8 is a sectional view on the line 8-8 vof
wires 49 and having loops which pass through
Fig. 1;
openings in the side members 45. The lower
Figs. 9 and 10 are sectional views on the lines 25 horizontal member 5I is also held in place by
9-9 and | 0---|0, respectively, of Fig. 8;
hooks 53 engaging the member and the cross-bar
Fig. 11 is an enlarged sectional View showing
46. A plurality of thin metal strips 54 are
parts of a heddle frame; and
threaded on the upper and lower horizontal mem
Fig. 12 is a sectional view on the line |2-I2
bers 41, 5I and the middle portion of each strip
of Fig. 8.
30 is twisted out of its plane and is formed with a
In the drawings, the loom illustrated includes
heddle eye 55.
the usual sidev frame members I8 on which is
To keep the frame structure taut, the lower
mounted the Warp beam I | from which the warp
cross-bar 46 of the sub-frame is drawn down
threads l2 are let off by appropriate means to
wardly toward cross-bar 38 by hooks 56 which
pass over a Whip roll I 3. The whip roll is mounted 35 overlie the top of bar 46 and are connected by
on a shaft I4 supported in arms I5a. attached to
springs 51 to the top of cross-bar 38. Each hook
shafts I5 which are supported in arms I6 attached
is held against sidewise movement by a tubular
to a shaft I1. Shaft I1 is mounted in brackets I8
member 58, which encloses its spring 51' and is
and the angular position of the shaft is deter
cut away to permit the member to straddle the
mined by arms |9 forming part of the usual let 40 cross-bar 38. At its upper end, the member 58
oif mechanism. Each bracket I8 is >secured in
is provided with a slot 59 in which the lower end
face to face contact with an upward projection
of a hook 56 is received.
28 from one of the,` side frame members I0 and
Each heddle frame is provided at its upper end
each bracket is formed along its edges with flanges
with rollers 60 on studs projecting outwardly
2| which overlie the edges of its projection 28. i from the vertical side members 36. These rollers
Each bracket is vertically adjustable on its pro
are movable in curved guides 6I mounted on
jection by means of a screw 22 passing through
brackets 62 which are attached to upward pro
the bracket and bearing on top of the projection.
jections 63 from the loom side frames. Each
The bracket is held in adjusted position by a bolt
bracket is provided with lateral flanges 64 be
23, which passes through a slo-t 24 through the 50 tween Which the projection 63 is received and
projection and an opening through the bracket,
the bracket is adjustably attached to the projec
and the engagement of the ñang'es 2| with the
tion by a bolt 65 passing through a slot 56 in the
sides of projection 28 prevents the bracket from
projection and an opening through the bracket.
twisting out of position. The whip roll is swung
In the construction shown in Fig. 1, the lower
up and down by arms 25 attached to shafts I5 and
ends of the side frame members 36 0f heddle frame
actuated by connecting rods 26 eccentrically at
'29 are attached to the ends of arms 61 pivotally
tached to a rotating shaft 21 mounted in bear
mounted on a fixed shaft 68 supported in brackets
ings on side frames |0.
69 attached to the front girt 10 of the loom. The
The warp threads pass forward from the whip
lower ends of the side frame members 36 of heddle
roll through a detector mechanism, generally des~ 60 frame 30 are similarly attached to the ends of
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary elevational view of a
ignated 28, which is effective t0 stop the loom
Whenever a warp thread breaks. Beyond the de
tector mechanism, the threads pass through
heddle frames, of which two designated 29, 30
arms 1I ~ also pivotally mounted on shaft 68.
Each arm 61 is connected by a link 12 to one end
of an arm 13 fast on a rock-shaft 14 mounted in
bearings attached to the loom side frames and
are shown, and then through a reed 3| on a lay 65 each arm 1| is connected by a link 15 to the other
32, which beats up the inserted picks. The fell
end of arm 13. The rock shaft is provided with
of the fabric is indicated at 33 and the fabric
a crank 16, to which is secured a member 11 con
passes therefrom around a sand roll 34 and is
nected by a screw 18 to a member 19. Member
taken up on a roll 35 in the usual way.
