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Патент USA US2408650

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(h1-1,1946-
‘
‘
A.R.JACKSON
'
2#“NL649
AIRCRAFT HAVING MOVING AIRFOIL OR WING ,
Filed may 19, 1944
s Sheets-Sheet 1
‘
Oct- 1, 1946-
A. R. JACKSON ' '
2,408,649
AIRCRAFT HAVING MOVING-AIRFOIL OR WING
Filed May 19, 1,944
_
'
v.5 Sheets-Sheet 2
,
oct- 1, 1946I
A. R. JACKSON
2,408,649
_
. AIRCRAFT HAViNG MOVING AIRFOIL ‘OR WING
Filed‘ May 19, 1944
-
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
Oct. 1‘, 1946.
A. R. JACKSON
‘ 2,408,649
AIRCRAFT HAVING MOVING AIRFOIL OR _WING
Filved May 19, 1944 '
a
5 Sheets-Sheet 4 '
Oct. _1, 1946. "
‘R. JACKSON
'
'.
'
2,403,649
AIRCRAFT HAVING MOVING AIRFOIL 0R WING
Filed May 19, 1944
.5 Sheets-Sheet 5
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
2,408,649
UNITED " STATES PATENT ' OFFICE
2,408,649‘
‘ AIRCRAFT HAVING MOVING AIRFOIL 0R
WING
Arthur Rex Jackson, Mill Hill, England
Application May 19, 1944, Serial No. 536,364
In Great Britain May 3, 1943
16 Claims.
1
This invention. relates to aircraft and refers
particularly to heavier-than-air aircraft com- ‘
prising power-operated propulsion means for}
propelling the aircraft forwardly and wings for
maintaining the aircraft airborne. The object
of the invention is the provision of an improved
heavier-than-air aircraft of this general type,
(Cl. 244—21)
2
_
,
diagrammatically for the sake of clearness, of a
portion of the said mechanism;
Figure 10 is an elevation showing one set of
wings of the aircraft and a portion of the
fuselage;
Figure 11 is a vertical section of the same;
_ Figure 12 is a somewhat diagrammatic illus
which will have a number of advantages, particu
tration of apparatus for effecting automatic con
larly that of increasing the lift for a given wing
trol of the speed of rotation of the wings of the
area, and also that of obtaining improved con 10
trol, all as will be more particularly set out here
Referring ?rst to Figures 1 to 3, the aircraft
inafter.
~
illustrated therein comprises a fuselage I, four
The invention consists broadly of an aircraft
driving propellers 2 for giving forward propul
comprising power operated propulsion means for
sion,
and six sets, each of four vanes or Wings 3,
propelling the aircraft forwardly, and a plurality 15 for giving
the necessary lift.
of wings for maintaining the aircraft airborne,
As shown, the wings 3 extend transversely out
each of said wings being 'oscillatable about an
wards from the fuselage l in a more-or-less hori
oscillation axis transverse of the aircraft,>which
zontal direction, and the four wings of each set
oscillation axis is itself rotatable about a rotation
are equally spaced, at a} common radius, about
axis transverse of the aircraft, either all ‘of the 20 an axis a to which they are more-or-less parallel.
aircraft.
wings or groups of them being coupled so as to
rotate in unison, and transmission means being
provided for correlating the rotaryand oscilla
7
'
Three sets of the wings are arranged on each side
of the fuselage l at spaced intervals therealong,
the three axes a on the one side being opposite
tory movement of each wing, in such a way that,
to those on the other side.
' '
when the aircraft is propelled by said propulsion 25
The four wings of each set are free to rotate
means, the reaction of the air against the wings,
as a whole about the respective axes a. Also each
serves to effect the rotary and oscillatory move
wing is capable of oscillating about its own 1on
ment of the wings, with said wings, during such
gitudinal axis, and transmission means are pro
movement, being so inclined to their actual paths
of progression in space, that they exercise an up 30 vided whereby, as the wings of each set rotate
about the axis a, the individual wings of said set
ward thrust on the aircraft and serve to keep it
are caused to oscillate about their own longi
airborne.
’
V
tudinal axes, one complete'oscillation being made
In order that the invention may be the more ' to and fro during each complete rotation,
.
clearly understood an aircraft in accordance
, In operation the aircraft is driven forwardly
therewith will now be described, reference being 35.- by
the propellers 2, and the correlation, between
made to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
any rotary movement of the sets of wings 3
.Figure 1 is a side elevation'of said aircraft;
about the axes a and the consequent oscillating
Figure 2 is a plan of the same;
“
Figure 3 is an end elevation of the same;
Figure 4 is a diagram showing the path of pro
gression of a wing of the aircraft;
Figure 5 is a similar diagram showing said path
of progression under different conditions of ad
J'ustment;
.
*
Figure 6 is a similar diagram showing .said 45
path of progression under still different condi
tions of adjustment;
.
_
'
,
Figure 7 is a diagram illustrating the'angles
of the wings of the aircraft at different posi
tions;
'
Figure 8v is an elevation shown somewhat
diagrammatically for the sake of “clearness of the ‘
mechanism by which thewmotion of vthe wings of
the aircraft is determined;
~
movementiof the individual wings about'their
own axes, is such that‘ the air resistance causes
the several sets of wings to rotate and the indi
vidual wings therefore to oscillate, the wings at
the same time imparting the necessary lift to
the aircraft. The forward propulsion may of
course be produced by any other agency, as for
instance jet propulsion.
'
'
'
In order to explain this function it is neces
sary to consider the path traversed by a body
which is movingat a constant radius around a
given axis, while, at the same time, the said axis
is moving in a straight linetransversely to itself.
Thus referring to Figure 4 thecurve 0 shows the
path traversed by abody moving in a clockwise
direction, at a speed of one unit per second, at
a constant radius r- around an axis. which is pro
Figure 9 is a section, also shown somewhat 55 gressing fromright to left at a speed of 1% units
2,408,649
4
a to the vforward speed of the aircraft depends‘
per second. The straight line X-Y represents
upon the amplitude of oscillation of said wings.
It will be appreciated that the actual cause of
the path in which the axis moves and the points
on the curve show the successive positions of the
body from one 9 o’clock position to the next.
