Патент USA US2408646код для вставки
Oct» 1A, 1946. ` . . Y lr.- o. HUNT ` ~ ' y *'„Loom Filed June 24, 1944 2,408,545 ' ’ s sheets-sheet 1 Oct. I, 1946. - .I J. o.- HUNT 2,408,545, LOOM Filed Jane 24, 1944 /Ú/ 5 Sheets-$169112. /0 \ »_ / \_ _ / n /Ú/ ' INVENIÍOR. @MMM/iwf ‘ ÁÍTORNEYS - ' 0a. v1, 1946.> J. Q_ HUNT 2,408,645 Loom Filed June 24, 1944 l y 60 ó 4 7 I . . .4A . y 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 4/ 42 ".4 à, H. ; 4.3 y@ B ¿INV îroR. ATToRNEYí 2,498,645 Patented Oct. 1, 1946 UNITED'STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,408,645 . LOOM John 0. Hunt, Greenville, S. C., assigfnor to Mountain City Foundry and Machine Co., Greenville, S. C., a corporation of South Caro lina Application Junel 24, 1944, Serial No. 541,893’ 4 Claims. (Cl. 139-55) . 1 , This invention relates to looms for weaving fabrics and of the type in which the warp threads arer manipulated in groups by heddle frames to form the shed through which the shuttle is passed in the weaving operation. More particularly, the invention is concerned with a loom equipped with a novel motion for actuating the heddles in such manner that they perform their functions With out injuring the warp threads by wear or abra sive action. A loom equipped with the new mo 10 tion can, accordingly, be operated with less inter ruptions arising' from breakage of Warp threads, has a greater output, and produces material of better quality than looms of present construction. A simple heddle loom of present conventional form includes two heddle frames which lie in par allel vertical planes and> are reciprocated in those planes by suitable mechanism. Each frame is 2 during the formation 0f the sheds for about 29 picks. As each thread must lie first in the top of a shed and then in the bottom for each cycle of 2 picks, it follows that each point on the warp thread will pass both back and forth through its eye two times for each cycle, or each point will move through its eye in one direction or the other a total of the order of 2><29`=58 times before the point ywill have finally passed beyond the eye to Ward the fell. The large number of movements of the warp threads through their heddle eyes during Weav ing, as above described, causes abrasion and wear on the threads and leads to breakage of the threads at thin spots. When such a breakage occurs, the loom stops automatically and the weaver must find and tie the ends of the broken thread before the loom can be started. As a re sult, looms of present construction lose produc provided with a set of vertical wires having eyes through which a group of warp threads pass and, 20 tion because ofthe wear and abrasion of the warp threads and the tying of broken warp as one heddle is raised, the other is lowered, so threads results in imperfections in the fabric. that the threads of one group form the top of The present invention is directed t0 the >pro the shed and the threads of the other group form vision-of a novel heddle loom, in which'abrasion the bottom. In their movements, the threads swing about the fell of the goods as an axis. 25 of the warp threads as a result of their movement back and forth through the heddle eyes during Since the frames move in vertical planes While the formation of the shed, is avoided and break the threads swing about the fell, it follows- that a point on a thread which lies in contact with a heddle eye when the frames are level'will lie for ing of the threads produced by such abrasion is eliminated. In they new loom, these results are ob ward of the eye toward theßfell when the frames v30 tained by imparting to the heddle frames a com pound movement in which the frames moveV both are in their extreme upper and lower positions. edgewise and broadside on in forming the shed. In order that that point may reach such a po The movement of the frames is such that their sition, the thread must move through its eye and eyes describe arcs about the fell 0f the fabric an advance of %” of that point toward the fell as a center as the frames move from their level during the formation of the shed is not unusual. to their extreme positions. Accordingly, as the This means that, in the formation of a shed, the frames move to form a shed, the point on each point on each warp thread, which lies, for exam warp thread which was in contact with a heddle ple, 3/8" ‘to the rear of ther heddle eye for that eyev when the frames werelevel, remains in. con thread, when the frames are level, will advance to lie in contact> with the eye in the extreme po# 40 tact with that eye throughout the movement of sition of its frame and every point on each thread the frames to their extreme positions and during to the rear of the eye within a length of `%" their return. The result is that there is no will pass through that eye. When the frames movement of the warp threads back and forth move back to level position, the warp threads are through theeyes during shedding `and thus the drawn backward through the eyes, butthe point 45 threads do not rub on the surfaces of the eyes on each thread that previously lay in contact with the eye in the level position of the frames will noW lie forward of the eye by the width 0f one pick. In a fabric having 80 picks to the inch, and become worn through. ~ ‘ The mechanism by which «the heddlek frames are moved as described may take various forms whichv is a common construction, %"' of warp 50 and may include, for example, lever arms con nected to onev end of each frame and guides thread represents about 30 picks, so that before which control the movement of the other end ofv a point on a warp thread lying %” to therear the frame. In another construction, both ends of a heddle eye, when the frames are level, will of each frame are guided to have the desired have finally passedon through the eye, that point will have moved back and forth kthrough the eye 55 movement and the frames are actuated by con 2,408,645 ~3 4 necting rods which may be driven by a crank ment screws 43 which enter the ends of the re spective side frame members and may be ad shaft or in any other suitable way. For a better understanding of the invention, justed to vary the spacing of the cross-bars. The top cross-bar 31 is provided with a pair of pins 4I which extend through openings in the top por drawings, in which tions 42 of hooks 43, such portions overlying the Fig. 1 is a View in side elevation through a cross-bar. The hooks can be raised relative to loom equipped with the new heddle motion, cer the cross-bar, as indicated in Fig. 10, but can tain parts being broken away and others omit not be removed therefrom without removal of the ted; Fig. 2 is a fragmentary plan View of a part of 10 pins. reference may be made to the accompanying the loom; Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view through a part of the loom showing a modified drive for the heddle frames; Fig. 4 is an elevational view of a detail of Fig. 3; 15 Hooks 43 support an upper cross-bar 44 form ing part of a sub-frame, which includes side mem bers 45, the upper ends of which overlie cross bar 44 while the lower ends support a lower cross bar 45. An upper horizontal member ¿l1 is sup ported in the sub-frame by means of hooks 48 engaging the cross-bar 44 and also by means of modified drive for the frames; Fig. 6 is a view in elevation of a crank shaft wires 49 formed with loops 50 which may be employed in connection with the parts shown in snapped through openings in the side members 45. Fig. 5; 2.0 A lower horizontal member 5|, which is similar Fig. ’7 is a view similar to Fig. 5 of another to member 41, is mounted on the side members 45 by wires 52 of the same general construction as modified drive for the frames; ` Fig. 8 is a sectional view on the line 8-8 vof wires 49 and having loops which pass through Fig. 1; openings in the side members 45. The lower Figs. 9 and 10 are sectional views on the lines 25 horizontal member 5I is also held in place by 9-9 and | 0---|0, respectively, of Fig. 8; hooks 53 engaging the member and the cross-bar Fig. 11 is an enlarged sectional View showing 46. A plurality of thin metal strips 54 are parts of a heddle frame; and threaded on the upper and lower horizontal mem Fig. 12 is a sectional view on the line |2-I2 bers 41, 5I and the middle portion of each strip of Fig. 8. 30 is twisted out of its plane and is formed with a In the drawings, the loom illustrated includes heddle eye 55. the usual sidev frame members I8 on which is To keep the frame structure taut, the lower mounted the Warp beam I | from which the warp cross-bar 46 of the sub-frame is drawn down threads l2 are let off by appropriate means to wardly toward cross-bar 38 by hooks 56 which pass over a Whip roll I 3. The whip roll is mounted 35 overlie the top of bar 46 and are connected by on a shaft I4 supported in arms I5a. attached to springs 51 to the top of cross-bar 38. Each hook shafts I5 which are supported in arms I6 attached is held against sidewise movement by a tubular to a shaft I1. Shaft I1 is mounted in brackets I8 member 58, which encloses its spring 51' and is and the angular position of the shaft is deter cut away to permit the member to straddle the mined by arms |9 forming part of the usual let 40 cross-bar 38. At its upper end, the member 58 oif mechanism. Each bracket I8 is >secured in is provided with a slot 59 in which the lower end face to face contact with an upward projection of a hook 56 is received. 