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Патент USA US2408717

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Oct. 1, 1946.
Filed Dec. 10, 1942
‘ .
Patented Oct. 1, 1946
' Eugene S. Witchger, Grosse Pointe, Mich,’ as
' .signor to Eaton Manufacturing‘ Company,
Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
Application December 10, 1942, Serial No. 468,500 .
(01. 103-426)
, 5 Claims.
- This invention relates to pumps in general, and,
more particularly, concerns-a pump construction
mountable directly upon an internal combustion
engine'block without a separate pump body and
in communication with ports in the engine block.
It has been suggested heretofore to incorporate
engine pump intake and discharge openings in
the engine block with a view to reduction in the
through a materially lesser portion of the cycle.
Thechange involume of the cavities not exposed
to the intake and discharge ports in the engine
block being'communicated through the cavities
exposed to the intake and discharge by the bal
’ ancing ports in the pump cover element.
Accordingly, among the objects of the present
invention are the provision of a'pump'construcé
tionmountable 'directly'upona pump boss or pad
cast integrally-with ‘and incidental to operations
total cost of the engine, and advancement of the
art in general,‘ Such suggestions insofar as ap 10
upon the engine block "and in which boss intake
plicant is aware, have been limited to intake and
and discharge openings inadequate to accommo
discharge ports of a size and shape normally able
date suificient working‘ ?uid fora full: pumping
to'accommodate the timing for which the pump
cycle are disposed, and over which a pair of rotor
was'designed, and, also any slight coring inaccu
pumping elements are positioned to beihoused by
racies that might occur in the block casting oper
a pump cover element containingsecondary dis
ation, and which ‘would otherwise render the block
tributing or balancing ports therein in timed
communication with the cavities of the pumping
elements through the entire pumping cycle; the
merit, by providing a separate accurate porting
plate insert held in predetermined relation with 20 provision in a pump construction as described of
means for intaking the working fluid of the pump
respect to the rotor pumping elements. However,
from an inadequate primary intake port directly
the present invention advances the state of the
to’the pumping elements and passing it through
art further and proposes to dispense with a cored
secondary distributing or balancing ports dis
and machined pump pocket cast integrally into'a
posed in timed relation to the pumping elements
boss on the engine block; and also,the separate
and discharging it back to an inadequate dis
por'tingplate insert by the use of primary intake
charge port on the same end of thepumping ele
and discharge ports having elongated openings
ments as ‘the intake port; the provision in a pump
at the outer ends thereof in~an engine block boss,
construction as described ‘in which inadequate
and which are inadequate to accommodate sul?
cient working ?uid for a complete pumping cy-‘ 30 primary intake and discharge ports are disposed.
worthless for a pump construction, such as the
present, which is critical in its porting arrange- '
cle, by providing secondary distributingor bal
ancing ports'in a pump cover ‘element that are
disposed outwardly in timed'relation to the pump
ing elements which overlie the elongated but in-4
adequate primary intake and discharge ports.
When the primary intake and/or discharge ports
are referred'to hereinafter as “inadequate” it will ‘
- directly adjacent one 'end- of the pumping ele
ments, and secondary distributing porting bal-r
ances the pressure through the entire-pumping
cycle ‘upon the opposite end of thepumping ele
ments; the provision ‘in "a-pump construction as
described above in which said~_~se'condary' balanc
ing ‘ports are accurately disposed in timed ‘rela
tion adj acent to the outer end of the pumping ele-'
be understood to mean inadequate to supply su?i
ments in a pump cover element; and the provisionv
cient working ?uid for all the pump cavities dur
ing a complete pumping cycle, as aforementioned. 40 in a pump construction as, described in which the
velocity of the working ?uid con?ned in the cavi
The present invention proposes the use of a
ties of thepumping elements is in excess of the
highly e?icient pump construction that has re»
velocity required to ?ll these cavitles'whereby to
cently found much ‘favor in numerous pumping
applications, which, although rather critical in
the porting arrangement therefor, has increased
e?lciency over the other known pump construc
tions, particularly-at low speeds. Such a pump
mechanism is described in the Hill Patent No.