This ?gure is deemed clear and requires no fur
the rotation of the sets of wings about the axes
ther description.
the airstream- in such a way as to create a couple
a, whenythe aircraft is moved forwardly, is that
the wings are always presented angularly to
In like manner, in Figure 5, the curve cl shows
of forces about the axis (1. Thus the air stream
impinging on each wing at 9 o’clock will force
wise direction, at a speed of one unit per sec
10 it upwards and the air stream impinging on each
0nd, at a constant radius r around an axis which
wing at 3 o’clock will force it downwards, and
is progressing from right to left along the line I the wings will thus be set into rotation. The
X—-Y at a speed of two units per second.
velocity of rotation will continue to increase
Similarly in Figure 6, the curve 02 shows the" until a condition is reached where the undulating
the path traversed by a point moving in a clock
path traversed by a point moving in av clockwise
curvedpath of the wings closely approximates
direction, at a speed of one unit per second, at 15 to-the theoretical curves of progression conse
a constant radius 7‘, around an axis which is pro-;
quent on any predetermined ratio between for
grossing from right to left along the line X--Y
ward velocity and circumferential velocity and
at a speed of three units per second.
which in turn is governed by the amplitude of
These curves 0, cl and 02 show that the path
20 oscillation imparted to the wings. When the
in space which the body actually follows is a
oscillations are in phase with the curve of
wave-like path, the upper portions of the waves
progression the rotational speed will remain in
above the line X-—Y being relatively short and
?xed relationship with the forward speed of the
steep and the lower portions mlow the line X-Y
aircraft the wings then trailing in the directions
being relatively long and flat, Also the curves
described by the curves of progression.
show that the waves become longer and‘ ?atter 25
It will be seen that, as so far described, as
as the linear speed of the axis increases relative
the wings would be substantially trailing. in their
to the circumferential speed of the body about
path of movement they would have no lifting
the axis.
effect upon the aircraft. If, however, the ar
t will be seen that,
all these cases, the body
rangement is such that the wings, while still, as
30
is moving horizontally forwards at 12 o’clock and
before, being at their limits of oscillation at 3
6 o’clock, and that, at 9 o’clock, it is moving
o’clock and 9 o’clock, have, at 12 o’clock and
at a maximum angle upwardly whereas at 3
6 o’clock a definiteangle of incidence to the
o’clocl: it is moving at the same angle down
horizontal as indicated in dotted lines in Figure
wardly. This maximum angle becomes less as
7, then it is found that the, ratio of the circum
35
the linear speed of the axis increases relative
ferential speed of the sets of wings to the for
to the circumferential speed of the body.
ward speed of the aricraft, stil1 depends solely
Considering now the wings 3 as described with
reference to Figures 1 to 3, if the correlation
of the oscillatory movement of the individual
wings about their own axes and the rotary move
ment of the sets of wings about the axes a is
on the amplitude of oscillation, according to the
same law as before, and at the same time the
40 wings have a lifting effect on the aircraft. What
actually happens is that the wings stil1 move in
the same curve of progression as before accord
such that the wing sections are horizontal at 12
ingto the amplitude of oscillation, but, instead
o’cl-ocl; and 6 o’clock, whereas at 9 o’clock and
of trailing in said curve, they always present
3 o’clock the angles of said wing sections con
-1 approximately the same angle. of incidence to
form to the angles of the curve 0 at 9_ o’clock
said curve, and therefore exercise a continuous
and. 3 o’clock, as indicated by 3' in Figure '7,
lifting effort. For example, the dotted lines in
then if the aircraft were propelled forwardly‘,
Figure '7 show wing angles at 12 o’clock, 3 o’clock,
each wing would tend to trail, as indicated at
6 o’clock and 9 o’clock, such that the total am
3, in the path of the curve 0, or, in other words,
plitude of oscillation, between the limits at 9
the sets of wings would rotate, about the axes 50 o’clock and 3 o’clock, is the same as that re
a at a circmnferential speed which is 2/5 of the
quired by the curve 02, although the actual
forward speed of the aircraft. In like manner,
angles differ, by the said angle of incidence,
if the arrangement is such that the wing sections
from the angles indicated by said curve 02.
are horizontal at 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock, where- '
Therefore, with wing angles as indicated by the
as at 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock their angles con
dotted lines of Figure '7, when the aircraft is pro
form to the angles of the curve 0! at 9 o’clock
pelled forwardly, the sets of wings will move
and 3 o’clock, as indicated by 32 of Figure '7,
around the axes a at a circumferential speed of
then, if the aircraft were to be propelled for
1/3 of the‘forward speed, and, at the same time,
wardly, each wing would tend to trail,‘ as indi
each
wing will exert a continuous lifting effort
cated at 3, on the path cl, and the sets of wings 60 and the aircraft will become airborne. The re
would rotate about the axes a at a circumferential
lationship of a wing to the curve of progression
speed which is 1/2 of the forward speed of the
under these conditions is indicated in dotted
aircraft. Similarly if the arrangement is such
lines at 3 in Figure. 6. If, while keeping the
that the wing sections are horizontal at 12 o’clock
wing angles to the horizontal the same at 12
65
and 6 o’clock, whereas at 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock
o’clock and 6 o’clock (i. e. vthe angle of inci
their angles conform to the angles'of the curve
03 at 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock, as indicated by
33 of Figure '7, then, if the aircraft were to be
dence) , the‘amplitude of oscillation between the
limits at 3 o’clock and 9 o’clook were increased to
that indicated by the curve cl of Figure 5, the
sets of wings would move around the axes a at
propelled forwardly, each wing would tend ‘to
trail, as indicated in full lines at 3,‘in the path 70 a. circumferential speed of 1/2 the forward
02, and the sets of wings would rotate about the
speed, and again the wings would vmaintain the
axes a. at a circumferential speed which is 1/3
of the forward speed of the aircraft. It will thus
be seen that the ratio of the speed at which
the sets of wings will move around the axes
same angle of incidence to the curve of progres
sion and would exercise a continuous lifting ef
fort; and so on. It wil1 be appreciated that, in
2,408,649
practice, the circumferential speed will be slight
ly less than that indicated by the amplitude of
oscillatiomowing to friction and slip.