28 from one of the,` side frame members I0 and Each heddle frame is provided at its upper end each bracket is formed along its edges with flanges with rollers 60 on studs projecting outwardly 2| which overlie the edges of its projection 28. i from the vertical side members 36. These rollers Each bracket is vertically adjustable on its pro are movable in curved guides 6I mounted on jection by means of a screw 22 passing through brackets 62 which are attached to upward pro the bracket and bearing on top of the projection. jections 63 from the loom side frames. Each The bracket is held in adjusted position by a bolt bracket is provided with lateral flanges 64 be 23, which passes through a slo-t 24 through the 50 tween Which the projection 63 is received and projection and an opening through the bracket, the bracket is adjustably attached to the projec and the engagement of the ñang'es 2| with the tion by a bolt 65 passing through a slot 56 in the sides of projection 28 prevents the bracket from projection and an opening through the bracket. twisting out of position. The whip roll is swung In the construction shown in Fig. 1, the lower up and down by arms 25 attached to shafts I5 and ends of the side frame members 36 0f heddle frame actuated by connecting rods 26 eccentrically at '29 are attached to the ends of arms 61 pivotally tached to a rotating shaft 21 mounted in bear mounted on a fixed shaft 68 supported in brackets ings on side frames |0. 69 attached to the front girt 10 of the loom. The The warp threads pass forward from the whip lower ends of the side frame members 36 of heddle roll through a detector mechanism, generally des~ 60 frame 30 are similarly attached to the ends of Fig. 5 is a fragmentary elevational view of a ignated 28, which is effective t0 stop the loom Whenever a warp thread breaks. Beyond the de tector mechanism, the threads pass through heddle frames, of which two designated 29, 30 arms 1I ~ also pivotally mounted on shaft 68. Each arm 61 is connected by a link 12 to one end of an arm 13 fast on a rock-shaft 14 mounted in bearings attached to the loom side frames and are shown, and then through a reed 3| on a lay 65 each arm 1| is connected by a link 15 to the other 32, which beats up the inserted picks. The fell end of arm 13. The rock shaft is provided with of the fabric is indicated at 33 and the fabric a crank 16, to which is secured a member 11 con passes therefrom around a sand roll 34 and is nected by a screw 18 to a member 19. Member taken up on a roll 35 in the usual way. 19 is pivotally attached by a pin 80 adjustably Each heddle frame (Fig. 8) comprises vertical 70 mounted in a slot 8| in a crank arm 82 projecting side frame members 36 connected by an upper from a hub 83 fast on shaft 84. Screw 18 permits cross-bar 31 and a lower cross-bar 38. The lower adjustment of the spacing between members 11 cross-bar 38 is secured rigidly to the side frame members and the upper cross-bar is mounted in and 19 and resultant adjustment in the initial position of crank 16 and rock shaft 14. These brackets 39, through which are threaded adjust adjustments make it possible to bring the heddle ` 2,408,645 ' l5 6 -frames to level position and to vary kthe length .and each gear >is secured to its l’shaft by 'a key >|03 .receivable in any of the several splines. With ’this arrangement, the angular positions of the of their movements from level position. ' As previously described, the guides el for the a center .A which lies in a vertical plane through ' .gears on their shafts may -’be readily changed, so that all the gear .teeth can be utilized »at »differ the fell 33 ofthe fabric and the `center of shaft kentltímes ,in the operation of the gears. G3 also lies in that plane.` Accordingly, as 'arms 67 and 'H swing about shaft 68, their ends describe »arcs of circles about a center lying in the vertical frames by >means of ‘arms swinging about an'axis rollers 60 are formed on the aros of circles about plane y’through the fell. ' f Instead of moving the lower ends of the heddle fl() In the operation of the loom, the he'ddle‘frame's are reciprocated by the swinging of arms 61, 1I about Shaft 68, one frame being raised jas the other is lowered from llevel position. In such frame 'may be guided and other means provided for 'moving the frames. This constructionv is il lustrated in Fig. 5, in which the lowerends of movements of the frames, the lowerend of each i 'frame describes ‘an arc about the axis of shaft 68, which lies in the vertical plane through the fell vof the’ fabric-and, at the same time, the up per ends of the .frames are guided by guides 6I in a vertical plane through the fell and‘guiding the upper ends of the heddles, both ends of each frames |04, |05 are provided with rollers IDS; |61 movable in arcuate guides |03, |99, the arcs of the guides being described >about a center lying in a vertical plane through the fell `of the goods. `At their upper ends,v the frames are equipped with similar rollers moving in' similar guides. through similar arcs about ‘an axis in that plane. 