19 is pivotally attached by a pin 80 adjustably
Each heddle frame (Fig. 8) comprises vertical 70 mounted in a slot 8| in a crank arm 82 projecting
side frame members 36 connected by an upper
from a hub 83 fast on shaft 84. Screw 18 permits
cross-bar 31 and a lower cross-bar 38. The lower
adjustment of the spacing between members 11
cross-bar 38 is secured rigidly to the side frame
members and the upper cross-bar is mounted in
and 19 and resultant adjustment in the initial
position of crank 16 and rock shaft 14. These
brackets 39, through which are threaded adjust
adjustments make it possible to bring the heddle
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2,408,645
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-frames to level position and to vary kthe length
.and each gear >is secured to its l’shaft by 'a key
>|03 .receivable in any of the several splines. With
’this arrangement, the angular positions of the
of their movements from level position.
'
As previously described, the guides el for the
a center .A which lies in a vertical plane through '
.gears on their shafts may -’be readily changed, so
that all the gear .teeth can be utilized »at »differ
the fell 33 ofthe fabric and the `center of shaft
kentltímes ,in the operation of the gears.
G3 also lies in that plane.` Accordingly, as 'arms
67 and 'H swing about shaft 68, their ends describe
»arcs of circles about a center lying in the vertical
frames by >means of ‘arms swinging about an'axis
rollers 60 are formed on the aros of circles about
plane y’through the fell.
'
f Instead of moving the lower ends of the heddle
fl()
In the operation of the loom, the he'ddle‘frame's
are reciprocated by the swinging of arms 61, 1I
about Shaft 68, one frame being raised jas the
other is lowered from llevel position. In such
frame 'may be guided and other means provided
for 'moving the frames. This constructionv is il
lustrated in Fig. 5, in which the lowerends of
movements of the frames, the lowerend of each i
'frame describes ‘an arc about the axis of shaft
68, which lies in the vertical plane through the
fell vof the’ fabric-and, at the same time, the up
per ends of the .frames are guided by guides 6I
in a vertical plane through the fell and‘guiding
the upper ends of the heddles, both ends of each
frames |04, |05 are provided with rollers IDS; |61
movable in arcuate guides |03, |99, the arcs of the
guides being described >about a center lying in
a vertical plane through the fell `of the goods.
`At their upper ends,v the frames are equipped
with similar rollers moving in' similar guides.
through similar arcs about ‘an axis in that plane. 20 The movement of the frames is effected by a suit
The `frames thus have a- movement compounded
ably mounted rotary crank shaft l Ill having a
'of an edgewise and .a broad‘side on motion and
pair of oppositely disposed cranks Hi, ||2 near
the eyes 'of each frame describe arcs about the
each end at opposite sides of the loom. ’ The crank
fell as an axis. Accordingly, a point on a warp
shaft may be driven from a drive shaft || 3 by a
thread which is in .contact with a heddle eye 25 chain H4 trained around sprockets on the two
when the heddle frame is in level position re
shafts. The cranks are connected to the lower
mains in »contact with the eye as the heddle is
ends of the respective frames by connecting rods
moved to its upper or lower position. There is,
H5, H6. 'With this arrangement, the rotation of
therefore, no movement of the thread through
the crank shaft causes the heddle frames to move
the eye until after the insertion of `a pick, when 30 up and down in opposite directions and each
the 'point on the thread previously in contact
framev is guided in its ymovement so that as it
with .the eye will pass beyond the eye a distance
moves toward the limit of its travel away from
corresponding tothe width of a'pick. According
level position, the `frame is also moved toward
ly,
the new loom, the compound movement im
the fell of the goods. The arcs of the guides are
parted to the heddle frames eliminates the re 35 of such form that the Warp threads are not
drawn through the heddle eyes during shedding
peated back and forth movements of the Warp
threads through the heddle eyes and breakage of
and abrasion of the threads is avoided.