In , rder to bring the revolving‘ wings’into
exact phase with the curves of progression pro
7 vision can be made to boost'up the-speed of revo
lution'by applying power. The application of
such power is however quite incidental'to the
practical. working of the wings and'is simply'in
troduced as‘ a‘ means for added efficiency, par;
ticularly when the machine is taking off from the
ground.
7
.
‘
‘
I
e
‘
-As will appear ‘hereinafter means are provided
whereby the amplitude of oscillation between the
'
.
6
of incidence are'both set at a maximum. When
the aircraft is airborne the amplitude of oscilla
tion is reducedand the angle of incidence may
also be reduced. As the amplitude of oscillation
is-reduce‘d', the circumferential'speed at which
thewings 3 move around the axis a is reduced
relative to the forward speed, and the actual path
of movement of'the wings is ?attened. More
particularlyyat take oif speeds the circumfer
ential velocity-of the wings may be of the order
of 40' feet’ per second with an aircraft speed of
60 feet per second." : At high speeds the circume
ferential velocity ‘might be 10 feet per second
against an aircraft speed of 400 feet per second;
limits at 3 o’clock and'9' o’clock can be varied, to 15 Under this latter condition the actual path fol
thereby vary the ratio of the circumferential
lowed by each wing'would ?atten out to some
speed of movement of the Wings around the axes
thing approximating to a straight line and the
d to the'forward speed of movement of the air
wings ‘would function in a, manner very similar
craft; and means are also provided whereby the
to ordinaryrigid wings. In fact by reducing the
angle of incidence of the wings can be varied to 20 amplitude of oscillation tozero, thewings could
vary the lifting effort. ~ I
I
be brought :completely to circumferential rest
'As heretofore stated, it is one of the objects of
and thus become, in effect, ?xed wings.
'
the present inventionto reduce the forward ve
It will thus be appreciated that, unlike other
locity of ‘the aircraft required, in relation to the
rotating wing conceptions, helicopters, auto
total wing area, to render said aircraft airborne. 25 gyros and the like, the ‘essential characteristic
The lift o'f-a wing varies as the square of its ve
ofstable ?ight is preserved at all speeds inas
locity through the air. From an examination of
much as the wings are always moving through
any of the curves 0, c1, c2 of Figures 4 to 6, it
the air in the direction of ?ight, and thus there
will be seen that the path of progression of a
is‘no arti?cial'limit to forward velocities. '
wing 3_in accordance with the present invention 30 ‘Another advantage of ‘the invention is that it
is‘ considerably longer than the straight path
provides a large number of lifting surfaces in
along which the aircraft moves. Therefore the
stead
of the lift being concentrated, as with con
average air speed velocity of a wing in accordance
ventional monoplan'e design. Multirigid wing air‘
with this invention, must be greater than the
craft have been proposed but have proved to be
average air speed velocity of a wing'which is 35 acre-dynamically
less‘ef?cient than monoplanes
rigidly attached to the aircraft-in the ordinary
way, and a greater liftper unit area is therefore
to be expected. Moreover, in the unit of timein
dicated by :c' Figure 4 the wing 3 has moved
owing to therfact that the upper planes interrupt
th'e‘air stream passing over the lower planes and
thus reduce the lift. Such interference will be
“considerably reduced in a rotating wing aircraft
through a curve ‘over the dimension or, whereas 40 according to the present invention, since the re
in the second unit of time indicated by 1/’ said
wing has moved, at a‘ very much higher velocity,
lationship between the wings is not ?xed as with
conventional bi-planes or tri-planes. More
through the much longer curve over the dimen
over,‘ the formation ,of lift disturbing eddies,
sion 1/. The average of the squared velocities per
which invariably occur when a rigid wing is
second over these two units of ‘time show that on 45 drawn through the air and which cause stalling
the curved path followed by the wing to be more
at‘ a relatively low angle“ of incidence, will be
than 40% greater than that'on‘the straight path
smoothed away by oscillating action of the wings.
‘followed "by the aircraft. Thus, in the present
The, formation of air eddies is in part due to the
invention; with the wings arranged to operate ac
‘fact that a ?xed'rhythm. of conditions is imposed
cording to the curve 0 of Figure 4, a lift is to be 50 by a rigid'wing, which sets up recurring cycles of
expected of more than 40% greater per unit area
"airfrictional reactions adjacent to the surface of
of wing?at-‘any given forward speed, than is ‘the
the
wing. The continuity of the rhythm is bro
case vwith an: ordinary ‘aeroplane moving at ‘the
sameTfo'rward speed;
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' 7
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" :7 In3this connection it=isto~be noted that the lift
per unit area which will be given with the wings
arranged to operate according to the‘ curve 0 of
ken, i'n'thejpresent invention, by the oscillations
of the wings, with-‘a result that larger angles of
incidence maybe employed without stalling, and
thus'the invention ‘contributes still further to the
lift which may be applied at take off. ' Again the
multiplicity ‘of lifting surfaces available with a
arranged to operate according‘ tothe curve cl of
plurality of rotating assemblies‘as in the present
Figure 5, while the lift given'with the wings ‘ar 60 "ar'r‘angem‘enh'will
afford very ‘wide latitudes in
ranged to operate according to the curve 02 ‘of
aircraft design, whereas the rigid wing principle
Figure 6 will be still less.‘ This is because curve
imposes ?xation, in that the centre of gravity of
0' differs from thestraight line more than curve g the aircraft, including its load, must closely co
'cl and still more than curve c2,~and also because
incide with the one centre of pressure of the wing
the ratio of the part 11/ to the part x'raof thecurve .65 lifting surfaces.
I
is greater in the case of curve c than in the case
It now remains to describe the preferred trans
‘of curve cl and still more than in the‘ case» of
umission means by'which the wings 3 maybe
Figure 4,-is greater than that given with the wings
curvejc2. “Therefore the average of the velocities
caused ‘ to oscillate, in vthe manner" described,
abouttheir individual axes,‘ as the‘sets of wings
-in the case’of curve cl and least» in "theLc'ase of 70 ‘are rotated around the axes a, which transmission
“squaredwill be greatestin' the case of curvec less
curve 03 for any'given forward speed.