20 The movement of the frames is effected by a suit The `frames thus have a- movement compounded ably mounted rotary crank shaft l Ill having a 'of an edgewise and .a broad‘side on motion and pair of oppositely disposed cranks Hi, ||2 near the eyes 'of each frame describe arcs about the each end at opposite sides of the loom. ’ The crank fell as an axis. Accordingly, a point on a warp shaft may be driven from a drive shaft || 3 by a thread which is in .contact with a heddle eye 25 chain H4 trained around sprockets on the two when the heddle frame is in level position re shafts. The cranks are connected to the lower mains in »contact with the eye as the heddle is ends of the respective frames by connecting rods moved to its upper or lower position. There is, H5, H6. 'With this arrangement, the rotation of therefore, no movement of the thread through the crank shaft causes the heddle frames to move the eye until after the insertion of `a pick, when 30 up and down in opposite directions and each the 'point on the thread previously in contact framev is guided in its ymovement so that as it with .the eye will pass beyond the eye a distance moves toward the limit of its travel away from corresponding tothe width of a'pick. According level position, the `frame is also moved toward ly, the new loom, the compound movement im the fell of the goods. The arcs of the guides are parted to the heddle frames eliminates the re 35 of such form that the Warp threads are not drawn through the heddle eyes during shedding peated back and forth movements of the Warp threads through the heddle eyes and breakage of and abrasion of the threads is avoided. the .threads resulting from abrasion and wear In Fig. 7, there is illustrated another modified are prevented. construction in which the lower ends of .the -In the construction illustrated 'in Fig. l, the 40 heddle frames ll'l, IIS are connected, respec lower ends of the frames are connected to the tively, to the ends of arms H9, |20 on a station ends of arms 61, Il, which are independently ac ary shaft I2! mounted'with its center in a ver tuated by links connected'to the ends of the tical plane through the fell of the goods. The lever 13 on rock 'shaft 14. A modification of this respective arms are moved up and down by cams construction is illustrated in Fig. 3, in which the 45 |22, |23 and each arm has a cam follower roller lower ends of the heddle frames »85, 86 are con entering a channel in its cam. The stud |24 of nected, respectively, to arms 81, 88. Arms 81 each roller'is mounted in a slot |25 in. its arm, are fast 'on the 'shaft 33 mounted in bearings on so that the position of the rollers relative to their brackets 90 and ‘provided with a gear 9| mesh cams can be varied to provide the initial adjust ing with ‘a gear 92 on shaft 93 'on which yarms 88 50 ment of the frames in level position. are fast. Shaft 89 is provided with cranks 9e, The loom illustrated in Fig. l is sho-wn as hav each of which is attached to a "member 95 which ing two heddle frames but it is to be understood is actuated by an eccentric disc 96 mounted `on a that the Yheddle motion of the invention may in rotating shaft 9_1. Member 95 is provided with clude Vmore lthan two frames, as, for'example, follower rollers 93,»99 engaging disc S6 diametri 55 three or four. `When more than two frames are cally. With this arrangement, rotation -of shaft employed, the mechanism for raising and lower 91 operates through the parts described to rock ing the individual frames is constructed to ma shafts 89 and 93 and this causes heddle frames 85 and 86 to move up and down in opposite di rections. At their upper ends, .the heddle frames are provided with rollers |00 movable in guides IUI. The shafts 89, S3 lie one above the other with their centers in a vertical plane through the fell of the fabric and the guides IUI are arcuate with their arcs described about -a center in the ver tical plane mentioned. The heddle frames, ac cordingly, have such a movement that there is no repeated drawing of the warp threads through the heddle eyes of those frames during weaving. In the movement of the heddles by the mecha nism shown in Fig. 3, the shafts 89, , 93 rock through relatively short arcs, so that only a few teeth of gears 9|, 92 function. In order that the wear on the gear teeth may be distributed, the shafts are formed with a plurality of splines |02 nipulate them :'n the desired sequence, and, for that purpose, _the construction shown in Fig. 7 is appropriate. -Such mechanism includes a cam, such as cams |22, |23, for each frame and the cams have tracks which impart the desired move ~ ment to the frames actuated thereby. Thus, in a multiple harness loom, some harnesses do not change position for each pick but may remain in the same part of the shed for two picks. The cams are, accordingly, formed to give their frames the proper cycle of movements required for the weaving andthe form of the cams necessary for 70 the purpose is well known to those familiar with such matters. ~ In all of the constructions illustrated, the hed dle frames receive a movement compounded of an edgewise and a broadside on motion, so that each eye in each frame describes an arc about 2,408,645 7 upper ends of the frames having guldeways which