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Oct. 1,1946.
'
" HARLEE
AIR SPEED INDICATOR
6
2,408,661
_
Filed Nov. 20, 1943 '
" mmvrox I
14.5.4 Pay is: 6
BY
2,408,661
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
UNITED
STATES ' PATENT OFFICE
_
I
7
2,408,661
AIR-SPEED INDICATOR
’
v
I
[Asa Ben Lee, Cleveland, Ohio, .assignon- to
. Designers-z forv Industry, Inc-., Cleveland,‘ Ohio,
a corporation of. Ohio
Application November 20, 1943-, Serial‘ No. 511,167‘
5 Claims.‘ (ems-212)
2
response to changes occurring in the velocity of
a ?uid.
bythe conductors 22 and 23 and by the con
,
Another object of my invention is to provide a
novel form of indicating instrument for visibly
indicating the true and indicated air speeds of an
aircraft.
A further object of my invention is to provide 10
a- novel indicating instrument containing a meter,
and an operating or control means therefor em
bodying electron tubes which are responsive to
changes in the pressure and velocity factors of
a ?uid.
'
'
The invention may be further brie?y sum
marized as consisting in certain novel combina
tions and arrangements hereinafter described
.
heated by the heater 20 a flow of electrons will
take place from the cathode to the plate 18'.
The plates 18 of the electron tubes I12 and I3‘
are connected in parallel plate or output circuits
This invention relates to indicating instru
ments- and aim-s to» provide a novel form of in
strument by which indications will be given in
ductor 24 which connects the cathodes I9 with
each other. An appropriate voltage or potential is.
supplied to the plate circuits by the conductors 25’
and 2b which are connected with voltage source
suitable for this purpose. In the circuit arrange
ment here shown the conductor 26 is connectedv
with the plate ‘circuits through unequal sections
21 and 28 of an inductive coupling or transformer '
‘as, so thatthe plate circuits include parallelpor
15 tions extending to the electron tubes l2 and I3‘ as
represented by the conductors 22 and 23. Electric
current of appropriate characteristics is supplied
to the heaters 20' of the electron tubes by- con
ductors 30 and 3|.
'
and. particularly set out in the appended claims.
The meter I0 comprises any suitable form of
In the accompanying sheet of drawings, the 20
electrically operated meter or indicator, for ex
single View is a diagram representing anuindi
ample, a galvanometer of conventional construc
cating instrument embodying my invention. '
tion and having a movable pointer or needle. 33.
My novel indicating instrument is applicable to
Conductors 34’ and 35- connect the meter with a
various uses where it is desiredv that indications
be given'of changes occurring in the pressure and 25 coil 3510f the inductive coupling 29 and provide
an energizing circuit for the meter. The meter is
velocity factors of a ?uid. The embodiment: of
also provided with a» series of numerals or indi
the invention illustrated in the drawing shows
cations 31 forming a scale with which the mov
the instrument adapted for use as an air speed
able pointer 33 cooperates. The distance which
indicator for aircraft and for which use the in
the pointer moves along the scale 31 is dependent
strument is especially suitable.
.
upon'the extent to which the meter circuit is»
As shown in the drawing, my novel indicating
instrument comprises a meter It and a control
or energizing means I I therefor embodying elec
tron tubes I2 and I3 which are responsive re
spectively to changes in» the pressure'and velocity
energized.
As mentioned above in a general way, the elec
tron tubes I2 and I3 have a quantity of gas sealed
therein and are responsive respectively to at‘
,mospheric changes occurring in the static and
factors of a ?uid. As will be explained in greater
Pitot tubes I4 and I5. To render the“ electron
detail hereinafter the electron-tubes I2 and I3
tube [2 responsive to such atmospheric changes
are connected respectively with the static tube
in the static tube I4, I provide this electron tube
l4’ and the Pitot tube l5 of an aircraft so that
with a ?exible wall portion which, in this in
the electron tubes will be responsive to atmosé
stance, is in the form of a hollow diaphragm de
pherlc changes occurring in the static and Pitot
vice or bellows 3'8 having a chamber 39 therein.
tubes in response to operation of. the aircraft at
The ?exible device 38 has a sealed’ connection
different speeds and altitudes. The static and
with the envelope I ‘I of the electron tube so that
Pitot tubes I4 and I5 are represented as being
the chamber 39 is in direct communication with
of a conventional form used on. aircraft and. the
the interior of theenvelope. The diaphragm de
direction of flightis represented by the arrow IS.
vice 38 is located in an air-tight housing 4| which
The electron tubes 12. and. I3 are substantially
is connected with the static tube M‘ by a conduit _
identical. and each comprises an envelope or cas
42.