,.
' In other words the- greater the-amplitude of
oscillation the greater vthe lift, the angle .ofin
cidence being assumed" the same. .:-Therefore,"at
‘means may be actuated to vary the amplitude of
oscillation between the extremes at 3 o’clock and
9. o'clock land also. to vary the angle of incidence.
; . -'I'hus:.-referring'.:to. Figure '8, ' which illustrates
" taking off, the angle of oscillationtandthe angle 1‘ 75 :somewhat'jdiagrammatically the four- wings 3 ' of
2,408,649
one set, together with the mechanism by which
said wings are caused to oscillate when rotated,
a carrier member ID is provided which rotates
about the axis a of the set. This carrier member
Ill has mounted on it, with their longitudinal
axes b at equal radii, and at equal angular spac
ing, with respect to the aXis a, the four wings 3.
These wings 3 are mounted on said carrier mem
wheels Ila and III) in mesh with the respective
idler wheels I3a and I3b. The reference I4 des
ignates the ?xed part in which the rotating car
rier member Ill rotates. The arrangement is as
follows:
The sun wheel I2a is rigidly and concentrically
mounted on a shaft l5 which is concentric with
the axis a about which the carrier member ID ro
tates. One end of this shaft bears in the ?xed
ber I0 50 as to be capable of rotating about their
part I4 and the other bears in the carrier mem
10
axes b, and each wing is coupled, in respect of
ber III. The idler gear wheel l3a is mounted
rotary movement, to a gear wheel II which is
concentrically on a shaft I6 whose ends bear in
also capable of rotating about the respective axis
the carrier member I0, and the gear wheel Ila
1). Located at the region of the axis a is a sun
is mounted concentrically on a shaft I‘! mounted,
wheel I2 which is ?xed, and is not carried by the
as will hereinafter appear, on said carrier mem
rotating carrier member I0, and this sun wheel 15
ber
Ill.
I2 is in train with each of the gear wheels II
The shaft I5 of the sun wheel [2a is formed
through the medium of idler gear wheels I3 ro
with an eccentric boss I8. The sun wheel l2b is
tatably mounted on the carrier member l0. All
formed with a larger boss I9 which‘ is concentric
the gear wheels have the same number of teeth,
with said sun wheel, and this boss I9 has an
20
and it will be readily apparent that, if the sun
eccentric bore hole, the radius of eccentricity of
wheel I2 were mounted with its centre coincident
with the axis a, and if the gear wheels I3 and II
which is the same as that of the boss I8.
As
shown the boss I8 bears in the bore hole of the
were all concentrically rotatable, each idler wheel
boss
I9.
I3 having its centre in line between the centre of
In like manner the idler Wheel l3a is formed
the sun wheel I2 and the centre of the respective 25 with an eccentric boss 20. The idler wheel I3?) is
wing-operating wheel II, said wing-operating
formed with a larger boss 2| which is concentric
wheels II, upon rotation of the carrier member
with said idler wheel, and said boss 2| has an
Iii about the axis a, would remain with their ro
eccentric bore hole, the radius of eccentricity of
tary orientation unchanged so that the wings 3
which is the same as that of the boss 20. As
30
would make no oscillation about their longitudi
shown the boss 20 bears in the bore hole of the
nal axes b, but would remain at a constant angle.
boss 2|.
In order to cause said wings 3 to oscillate as
In like manner the wheel Ila is formed with
heretofore described, when the carrier member
an eccentric boss 22. The wheel Ilb is formed
Ill is rotated around the axis a, the sun wheel I2
with‘ a larger boss 23 which is concentric with
is mounted so that the axis a is eccentric with
said wheel IIb and said boss 23 has an eccentric
respect to the centre of said sun wheel, and the
bore hole, the radius of eccentricity of which is
axis about which each of the wheels I3 and II is
the same as that of the boss 22. As shown the
rotatable is similarly eccentric with respect to
boss 22 bears in the bore hole of the boss 23.
the centre of said wheel, the degree of eccen
Finally the sun wheel l2 has a boss 24 with a
tricity in all cases being the same. As will be 40 concentric bore hole in it in which bears the boss
seen from Figure 8 the centre of the sun wheel
I9 of the sun wheel I212. The idler wheel l3 has
I2 is vertically above the axis a, and, at 6 o’clock
a boss 25 with a concentric bore hole in it in
and 12 o’clock the centres of the wheels I3 and
which bears the boss 2| of the idler wheel Ho.
II will be similarly vertically above their axes of
The wing-operating wheel II has a boss 26 with
rotation. With this arrangement it will be found
that, as the carrier member ID is rotated about
a concentric bore hole in it in which bears the
boss 23 of the wheel I lb.
The three bosses l8, l9 and 24 have respective
mesh, and the wing-carrying gear wheels II, and
radial
arms 21, 28 and 29 rigidly mounted on
therefore the wings 3, will oscillate between ex
them by which said bosses can be rotatably ad
treme positions at 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock.‘ ,That 50
justed.
v
is to say, they will oscillate as heretofore de
' Figure-9 is a plan illustrating the condition at
scribed. In Figure 8, the coupling of the wings
say 9 o’clock. As heretofore described the wheel
3 to the wing-operating gear wheels I l is, for the
In is permanently concentric with the axis a
sake of simplicity, shown to be such that the wing
and the wheels I3a and. Ila are always concen
sections are horizontal at 12 o’clock and 6. o’clock
tric with their axes of rotation. With the ad
and are upwardlyinclined at 9 o’clock and down,
justment of the levers 21. and 28 as illustrated,
wardly inclined at 3 o’clock. In other, words
the sun wheel I217 is also concentric with the axis
there is no angle of incidence and the wings
a, since the radius of eccentricity of the boss I8
would simply trail on a curve such as 0, cl, 02
is diametrically opposite to the radius of eccen
if the aircraft were moved through the air, with
tricity of the bore hole in the boss I9. But since
out affording any lift. The meansby whichthe
the gear wheels l2a, I3a and Ila are in mesh,
angle of incidence is adjusted will be described
andrth'e gear wheels I2b, l3b and III) are in
hereinafter.
mesh, the radius of eccentricity of the boss 20 is
In order that the eccentricity of the gear wheels
diametrically opposite to the radius of eccentric
II, I2 and I3 shall be capable of being varied, to
ity of the bore in the boss 2|, and the radius of
thereby vary the amplitude of oscillation of the
eccentricity of the boss 22 is diametrically oppo
wings 3, three complete sets of gear wheels are
site to the radius of eccentricity of the bore in
provided, as best shown in Figure 9. This ?gure
the boss 23. These diametrically opposite rela
shows the stationary sun gear wheel I2, one wing
tionships will remain unchanged throughout the
the axis a the gear wheels will all remain in
operating gear wheel II, and the intermediate
corresponding idler gear wheel l3. Said ?gure
also shows two additional stationary sun gear
wheels [2a and I2b, two additional idler gear
vwheelsl3a and I3b in mesh with the respective
sun wheels , I2a and i212, and two additional gear
rotation of the carrier member ID.