the fell of the fabric as its frame moves to upper have the form of arcs of circles about a center in or lower position. As the thread controllediby a vertical plane through the fell of the fabric, that eye describes an arc about the fell in the and «elements on the frames entering the guide formation of a shed, it follows that in shedding, there is no drawing of the warp threads back and 5 ways, said guides cooperating with the arms to cause the frames to have a broadside movement forth through the eyes a large number of times, as the frames are moved up and down by the as in the present looms in which the heddles re arms. ciprocate in a plane. In the new loom, abrasion i3. In a loom for weaving fabric, the combina of the warp threads resulting from this move ment of the threads back and forth through the 10 tion of a pair of heddle'frames provided with eyes through which warp threads pass, the frames heddle eyes is prevented and, as a result, there being reciprocable in opposite directionsfrom a is less breakage of warp threads in the new loom. level position, pivoted arms connected at their The loom can, accordingly, be operated for great free ends to the lower ends of the frames. the er periods of time without interruption than pres ent looms and the fabric produced has less im- 15 pivots of the armsY lying in a plane through the perfectíons resulting from broken warp ends than fell of the fabric and at right angles to the warp threads when the frames are level, a rock shaft, that made on prior looms. means including an eccentric and pitman for ac In the appended claims, I have referred to a tuating the rock shaft, a pair of arms mounted loom co aining a pair of heddle frames, but do not inte d to be understood as meaning that only 20 to swing in vertical planes about a center lying in a vertical plane through the fell of the fabric, two fr mes are used, since the principles of the the arms being connected at their ends to the ion can be advantageously employed in lower ends of the frames and being connected loo `s containing two or more frames, as de to the rock shaft to be oscillated thereby toraise sired. I claim: ~25 and lower the frames, guides at the upper ends of the frame having guideways of the form of 1. In a loom for weaving fabric, the combina arcs of circles about a center in a vertical plane tion of a pair of heddle frames provided with through the fell of the fabric, and elements on eyes through which warp threads pass, the frames the frames entering vthe guideways, said guides being reciprocable in opposite directions from a level position, pivoted arms connected at their 30 cooperating with the arms to cause the frames to have a broadside movement as the frames are free ends to the lower ends of the frames, the moved up and down by the arms. pivots of the arms lying in a plane through the 4. In a loom for weaving fabric, the combina fell of the fabric and at right angles to the Warp tion of a pair of heddle frames provided with threads when the frames are level, means for os cillating the arms in opposite directions about 35 eyes through which warp threads pass, the frames being reciprocable in opposite directions from a their pivots to reciprocate the frames, guides at level position, arms connected at their free ends the upper ends of the frames having guideways to the lower ends of the frames, a pair of rock of the form of arcs of circles about a center in shafts on which the arms are rigidly mounted, said plane, and elements on the frames entering the guideways, said guides cooperating with the 40 the axes of the shafts lying in a plane through the fell of the fabric and at right angles to the arms to cause the frames to have a broadside movement as the frames are moved up and down warp threads when the frames are level, gears by the arms. attached to the rock shafts and meshing lwith one another, means for rocking the rock shafts ‘ 2. In a loom -for weaving fabric, the combina tion of a pair of heddle frames provided with 45 to cause the arms to oscillate in opposite direc tions about the axes of the rock shafts to recip eyes through which warp threads pass, the frames rocate the frames, guides at the upper ends of being reciprocable in opposite directions from a the frames having guideways of the form of arcs level position, pivoted arms connected at their of circles about centers in said plane, and ele--A free ends to the frames adjacent the lower ends of the frames, the pivots of the arms lying in a 50 ments on the upper ends of the frames entering the guideways, the guides cooperating with the plane through the fell of the fabric and at right arms to cause the frames to have a broadside angles to the warp threads when the frames are level, means including a rock shaft for oscillate ing the arms in opposite directions about their pivots to reciprocate the frames, guides at the 55 movement as the frames are moved up and down by the arms. JOHN O. HUNT.