When pressure changes occur in the static tube
ing. [1 containing a plate l8, a cathode “land a 50
l4 as the result of operation of the airplane at
heater 2!] for the cathode. In constructing these
different altitudes, these changes are transmitted
electron tubes, the envelope I1 is initially evacu
through the conduit 42 to the housing 4| and act
ated and a. small amount of a suitable gas, such
on the outside of the ?exible diaphragm of the
asyneon' gas, is introduced into the envelope and
sealed therein so» that when the cathode I8 is 55 device 38 so as to cause corresponding varia
2,408,661
3
tions in the pressure of the gas contained in the
envelope I‘! of the electron tube l2. Thus when
the aircraft is operating at a low altitude, an in
creased atmospheric pressure will act on the dia
phragm device 38 tending to collapse the same
and thereby forcing additional gas into the en
velope I‘! to increase the gas pressure in the lat
ter. When the aircraft is operating at a rela
tively higher altitude, the pressure acting on
the diaphragm device 38 is partially relieved, per 10
bined e?'ects of the current values in the coil
sections 21 and 28 will result in energization of
the meter I0 in a manner to produce accurate
indications of the true air speed of the aircraft.
The compensating effect of the electron tube [2
is thus automatically applied to the action of the
electron tube l3 so that the measurements given
by the latter will be accurate for all altitudes.
For calibrating purposes, the portion of the
plate circuit of the electron tube [2 represented
mitting gas to flow thereinto from the envelope
by the conductor 22 may contain a variable re
l1 and thus decreasing the gas pressure in the
latter. When the gas pressure in the electron
sistance or potentiometer 5|. For a similar pur
pose a variable resistance or potentiometer 52
is provided in the portion of the plate ‘circuit of
tube [2 is increased or decreased in this manner
the electron tube vl3 which is represented by the
conductor 23.
A switch 53 is preferably also provided in the
plate circuit of the electron tube I 2 so that by
atmospheric changes occurring in the Pitot tube
opening this switch the electron tube l2 can be
I5, I provide this electron tube with a similar 20 isolated or rendered ineffective, whereupon the
hollow ?exible diaphragm device or bellows 44
meter ill will be controlled or actuated only by
having a chamber 45 therein. This diaphragm
the electron tube [3 and relative or indicated air,
device is connected with the sealed envelope ll so
speeds can be read from the meter instead of
that the chamber 45 will be in direct communi
true air speed values. By closing the switch 53
cation with the interior of the envelope through 25 the effectiveness of the electron tube I2,is re
the passage 46. The diaphragm device 44 is
stored, so that true air speed values will again
located in an airtight housing 41 which is con
be indicated by the meter I0.
nected with the pitot 15 by a conduit 48.
Although I have shown in the drawing only
When the velocity of the aircraft increases, the
one meter I0, it should be understood that a num
the ?ow of electrons between the cathode and
plate, and likewise the plate current or electrical
output for this electron tube, will also be varied.
To render the electron tube !3 responsive to
air pressure or velocity effect in the Pitot tube
ber of such meters can be actuated or controlled
will be correspondingly increased and will be
by the electron tube apparatus ll. These ad
transmitted to the casing 41 through the con
ditional meters can be located at desired points
‘duit 48 and acting on the outside of the dia
in the aircraft and the conductors 34 and 35 can
phragm device 44 will tend to collapse the same
be extended thereto to connect the same with
thereby displacing gas into the envelope I‘! to 35 the coil 36 of the inductive coupling 29. _
correspondingly increase the pressure in the
From the foregoing description and the ac
latter. A decrease in the speed of the aircraft
companying drawing it will now be readily un
will produce the reverse effect, that is to say,
derstood that I have provided a novel form of
the pressure on the outside of the ?exible device
indicating instrument which can be used to give
44 will be reduced and the gas pressure in the 40 indications in response to changes occurring in
envelope ll will be correspondingly decreased.
the velocity of a ?uid, and which is especially
Changes in the gas pressure in the electron tube
suitable'for use as an air speed indicator for
aircraft.
l3 produced in the manner just described will
result in variations in the ?ow of electrons from
While I have illustrated and described my novel
the cathode H? to the plate [8 with corresponding 45 indicating instrument in considerable detail it
variation in the plate current or electrical out
will be understood, of course, that I do not wish
put for the electron tube l3.
to be correspondingly limited but regard my in
Since the electron tubes l2 and 13 are con
vention as including all changes and modi?ca
nected in parallel plate circuits or output cir
tions coming within the scope of the appended
cuits through the coil portions 21 and 28 of the 50 claims.