1,682,563, ‘issued August 8, 1928, to ‘which atten
tion is vdirected. Inv a rotor pump such, as de-'
scribed in the present application having a
change in volume through‘substantially' its entire
carry enough excess working ?uid through the‘ _
pumping elements, at the position to which they
are exposed to the inadequate primary ports in
the engine block, to accommodate the change in'
volume in the rotor elements that are notvexposed
to said ports, but only balanced by the largése?‘ij
ondary' porting in the cover element. '
' Furthercand other ‘objects and advantages'of
the present invention reside in the novel combi-l
cycle, the intake and discharge cavities of said '
nation and arrangement of parts,_about to_be de
mechanism are exposed to the intake and dis
charge ports in the engine block, in this instance,
' drawing forming a part of this speci?cation and
scribed, When considered in conjunction with the
pointed out with particularity in the appended
In the drawing like reference characters de
note corresponding parts throughout the several
views, and in which:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view through a por
tion of an engine block illustrating one form of
this invention; and
Fig. 2 is an elevational view of a pump boss cast
integral with the engine block of Fig. l, illustrat
ing the small elongated primary intake and dis,
charge ports cast therein, and taken on the line
2--2 thereof; and
Fig. 3 is an elevational view taken faeing the
pump cover member with the pumping elements
therein, on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1; and
Fig. 4 is a further elevational, view similar to
Fig. 3 with the pumping elements removed re
is shown in the cover member 30, which receives
the outer toothed female rotor 21 with a running
?t, a pair of secondary distributing ports 34 and
35, being the intake and discharge, respectively,
integral with the cover member and disposed in
accurate timed relation with respect to the pump
ing elements 26, 21 and the said inadequate pri
mary intake and discharge openings 1135 and 31.
In order to accommodate some inaccuracy and
other slight coring defects which may occur in
cidental to forming the engine block ID, as afore
mentioned, the outer ends of the intake and dis
charge passages l4 and I5 are cored out, or oth
erwise, formed, to provide small elongated ported
openings 36 and 31‘ communicated With the said
passages, respectively, as best shown in Fig. 2.
While the secondary distributing porting 34 and
35 is in this instance of substantially crescent
shape it will be obvious the shape of the ports
ondary balancing ports disposed in timed relation 20 maybe varied according to the requirements de
to. the pumping‘ elements; and
sired in the» ?nished pump to meet certain oper
Fig, 5; is a'norizcntal sectional view through the
ating conditions, and the speci?c form shown is
pump'structure illustrating the substantially con
merely for purposes of illustrating the general
vealing the accurately formed and indexed see-.
tiaucus. registration, throughout the pumping
cycle, of the. elongated intake port with the dis
tributing ports upon the opposite end, of the rotor
elements, and, taken substantially on the broken
principle. Additionally, the principal teaching of
V the invention is equally applicable to comparable
pump constructions other than. rotor pumps as
hereindescribed and may be employed on vane
type pumps, or, other rotary pumps having a
section line 5-_-5 of Fig, 3.
Now having reference to the drawing and par
change in volume through substantially the en
ticularly» Fig. 1, there is shown an engine block, 30 tire pump cycle, with» similar surrounding struc
generally designated 10, which, has an oil sump
tural limitations. The secondary porting 34 and
or crankcase H at the lower portion thereof.
3.51" 1:11 the‘ inner’ face of the outer end of the cover
Projecting from an end wall of the block, con
veniently located adjacent the end of a driving
means therein, is a boss or- pad l2 that is cast
and cored out integral with the engine block and
incidental to operations performed thereon.
From the face of; the boss or pad l2 intake and
di-scharsc- Passages l4. and I5, respectively, are
drilled inwardly at any suitable angle, thereto
along- wit-h the other operations performed upon
the blpck‘ to provide channels for the working
?uid of_ the pump. In: communication with the
passage or line [4 is a suction pipev l1 secured,
theretov by means of; a ?tting" l8_ and having a
?lter screen [-8 over the lower pipe end to strain
oil‘ inducted thereinto. The discharge passage
15 is commumcatcd. with oil galley it which‘ con
ducts: lubricant: under pressure to any desired.