- Therefore the wheels I32) and [lb will also be
concentric with their axes'of rotation. Also since
the sun wheel II is always concentric with the
sun'wheel' I’Ib, said sun wheel. II at the adjust
‘2,408,049
.10
lment illustrated will also be concentric with the
~ reference characters‘ are ‘used as in the preced
ing ‘?gures. - It will». be seen that the rotating
1axis a and, since the wheels I3 and II areuale
"ways concentric with the wheels I31) and I Ib-said
wheels I3 and II'are. also, at the adjustment
carrier member I 0 takes the form of ahollow
drum-shapedv casing in which the gear wheels
shown, concentric with their axes of rotation. , .
are all mounted.
Thus, at the adjustment illustrated, all the gear
wheels being concentrically mounted ‘and the sun
This casing I0 has a central
tubular extension 30 which» bears in roller bear
ings in a ?xed outer sleeves!’ which corresponds
vwheels being stationary, when thecarriermem V» to
the part It of Figure 9. Said extension '30,
ber I ll is rotated about the axis a the idler wheels
beyondthe-roller bearings carries a gear wheel
will roll round the sun wheels, and. the wheels. 10 32,which~is in mesh withapinion carried on~a
IIa, IIb and II will move round the-axis or with
shaft'g33 mounted, as shown on a bracket 34 which
out changing their orientation, and the wings “3,,
is,;rigidly attached to the. ?xed outer sleeve 3|,
being coupled, as will hereinafter appear,- to {the and-which, ‘incidentally, serves to support the
wheels I I,~would also move round the axis a with
bearing for one end of the shaft I5. This shaft
out changing their angle. .
- U
V
I
,1
If now either of the "levers 27 or 2'8'is moved is 33 is coupled by someform of, transmission mech
anisinpnot shown, to the-corresponding shaft
to rotatably adjust either of the respective-bosses
appertaining to the opposite set; of wings on
I8 or I9, the angular relationship of the radii of r '7
the other side of the aircraft,_ and vthus it is en
cccentricityiof the boss I8 and thelbore hole in
the boss I9 will no longer be 180°, and the sun 20 sured that opposite-sets of wings. will always
rotate at-the same speed as, each other'and will
wheel I 222 will therefore become eccentric to the
preserve rotary phase equality with each other.
axis it. And since the gear wheels IZa, I30; and
If desired/the pairs ofopposite sets of wings could
ii a are in mesh, and the gear wheels I21), I 3b,
alsobe
coupled together to ensure that ,all the
and I Ib, are in mesh,'the angular relationship of I
sets
.ofwings
rotate at the same speediland preé'
the radii of eccentricity of the boss 20 to the hole
serve phase equality, However, this isqnota
inthe boss 2|, and. of the boss 22to the hole in
and it may be found preferable not to
the boss 23 will also be varied from 180° in the - necessity,
couple even the opposite sets of wings.
_
same way, and the gear wheels I3b and III) will
25,
.
l
r
V.
,As'shown in Figures :103and11; and also in
also be eccentric to the same degree as the sun
wheel I2b.' Obviously the wheels I 2, Band II 30 Figures 1 to 3, the longitudinal axes b of the wings
3 of each set diverge slightly withirespect to the
will take the same eccentricity as the wheels _I 2b,
axis a. ~Also,as shown in Figures 71 to 3, the'axes
ISband-llb.
'
'
"
.
it themselves are inclinedslightly upwardly from
' vAs ‘heretofore explained, it is normally re
the fuselage. V'I'o providefor this divergence of
quired ‘that theradiu's' of eccentricity‘ of the sun
wheel l2 should be at‘12 o’clock. This condition
can obviously be attained by the correct relative
the longitudinal axes of the wings 3, the gear
wheels are all formed, with a slight-bevel so that
the axes of the gearsIIa, I I?) and .I [are parallel
adjustment of the levers 21 and 28. ‘For example, '
to the’ required longitudinal axes b of the respec- ~
assuming as stated that‘Figure 9 is a sectional
plan illustrating the conditions at 9 o’clockgifthe
lever 21 ismoved through a given angle towards
the re‘aderand the‘ lever 28 is moved away from
tive
40
'
,
l
~~
-
‘
the wine 3 to the gear I I. - Thus said wing is
mounted ?xedly on said shaftyl'l with its longi
tudinal, axis b-in coincidence with the axis of said
shaftgand said shaft is formed with a head or
by giving the opposite angles of adjustment of
the levers 21 and 28 different values. This would
have the e?ect ‘of putting the oscillations of the 50
wings 3 out of phase with respect to the curve
v;
.l
hollow shaft “forms the means for attaching
will beat 12 o'clock. When it- is desired to make
the radius of eccentricity of said sun Wheel -1I2
away from 12 o’clock this can obviously be done
It will have been observed that the gears I2,
I3 and I I have always'the same eccentricity as
_
on a rodg35-which is?xed to the casing I0; This
the reader through the same angle, the sun,wheel
I2 will be given‘ an eccentricity, depending upon
the said angle, and the radius of'that eccentricity
of progress as illustrated in Figures 4 to 6,
wings
;The‘ previously mentioned shaft I‘! on which
thegear .wheeliI in is mounted is hollow and bears
?ange 36. whichyis coupled to» the gear .I I. The
coupling between saidgear II .and said flange 36
mustbe a keyed or splined connection asindi
cated at 3-7 (Figure 9) in order that the gear II
can rotate eccentrically, while the shaft I ‘I ro
tatesconcentrically,:withmespect to the centre
of said. shaft. As .shown the shaft‘ IT and rod 35
arefextended a considerable distance fromhthe
the gear wheels I217, I3b and II b. However ,if
carrier;member I!) in order to afford the necessary
the wings had ‘been securedrto the. gear wheels {_I strength
. for supporting the wing;
'IIb instead of‘to the gear wheels II the angle
The references 38, Hand 40 designate trans
of incidence of said'wings (i. e. their meanan- -
mission rods by which the levers 27, 28-and- 29
gle with respect to‘the' actual curve of progres
sion shown in Figures 4 to 6) wouldhave been 69
Itwillbe appreciated that, in the adjustment
invariable. By providing the thirdgearrtrain .7
shown
in Figures. 1-0 and ll, the gears areset for
I2, I3, II as described, and coupling each wing
zero oscillation of the. wings sand zer_oangle of
toa gear II it' is possible to adjust the angle. of
are
incidence ‘of the wings. Thus, by rotatably, ad
justing the lever 29,- the boss 24, and therefore ‘
the sunjgear I2 is rotatably adjustedandthis
effects the adjustment of the rotary position of
the wing-operating ,Wheel U, at any _ givenangu- .