the .threads resulting from abrasion and wear
In Fig. 7, there is illustrated another modified
are prevented.
construction in which the lower ends of .the
-In the construction illustrated 'in Fig. l, the 40 heddle frames ll'l, IIS are connected, respec
lower ends of the frames are connected to the
tively, to the ends of arms H9, |20 on a station
ends of arms 61, Il, which are independently ac
ary shaft I2! mounted'with its center in a ver
tuated by links connected'to the ends of the
tical plane through the fell of the goods. The
lever 13 on rock 'shaft 14. A modification of this
respective arms are moved up and down by cams
construction is illustrated in Fig. 3, in which the 45 |22, |23 and each arm has a cam follower roller
lower ends of the heddle frames »85, 86 are con
entering a channel in its cam. The stud |24 of
nected, respectively, to arms 81, 88. Arms 81
each roller'is mounted in a slot |25 in. its arm,
are fast 'on the 'shaft 33 mounted in bearings on
so that the position of the rollers relative to their
brackets 90 and ‘provided with a gear 9| mesh
cams can be varied to provide the initial adjust
ing with ‘a gear 92 on shaft 93 'on which yarms 88 50 ment of the frames in level position.
are fast. Shaft 89 is provided with cranks 9e,
The loom illustrated in Fig. l is sho-wn as hav
each of which is attached to a "member 95 which
ing two heddle frames but it is to be understood
is actuated by an eccentric disc 96 mounted `on a
that the Yheddle motion of the invention may in
rotating shaft 9_1. Member 95 is provided with
clude Vmore lthan two frames, as, for'example,
follower rollers 93,»99 engaging disc S6 diametri 55 three or four. `When more than two frames are
cally. With this arrangement, rotation -of shaft
employed, the mechanism for raising and lower
91 operates through the parts described to rock
ing the individual frames is constructed to ma
shafts 89 and 93 and this causes heddle frames
85 and 86 to move up and down in opposite di
rections. At their upper ends, .the heddle frames
are provided with rollers |00 movable in guides
IUI. The shafts 89, S3 lie one above the other with
their centers in a vertical plane through the fell
of the fabric and the guides IUI are arcuate with
their arcs described about -a center in the ver
tical plane mentioned. The heddle frames, ac
cordingly, have such a movement that there is
no repeated drawing of the warp threads through
the heddle eyes of those frames during weaving.
In the movement of the heddles by the mecha
nism shown in Fig. 3, the shafts 89, , 93 rock
through relatively short arcs, so that only a few
teeth of gears 9|, 92 function. In order that the
wear on the gear teeth may be distributed, the
shafts are formed with a plurality of splines |02
nipulate them :'n the desired sequence, and, for
that purpose, _the construction shown in Fig. 7
is appropriate. -Such mechanism includes a cam,
such as cams |22, |23, for each frame and the
cams have tracks which impart the desired move
~
ment to the frames actuated thereby. Thus, in
a multiple harness loom, some harnesses do not
change position for each pick but may remain in
the same part of the shed for two picks. The
cams are, accordingly, formed to give their frames
the proper cycle of movements required for the
weaving andthe form of the cams necessary for
70 the purpose is well known to those familiar with
such matters.