In order to connect triapump mechanism with
a driving means; in the. engine.v a cam shaft 23
is i0 - I nailed adjacent thereto in. a pocket formedv
int-h bl .handfrom the inner end‘ of: the pocket
on chains.- is formed: through. the outer Wall of
the block; at substantially the,» centralportion of
the boss: or; pad 1,2;- for reception of a reduced end
portion of; the: 0.81m Shaft 23 which serves as the
drive, shaft 25 for the pumping elements. Press
?tted, or; otherwise‘ suitably keyed to the drive
shaft 25; a pumping element, in this case the
inner; male rotor member 26-, is secured. Sur
rounding; the male» rotor 26 is an outer female
rotor 2L It; will; be apparent that the female
rotor Zjl has.’ one more internal cavity than the
number-of generated; teeth on the male rotor 26
such as the pump construction described: in the
patent; to which reference may
be; had- florr a, more cqniplete description. Dis
posed adjacent the outer;_ end of-the rotorele
merits is-apump. cover’ element 30 having algas
ket. sealing‘ means 3| pressed tot-he- 'ooss l2 and
mQmbe-r 30. will be hereinafter referred to gen
erally» as “distributing” porting in the specifica~
tion and claims, since these ports are not in com-v
munication with the; 'primary intake and dis
charge passages except through the pumping ele
One; of, the principal features of'this invention
40 is the- provision in a rotary type pump. of the
character described‘, in which a volume change is
e?ected through most of its cycle, to have the
ports- which are; inadequate to accommodate. suf~
?cient. working; ?uid for a complete pumping
1 cyclev communicate with the pumping chamber
through, the same.- portioni ofv the cycle; and this
is- accomplished, in the present instance by omis
sion of‘ a separate porting plate insert and com—
municating the pump rotors directly with said
50v inadequate ports
the engine block on one end
and’ on the other opposite end; of‘ the rotors by
means. of said secondary‘ or distributing ports,
which balance: the pressure through substantially
theientireipumpl cycle, and‘ are disposed in timed
55 relation to-theirotor elements housed‘ inthe pump
cover‘ member.
To illustrate the principle of intaking and dis
charging the' working‘ ?uid of the pump through
inadequate port'means ‘which are balanced by
distributing ports formed in a pump cover ele
ment: that is disposed in timed relation to the
pumping elements, there’ is shown in Fig. 5 a
horizontal sectional. view; through the pump, as
onthe; broken line: 5-—5 of'Fig. 3. From this view‘
65 it-wrill; be seen that, to have a continuous efficient
discharge; from the pump it is, essential that: the
velocity of,’ the ?uid Con?ned between the. cavie.»
ties-in; the; pumping element. as, at 40 be in- excess '
of the-velocity required to ?llthat volume as it
isnecessary toimove enough excess?uid through,
the pumping; elements atthe time’ during which
each eavity'is,v exposed to the- inadequate primary
ports 36 and 31. to: compensate for. the change
securedinpredetermined position byany suitable
fastening means- 32.
iILVolume of. the cavitiesin the pumping ele~~
Now: havinarcfcrcnceitc Figs. 2,. 8. and, 4, there . ,ments, during the time they‘ are’ not exposed to
;said.inadequate prhnaryports36 and 31 in the
block but only balanced by the secondary dis
tributing porting '34 and 35 in the cover element
'30.. Investigation and re?ection will reveal this
to be necessarily true and essential since without
" such accurate timing of thesecondary distrib
zutingports at one end of the‘ rotors with respect
to the inadequate intakeand discharge ports at
the other end of the rotors, would result in a
condition Where ?uid would: be inducted into the
cavities between the rotors, moved partially
around aiportion of the cycle of the rotors by
the rotation thereof, and'then have no place to
relieve ‘or discharge the'pressure built up» in the
pressures developed in the working ?uid through
the same portion of the pumping cycle as-?rst
mentioned, whereby a continuous e?icient dis
charge is effected during that portion of the pump
cycle in whicha portion of the pumping cavities
communicated with said inadequate intake and
discharge ports are compensated for by' the
change in Volume of the working ?uid in other
pumping cavities communicated therewith only
through the distributing porting.