. lar position about the axis 11;.
In other, words it
adjusts the angle of incidenceof the wing.
Figures 8 and 9 have been somewhat simpli?ed
inorder to show the working of the invention the
actuated;
~
.~
,
.
~
_
-
incidence, . _ With this adjustment, which of course
is not an adjustmentwhich would ever-be em
ployed in- practice, the wing sectionswould all
be horizontal as shown for~all rotary positions
I ofv the carrier member I9.
. , Returning to Figures-1 to 3, it will be seen that
the. driving propellers 2 together with their motors
,4I-are shown on top of they fuselage I arranged
in tandem- fashion. . Byemaking the axes a of the
sets of wings 'upwardly’inclinedas stated, and
making the individual axes .of the wings divergent
vation and section, .a practical arrangementof
with respect to the axes a the longitudinal-,_axes
one set of fourwings 3._ In these?guresthe same .75 of
thewings 3 are included upwardly at a con-r
more clearly. Figures~10 and 11»ShO_W,¢ln ele
2,408,649
11
siderable angle at the ‘12 o’clock position, and are
' inclined downwardly at only a slight angle at the
6 o’clock position. Thus greater lateral stability
is imparted to the aircraft as is well understood.
In practice the whole of the ?ight control is
preferably effectedlsolely through the manipula
tion of the wings 3, tail ?ns and rudder not being
12
shown with the part of the sleeve between the
lands.
The piston 59 therefore moves to the right and
thereby rotates, in the direction towards the dot
' ted line position,ra lever 6| pivoted at its mid
point 62 and connected at one end to the ‘piston
rod of the piston 59 by a pin and slot connection
as shown. One end of said lever is connected by
means of a link 63 to the lever 21 and the other
end is connected by means of a link 54 to the
10
drag ratio of the wings 3 on the inner side of the
lever 28, and thus, as will be clear from the draw
required.
'
A turn is accomplished, ?rst by increasing the
curve of the desired turn, and subsequently by
increasing the lift ratio of the wings on the outer
ings, the arrangement is such that, as the lever
6| moves, in the direction towards the dotted line
side of said curve, so as to bank the machine.
position, the levers 21 and 28 will simultaneously
The drag ratio is increased by throwing the oscil
move in opposite directions towards the dotted
lations of the wings out of phase with the actual 15
line
positions.
curves of progression as heretofore described.
' In the arrangement shown the lever 28 is
The lift would be increased by increasing the
coupled, by means of a link 65, to the sleeve 49,
angle of incidence.
so that, as said lever moves towards the dotted
, Automatic control is contemplated to keep the
line position, said sleeve is moved to the right and
20
sets of wings revolving at a predetermined speed,
thereby causes the ports 54 and 55 to be again
and a control mechanism for this purpose is
cut off by the_lands 56 and 51. Thus so-called
illustrated in Figure 12. Referring to this ?gure,
position control, and not ?oating control, is ob
the same illustrates a set of governor balls 42
tained the levers 21 and 28 having a given posi
coupled by means of a gear wheel 43 to the shaft
tion for each speed of rotation of the wings.
25
33 and adapted to control the two'levers 21
The automatic control effected by the appa
and 28. If at any time the forward speed of
ratus of Figure 12 can be varied within prede
the aircraft increases, the speed of rotation of
termined limits by the pilot. Thus the part to
the set of wings, and therefore of the shaft 33
which the lever 44 is actually pivoted at 45 is a
will commence to increase, and this will cause
block 41 in screwed relation on a screwed rod 65
30
the governor balls 42 to spread in the direction
approximately parallel to the link 46, and hav
towards the dotted line position. This causes the
ing one end slidably keyed in a fixed slot 61 also
two levers 21 and 28 to move in the direction
parallel to the link 45. As will be clear from the
towards the dotted line position, thereby decreas
drawings the rod 66 is capable of rotary but not
ing‘ the amplitude of oscillation of the wings.
of longitudinal movement, and it will be seen that
This causes the speed of rotation of the wings
rotation of said rod 56 in opposite directions will
relative to the forward speed of the aircraft to
effect movement of the block 4‘! in opposite di
decrease, and thus the actual speed of rotation of
rections parallel to the link 46. Thus by rotation
the wings remains constant within given limits.
of‘ said rod 66 the position of the valve 48 for
In the event of a decrease in speed of the air
a given position of the governors can ‘be varied,
craft, the mechanism operates in the reverse
or, in other words, the speed of wing rotation for
direction to increase the speed of rotation of
which the apparatus is set can be varied. The ro
the wings relative to the aircraft speed, and,
tation of said rod 66 is adapted to be effected by
again, the actual speed of rotation remains con
the pilot, and thus the pilot can, at will, vary,
within limits, the speed of wing rotation for
stant within limits.