~
In all of the constructions illustrated, the hed
dle frames receive a movement compounded of
an edgewise and a broadside on motion, so that
each eye in each frame describes an arc about
2,408,645
7
upper ends of the frames having guldeways which
the fell of the fabric as its frame moves to upper
have the form of arcs of circles about a center in
or lower position. As the thread controllediby
a vertical plane through the fell of the fabric,
that eye describes an arc about the fell in the
and «elements on the frames entering the guide
formation of a shed, it follows that in shedding,
there is no drawing of the warp threads back and 5 ways, said guides cooperating with the arms to
cause the frames to have a broadside movement
forth through the eyes a large number of times,
as the frames are moved up and down by the
as in the present looms in which the heddles re
arms.
ciprocate in a plane. In the new loom, abrasion
i3. In a loom for weaving fabric, the combina
of the warp threads resulting from this move
ment of the threads back and forth through the 10 tion of a pair of heddle'frames provided with
eyes through which warp threads pass, the frames
heddle eyes is prevented and, as a result, there
being reciprocable in opposite directionsfrom a
is less breakage of warp threads in the new loom.
level position, pivoted arms connected at their
The loom can, accordingly, be operated for great
free ends to the lower ends of the frames. the
er periods of time without interruption than pres
ent looms and the fabric produced has less im- 15 pivots of the armsY lying in a plane through the
perfectíons resulting from broken warp ends than
fell of the fabric and at right angles to the warp
threads when the frames are level, a rock shaft,
that made on prior looms.
means including an eccentric and pitman for ac
In the appended claims, I have referred to a
tuating the rock shaft, a pair of arms mounted
loom co aining a pair of heddle frames, but do
not inte d to be understood as meaning that only 20 to swing in vertical planes about a center lying
in a vertical plane through the fell of the fabric,
two fr mes are used, since the principles of the
the arms being connected at their ends to the
ion can be advantageously employed in
lower ends of the frames and being connected
loo `s containing two or more frames, as de
to the rock shaft to be oscillated thereby toraise
sired.
I claim:
~25 and lower the frames, guides at the upper ends
of the frame having guideways of the form of
1. In a loom for weaving fabric, the combina
arcs of circles about a center in a vertical plane
tion of a pair of heddle frames provided with
through the fell of the fabric, and elements on
eyes through which warp threads pass, the frames
the frames entering vthe guideways, said guides
being reciprocable in opposite directions from a
level position, pivoted arms connected at their 30 cooperating with the arms to cause the frames to
have a broadside movement as the frames are
free ends to the lower ends of the frames, the
moved up and down by the arms.
pivots of the arms lying in a plane through the
4. In a loom for weaving fabric, the combina
fell of the fabric and at right angles to the Warp
tion of a pair of heddle frames provided with
threads when the frames are level, means for os
cillating the arms in opposite directions about 35 eyes through which warp threads pass, the frames
being reciprocable in opposite directions from a
their pivots to reciprocate the frames, guides at
level position, arms connected at their free ends
the upper ends of the frames having guideways
to the lower ends of the frames, a pair of rock
of the form of arcs of circles about a center in
shafts on which the arms are rigidly mounted,
said plane, and elements on the frames entering
the guideways, said guides cooperating with the 40 the axes of the shafts lying in a plane through
the fell of the fabric and at right angles to the
arms to cause the frames to have a broadside
movement as the frames are moved up and down
warp threads when the frames are level, gears
by the arms.
attached to the rock shafts and meshing lwith
one another, means for rocking the rock shafts
‘
2. In a loom -for weaving fabric, the combina
tion of a pair of heddle frames provided with 45 to cause the arms to oscillate in opposite direc
tions about the axes of the rock shafts to recip
eyes through which warp threads pass, the frames
rocate the frames, guides at the upper ends of
being reciprocable in opposite directions from a
the frames having guideways of the form of arcs
level position, pivoted arms connected at their
of circles about centers in said plane, and ele--A
free ends to the frames adjacent the lower ends
of the frames, the pivots of the arms lying in a 50 ments on the upper ends of the frames entering
the guideways, the guides cooperating with the
plane through the fell of the fabric and at right
arms to cause the frames to have a broadside
angles to the warp threads when the frames are
level, means including a rock shaft for oscillate
ing the arms in opposite directions about their
pivots to reciprocate the frames, guides at the 55
movement as the frames are moved up and down
by the arms.
JOHN O. HUNT.
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