2. The combination in a rotary pumping mech
anism of the character described having a change
in volume of the Working fluideffective through a
substantial'porticn of :a pumping cycle and in
?uid; :A rotary pump having ports inadequate 15 cluding intake and discharge ports communicated
to v?ll the rotor spaces throughout the entire‘
pump’i‘cycle‘ without adequate balancing ports
would beinoperative because the ?uid con?ned
in'the rotor spaces not exposed to the ports would
with the pumping mechanism through the same
portion of the cycle; of housing means forming a
pumping chamber, pumping‘ elements in said
chamber which cooperate to de?ne hollow cavi
be'raised to an excessive pressure, and the rotor 20. tiesltherebetween ‘that expand and contract in
volume to "produce suction and ‘compression
‘spaces'notexposed to the'intake would cavitate,
resultingr in an extremely inefficient pumping
phases during rotation thereof, said housing
means having an intake and a discharge port
cycle. ‘Accordingly in’the claims, where the sec
located adjacent one end of said pumping ele
ondary or distributing porting is referred to as
“balancing” or “compensating” cavities in the 25 ments which ports are of inadequate length 'cire
larly of said elements to accommodate su?icient
pumping, elements not in communication with the
Working ?uid for a complete pumping cycle
inadequate intake and/or discharge ports, it will
thereof'with relation to the respective pumping
be understoodto mean that changes in volume
cavities, said housing means being provided
of the workingv ?uid in these cavitiesis accom“
modated or effected through_ communication with 30, with distributing porting therein at the ‘op:
the adjacent distributing porting.
posite end of said pumping elements, and-said V
distributing porting being of a su?icient length
circularly of said element as to adopt said dis
tributing porting to accommodate changes in
construction directly mountable upon an engine
block which has been operated upon incidental 35 pressure in the volume of the working ?uid
through substantially an entire pumping cycle on
to the usual casting and machining operations
the opposite end of said pumping elements to
thereof and may result in inadequate intake and
effect a continuous e?icient discharge through the
discharge ports therein to be, communicated with
pumping elements from the ?rst side thereof.
one end of a set of pumping elements that are
3. In a rotary pumping mechanism of the char
pressure balanced upon the opposite end thereof 40
From the foregoing disclosures it will now be
apparent there has been provided a novel pump
by accurate distributing ports readily incorpo
rated in a pump cover element, thereby eliminat
ing a separate porting plate insert, and which
embodies among other things the objects and
acter described having a change in volume of the
working ?uid effective through a substantial por
' tion of a pumping cycle and including intake and
discharge ports communicated with the pumping
advantages of the invention ?rst enumerated. It 45 mechanism through the same portion of the
cycle; the combination of housing means forming
is to be understood, however, the speci?c form of
a pumping chamber, pumping elements in said
the invention disclosed is merely for purposes of
chamber which de?ne hollow cavities between
illustration, as many other formal modi?cations
them that expand and contract in volume to pro
will now be suggested to those skilled in the art
duce suction and compression phases during rota
and in actual practice, which will come within
‘ tion thereof, said housing means having an intake
the spirit and substance of the broad invention as
and a discharge port therein opening onto one
de?ned‘ by the scope of the following claims.