Obviously if the sets of ‘wings are all coupled 45 which the apparatus is set.
The invention also contemplates the provision
together, only one such mechanism will be re
of automatic control, through gyro-hydraulic
quired, and’ the several pairs of levers 21, 28
will be coupled so as to act in unison. 'If the
mechanism, for keeping the aircraft on a level
sets of wings revolve independently a control
keel. Thus, if the front part of the machine
mechanism will obviously be required for each 50 tended to rise, the automatic control would come
into operation slightly to decrease the lift of the
set.
Describing now more particularly the operation
forward Wings.
The general stability of the machine in ?ight
of the apparatus, when the‘ balls 42 spread, the
lever 44 pivoted at 45 will move in the direction
would thus be under automatic control and the
55 aircraft would be‘ automatically trimmed if load
towards the dotted line position. This lever is
coupled, by means of a link 46 to a piston valve
48 which moves longitudinally in a sleeve 49
which in turn is movable longitudinally in an
displacement occurred. Considerable load dis
placement would be possible, which is not the
aircraft which must
case with a conventional
outer stationary valve casing 55. Liquid at pres
keep the load trimmed within narrow limits.
sure flows through a port 5| in said casing 50 60
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
and flows through ports 52 and 53 into the in
Patent is:
terior of the sleeve 49 at each end, but normally
1. In an aircraft, in combination, means for
said liquid is prevented from passing through
propelling the aircraft, a plurality of wings for
ports 54 and 55 by lands 55 and 5'! on the valve 65 maintaining the aircraft airborne, means for
48. When, however, the lever 44 moves towards
mounting each wing for oscillation about an axis
the dotted line position the valve 48 moves to
transverse to the aircraft and for rotation about
the right and the land 56 partly uncovers the
another axis transverse to the aircraft, coupling
port 54 thereby allowing pressure fluid to flow
means interconnecting said wings to cause rota
through said port 52 and into the left hand end
tion thereof in unison, transmission means cor
of a cylinder 58. Thus pressure liquid is applied
relating the rotary and oscillatory‘ movement of
to the‘left ‘hand side of the piston 59 in said
each wing in such manner that the reaction of the
cylinder. At the same time the land 51 partly
air against the same resulting from movement of
uncovers the port 55 thereby connecting the right
the aircraft caused by said propelling means ef
hand end of said cylinder 58 to. an exhaust port
fects-both rotary and oscillatory movement there
75
65 which is permanently in communication as
2,408,849 >
.
13
.
14
.
of, each wing being inclinedto its path of progres
sion in space to exert an upward thruston the
aircraft to keep it airborne, and means for ad
justing said transmission means to vary the in
clination of the wing operated thereby to its path
of progression, whereby, the upward thrust ap
the‘ 9 0*clockipositions, and-the arrangement be
ing such‘thatv each wing is inclined to the hori
zontal with its‘ forward edge upwards of the 12
o'clock-and the 6 o’clock positions.
7
6. In an aircraft, in combination, means for
' propelling the aircraft, a plurality of wings'for
maintaining the aircraft airborne, means for
mounting each wing for oscillation about an axis
transverse to the aircraft and for rotation about
to also vary the amplitude of oscillation of the 10 another axis transverse to the aircraft, coupling
means interconnecting'said wings to cause rota
wing to thereby vary the speed of rotation of the
tion thereof in’unison, transmission means cor
wing relative to the forward speed of the aircraft.
plied thereby to the aircraft is variable '
.2. An aircraft'as de?ned in claim 1' wherein
said transmission means are further adjustable
3. In an aircraft, in combination. means for
relating the rotary and oscillatory movement of
each wing in such manner that the reaction of
propelling the aircraft, a plurality of wings for
maintaining the aircraft airborne, means for 15 the air against the same resulting from move
ment of the aircraft'caused by said propelling
mounting each wing for oscillation about an axis
transverse to the aircraft and for rotation about
means effects both rotary andoscillatory move
another axis transverse to the aircraft, coupling
ment thereof, each wing being inclined to its
path of progression in space to exert an upward
means interconnecting said wings to cause rota
tion thereof in unison, transmission means cor
relating the rotary and oscillatory movement of
each wing in such manner that the reaction of
20 thrust onlthe aircraft to keep it airborne, means
for adjusting said transmission means to vary
the amplitude of oscillation of the wing operated
thereby to vary the speed of rotation thereof rel
ative to the forward speed of the aircraft, and
effects both rotary and oscillatory movement 2-5 means ‘for varying the phase of the oscillations
of each wing with respect to the phase of its ro
thereof, each wing being inclined to its path of
the air against the same resulting from movement
of the aircraft caused by said propelling means
progression in space to exert an upward thrust
. tation.
on the aircraft to keep it airborne, and means
7. In an'aircraft, in combination, means for
propelling the aircraft, a plurality of wings for
for adjusting said transmission means to‘ vary
the amplitude of oscillation of the‘ Wing oper 30 maintaining the aircraft airborne, means for
ated thereby to vary the speed of rotation thereof
mounting each wing for oscillation about an axis
relative to the forward speed of the ‘aircraft.
transverse to the‘ aircraft and for rotation about
another axis transverse to the aircraft, coupling
4. In an aircraft, in combination, means for
propelling the aircraft, a plurality of wings for
means interconnecting said wings to cause rota
maintaining the aircraft airborne, means for 35 tion thereof in unison, transmission means corre
mounting each wing for oscillation about an aXis
lating the rotary and oscillatory movement of
transverse to the aircraft and for rotation about
each wing in such manner that the reaction of
another axis transverse to the aircraft, coupling
the air against the same resulting from move
means interconnecting said wings to cause rota
ment of the aircraft caused by said propelling
tion thereof in unison, transmission means cor
means effects both rotary and oscillatory move
relating the rotary and oscillatory movement of
ment thereof, each wing being'inclined to its path
each wing in such manner that the reaction of the
of progression in space to exert an upward thrust
air against the same resulting from movement of
the aircraft caused by said propelling means ef
fects both rotary and oscillatory movement there
of, each wing being inclined to its path of progres
on the aircraft to keep it airborne, said wings be
ing arranged in sets with the individual oscilla
tion axes rotatable as a unit about a common
aircraft to keep it airborne, means for adjust
axis of rotation and the sets of wings extending
outwardly on opposite sides of the aircraft with
the individual wings supported at their inner
ing said transmission means to vary the am
ends only.
sion in space .to exert an upward thrust on the
‘
plitude of oscillation of the Wing operated there 50
8. An aircraft according to claim '7, wherein
by to vary the speed of rotation thereof rela
the common rotation axis of each set is inclined
tive to the forward speed of the aircraft, and
to the horizontal in a direction upwardly from
means for-automatically controlling said ampli
the aircraft.
tude adjusting means to maintain the absolute
9. An aircraft according to claim '7, wherein
speed of rotation of the wing associated therewith
the oscillation axis of each Wing is inclined with
substantially constant.