inductive coupling 29;, the energization of the
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
plate circuit in the manner above described, either
by the electron tube l3 alone or jointly by both
1. An indicator of the character described
comprising a plurality of electron tubes having
electron tubes, will result in energization of the
output circuits connected in parallel, each of
meter circuit and cause movement of the pointer 55 said electron tubes having gas sealed therein and
33 along the scale 3?. The point 50 at which
the electrical output of each electron tube being
the conductor 26 is connected with the coupling
variable in accordance with changes in the gas
29 or, in other words, the lengths or inductive
pressure therein, a Pitot tube located to be acted
values of the coil sections 28 and 21 may be
upon by a ?uid stream, ?uid impulse conducting
varied depending upon various factors such as 60 means connecting said Pitot tube with one of
the characteristics of the electron tubes !2 and
said electron tubes so that velocity changes in
I3 and of the static and Pitot tubes l4 and I5
said stream will vproduce corresponding varia
as well as the operating characteristics of the
tions in the gas pressure in said one electron
aircraft at different altitudes and possibly var
tube, a static tube, ?uid impulse conducting
ious other factors The above described ar 65 means connecting said static tube with another
rangement for the electron tube [2 enables the
of said electron tubes for varying the gas pres
same to function as an altitude compensator by
sure therein in accordance with changes in the
supplying varying amounts of plate current
static pressure of said ?uid, and a meter elec
through the coil section 27 in response to changes
trically connected with said output circuits.
in the operating altitude of the aircraft. The
2. An instrument for an aircraft having a
70
above described arrangement for the electron
static tube and a Pitot tube, comprising a pair of
tube l3 enables the latter to measure the rela
electron tubes having plate circuits connected in
tive or indicated air speed of the aircraft and
parallel, vsaid electron tubes having gas therein
to produce corresponding current variations in
and their electrical ouput being variable in. ac-v
the coil section 28 of the couplingi'il. The com 75 cordance with variations in the pressure of the.
2,408,661
other of said electron tubes so that changes in
the velocity of vsaid ?uid will act through the
?exible portion of said other electron tube to
tron tubes so that the gas pressure in the latter
varies with the pressure variations in said static
cause corresponding variations in the pressure of
tube, ?uid impulse transmitting means connect
ing said Pitot tube with the other electron tube
the gas therein, and an indicator electrically con- '
nected with said output circuits so as to be re
so that the gas pressure in the latter is varied in
response to variations in pressure in said Pitot
tube, and a meter electrically connected with said
sponsive to the combined ouput effect of said
electron tubes.
10
parallel plate circuits.
3. An instrument for an aircraft having a
static tube and a Pitot tube, comprising a pair of
scaled electron tubes containing gas and having
plate circuits connected in parallel, a diaphragm
6
?uid, means connecting said Pitot tube with the
gas therein, ?uid impulse transmitting means
connecting said static tube with one of said elec
'
5. An instrument of the character described
comprising, a pair of electron tubes having out
put circuits connected in parallel and each elec
tron tube having a sealed envelope containing
gas and its electrical output being variable in
device connecting said static tube with one of 15 response to changes in the pressure of the gas
therein, said envelope including a ?exible hollow
said electron tubes so that the‘ pressure of the
gas in the latter varies with pressure variations
in said static tube, a diaphragm device connect
member, a housing for the ?exible hollow mem- .
ber of each electron tube, a static tube located to
be acted upon by the pressure of a moving ?uid,
ing said Pitot tube with the other electron tube so
that the pressure of the gas ‘in the latter varies 20 ?uid impulse conducting means connecting said
static tube withv the housing of one of said elec
with pressure variations in said Pitot tube, and a
tron tubes so that changes in the pressure of said
meter electrically connected with said plate
?uid will act through the ?exible hollow mem
ber of said one electron tube to produce corre
4. An instrument of the character described
sponding variations in the pressure of the gas
comprising, a pair of electron tubes having out
therein, a Pitot tube located to be acted upon by
put circuits connected in parallel and each elec
the velocity of said ?uid, ?uid impulse conduct
tron tube having a sealed envelope containing
ing means connecting said Pitot tube with the
gas and its electrical output being variable in
housing of the‘other of said electron tubes so that
response to changes in the pressure of the gas
changes in the velocity of said ?uid will act
therein, said envelope including a ?exible por
through the ?exible hollow member of said other
tion, a static tube located to be acted upon by
electron tube to produce corresponding varia
the pressure of'a moving ?uid, means connect
tions in the pressure of the gap therein, and an
ing said static tube with one of said electron
indicator electrically connected with said output ' '
tubes so that changes in the pressure of said ?uid
circuits so as to be responsive to the combined
will act through the ?exible portion of said one
circuits.
r
'
.
electron tube to produce corresponding variations
in the pressure of the gas therein, a Pitot tube
located to be acted upon by the velocity of said
'joutput e?ect of said electron tubes.
ASA RE'N LEE.
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