end of said pumping elements, each of said ports
What I claim is:
being of inadequate length circularly of said ele
l. The combination in a rotary pumping mech
anism of the character described havinga change
in volume of the working ?uid e?‘ective through
ments to accommodate su?icient working ?uid
for a complete pumping cycle of said pumping
a substantial portion of a ‘pumping cycle; of
housing means forming a pumping chamber, a
pair of rotary pumping elements in said chamber
which cooperate to de?ne hollow cavities be
tween them that expand and contract to produce
cavities,-said housing means being provided with
distributing porting therein opening onto the‘
opposite end of said pumping elements, the
suction and compression phases during rotation
thereof, said housing means having intake and
discharge ports located therein adjacent one end
of said pumping elements and of inadequate
length circularly of said elements to accommo
_ date sufficient working fluid for a complete pump
ing cycle thereof with relation to the respective
pumping cavities adjacent thereto, said housing
means being provided with distributing porting
therein adjacent the opposite end of said pump
ing elements, and said distributing porting being
of sui?cient length circularly of said elements
and disposed in accurately timed relation to the
cavities in said pumping elements to balance -
elements with relation to the respective pumping
distributing porting indirectly communicated
through said expanding cavities between the
pumping elements with the inadequate intake
' port and through said contracting cavities be
tween the pumping elements with the inadequate
discharge port on the opposite end thereof, and ,
said distributing portings extending angularly of
said elements beyond said intake and discharge
ports and being so constructed and arranged that
the velocity of the Working ?uid in the pumping
cavities connecting said inadequate intake port
with its corresponding distributor port is in excess
of that required to provide only the volume nec
essary to fill the pumping cavities in communica
tion with the intake port, whereby to compensate
for a‘ change in‘ volume of'the- working fluid in
acter‘ described. comprising. means forming a
other pumping cavities notexposed to said‘ intake
pumping chamber and a- housing therefor; rotary
pumping means in said" housing, said pumping
port but. only balanced'by said distributing port
44A rotary pumping mechanism for liquids
comprising housing means forming a pumping
means exerting a. discharge and a suction e?ect
each over- a material angular extent of said
chamber'with respect to'the center of said cham
her; one end ofv said‘ chamber having an intake
chamber therein and rotary pumping means in
and. a; discharge port' opening thereinto‘ and onto
said chamber, said. pumping means exerting a
said pumping means, each’ of‘ said ports being of
suctioni effect angularly of said chamber over
substantially 180° thereof and: exerting a pressure 10 an angular extent insufficient to, accommodate
the vfullv angular extent of said discharge andisu'c
effect; over substantially the remaining 180°
tiorr effects and‘ forming thersole‘ means for in
thereof,- said: housing means‘ having an intake
roducing and discharging liquid‘ to and. from
port and" a discharge port- opening onto one end
said chamber; and: thezopposite end’ of’said cham-_
0f:saidcchamber- serving as the sole means for in.
her: having a pair of.’ blind- ports therein opening
tro'ducing and’ discharging liquid to and from said
onto said pumping‘ means; one of- the» last-men
chamber; said- ports being so materially smaller
inanguiar extent as compared to the correspond~
ing suction and discharge‘ effects of, said pumping
mechanism as to be~ inadequate for complete
functioning of said effects, the opposite end of
said chamber having a‘ pair of blind ports formed
tioned portsbeing of»: an angular extent-substam
tia'lly' equal to said suction effect of - sai'd pumping
means and being scr locatedwith respect thereto
as ' to enable‘ said suction effect‘ to \be- completely
satis?ed by‘ flow' axially through said; pumping
therein,‘ one- of said blind ports extending over
approximately the angular extent of said suction
means from said suction- port‘ and through said
one‘of said- blind-ports, and the other of said last
eiTect and“ the other of said blind‘ ports extending
over approximately the angular extent of said discharge effect, whereby‘ to enable said pumping
mechanism to exert suction and discharge effects
over- approximately the‘ complete angular extent
thereof regardless of the angular inadequacies of
said suction and: discharge ports" by cross-flow 30?
throughsaid pumping means.
5., A rotary pumping» mechanism of the char
mentioned' ports being of an angular extent sub
stantialiy equal to said discharge effect of’ said
pumping means and'being'so- located with respect
thereto as" to enable said discharge eiTect to be
completely satis?ed by-‘flow axially through said
pumping means: from said other of said.- blind
ports to said discharge port.
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