'
respect to its rotation axis in a direction diverg
5. In an aircraft, in combination, means for
ently from the aircraft.
propelling the aircraft, a plurality of wings for
10'. In an aircraft, in combination, means for
maintaining the aircraft airborne, means for
propelling the aircraft, a plurality of wings for
mounting each wing for oscillation about an axis 60 maintaining the aircraft airborne, means for
transverse to the aircraft and for rotation about
mounting each wing for oscillation about an axis
another axis transverse to the aircraft, coupling
transverse to the aircraft and for rotation about
means interconnecting said wings to cause rota
another axis transverse to the aircraft, coupling
tion thereof in unison, transmission means corre
means interconnecting said wings to cause rota
lating the rotary and oscillatory movement of
tion thereof in unison, transmission means corre
each wing in such manner that the reaction of
lating the rotary and oscillatory movement of
the air against the same resulting from move
each wing in such manner that the reaction of
ment of the aircraft caused by said propelling
the air against’ the same resulting from move
means effects both rotary‘ and oscillatory move
ment of the aircraft caused by said propelling
ment thereof, each wing being inclined 'to its 70 means effects both rotary and oscillatory ‘move
path of progression in space to exert an upward
ment thereof, each wing being inclined to its path
thrust on the aircraft to keep it airborne and
of progression in space to exert an upward thrust
arranged to make one complete oscillation to and
on the aircraft to keep it airborne, said Wings be
fro during each rotation, the limits of oscilla
ing arranged in sets with the individual oscilla
tion occurring approximately at the 3 o’clock and 75 tion axes rotatable as a unit about a common
2,408,649
15
axis of rotation and the sets of wings comprising
a plurality of sets extending outwardly on each
side of the aircraft and spaced therealong.
11. In an aircraft, in combination'gpmeans for
propelling the aircraft, a plurality df‘wings for
maintaining the aircraft airborne, means for
mounting each wing for oscillation about an axis
transverse to the aircraft and for rotation about
another axis transverse to the aircraft, coupling
means interconnecting said wings to cause rota
tion thereof in unison, transmission means cor
relating the rotary and oscillatory movement of
12. An aircraft according to claim 11, wherein
the variation of the amplitude of oscillation of
the wing of each set is effected by simultaneously
varying the radius of eccentricity of the'sun gear
wheel, the idler ‘gear wheels and the oscillation
gear wheels.
‘ -
13. An aircraft according to claim 11, wherein
the variation of the phase of the oscillation of
the wings of each set with respect to the phase
of the rotation of the wings thereof is effected
by varying the angular position of the radius
of eccentricity of the sun gear wheel and simul
taneously bringing the angular positions of the
radii of eccentricity of the idler and the oscil
of the aircraft caused by said propelling means 15 lation gear wheels into conformity to that of the
sun gear wheel.
effects both rotary and oscillatory movement
14. An aircraft according to claim 11, wherein
thereof, each wing being inclined to its path of
the variation of the inclination of the wing of
progression in space to exert an upward thrust
each set to their actual paths of progression is
on the aircraft to keep it airborne, said wings
effected by varying the actual angular position
being arranged in sets with the individual oscil
of the sun gear wheel independently of the an
lation axes rotatable as a unit about a common
gular position of its radius of eccentricity.
axis of rotation and the sets of wings extending
15. An aircraft according to claim 11, wherein
outwardly on opposite sides of the aircraft with
said sun gear wheel, idler gear wheels. and os
the individual wings supported at their inner
ends only, the wings of each set being mounted, 25 cillation gear wheels are mounted concentrically
each wing in such manner that the reaction of the
air against the same resulting from movement
with, and so as to be rotatable with respect to,
the
sun gear wheel, idler gear wheels and oscil
oscillation axes, on a common carrier member
lation gear wheels of a second similar set, and
rotatable about the common rotation axis, and
the sun gear wheel, idler gear wheels and oscil
the transmission means, for correlating the ro
lation gear wheels of said second set are rotat
30
tary and oscillatory movement of the wings,
ably mounted eccentrically on parts of the sun
comprising a stationary sun gear wheel mounted
gear wheel, idler gear wheels and oscillation gear
with its centre eccentric with respect to the com
wheels of a third similar set which parts are
mon rotation axis, oscillation gear wheels, having
also eccentric to the same degree, with respect
the same number of teeth as the sun wheel, ro
to said gear wheels of said third set, the sun
tatably mounted on said carrier member, with 35 gear wheel of said third set being rotatably
their centres eccentric with respect to their axes
mounted concentrically with the common rota
of rotation, their eccentricity being the same as
tion axis, and the idler gear wheels and oscil
that of the sun wheel, and idler gear wheels, also
lation gear wheels of said third set being con
‘having the same number of teeth as the sun gear
40 centrically rotatably mounted on said carrier
wheel, rotatably mounted on said common car
member, and means being provided for adjusting
rier member, in mesh between the respective os
the rotary position of all three sun gear wheels
cillation gear wheels and the sun gear wheel,
independently.
said idler gear wheels also having their centres
16. An aircraft according to claim 10, wherein
eccentric with respect to their axes of rotation
opposite sets of wings are coupled together so
their eccentricity being the same as that of the 45
that they rotate in unison about their respective
sun wheel, said oscillation gear wheels being cou
so as to be oscillatable, about their respective
pled to the respective wings to effect oscillation
thereof.
common rotation axes.
_
ARTHUR REX JACKSON.
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