Патент USA US2408717код для вставки
Oct. 1, 1946. 2,408,716 E. s. WITCHGER PUMP CONSTRUCTION _ Filed Dec. 10, 1942 ‘ . INVENTOR. EUGENE 5. MTG/65R BY 'AITaZA/E‘Y ' 2,408,716 Patented Oct. 1, 1946 UNITE’D' STATES PATENT OFFICE PUMP CONSTRUCTION ' Eugene S. Witchger, Grosse Pointe, Mich,’ as ' .signor to Eaton Manufacturing‘ Company, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio ' Application December 10, 1942, Serial No. 468,500 . (01. 103-426) , 5 Claims. 1 - This invention relates to pumps in general, and, more particularly, concerns-a pump construction mountable directly upon an internal combustion engine'block without a separate pump body and in communication with ports in the engine block. It has been suggested heretofore to incorporate engine pump intake and discharge openings in the engine block with a view to reduction in the through a materially lesser portion of the cycle. Thechange involume of the cavities not exposed to the intake and discharge ports in the engine block being'communicated through the cavities exposed to the intake and discharge by the bal ’ ancing ports in the pump cover element. Accordingly, among the objects of the present invention are the provision of a'pump'construcé tionmountable 'directly'upona pump boss or pad cast integrally-with ‘and incidental to operations total cost of the engine, and advancement of the art in general,‘ Such suggestions insofar as ap 10 upon the engine block "and in which boss intake plicant is aware, have been limited to intake and and discharge openings inadequate to accommo discharge ports of a size and shape normally able date suificient working‘ ?uid fora full: pumping to'accommodate the timing for which the pump cycle are disposed, and over which a pair of rotor was'designed, and, also any slight coring inaccu pumping elements are positioned to beihoused by racies that might occur in the block casting oper a pump cover element containingsecondary dis ation, and which ‘would otherwise render the block tributing or balancing ports therein in timed communication with the cavities of the pumping elements through the entire pumping cycle; the merit, by providing a separate accurate porting plate insert held in predetermined relation with 20 provision in a pump construction as described of means for intaking the working fluid of the pump respect to the rotor pumping elements. However, from an inadequate primary intake port directly the present invention advances the state of the to’the pumping elements and passing it through art further and proposes to dispense with a cored secondary distributing or balancing ports dis and machined pump pocket cast integrally into'a posed in timed relation to the pumping elements boss on the engine block; and also,the separate and discharging it back to an inadequate dis por'tingplate insert by the use of primary intake charge port on the same end of thepumping ele and discharge ports having elongated openings ments as ‘the intake port; the provision in a pump at the outer ends thereof in~an engine block boss, construction as described ‘in which inadequate and which are inadequate to accommodate sul? cient working ?uid for a complete pumping cy-‘ 30 primary intake and discharge ports are disposed. worthless for a pump construction, such as the present, which is critical in its porting arrange- ' cle, by providing secondary distributingor bal ancing ports'in a pump cover ‘element that are disposed outwardly in timed'relation to the pump ing elements which overlie the elongated but in-4 adequate primary intake and discharge ports. When the primary intake and/or discharge ports are referred'to hereinafter as “inadequate” it will ‘ - directly adjacent one 'end- of the pumping ele ments, and secondary distributing porting bal-r ances the pressure through the entire-pumping cycle ‘upon the opposite end of thepumping ele ments; the provision ‘in "a-pump construction as described above in which said~_~se'condary' balanc ing ‘ports are accurately disposed in timed ‘rela tion adj acent to the outer end of the pumping ele-' be understood to mean inadequate to supply su?i ments in a pump cover element; and the provisionv cient working ?uid for all the pump cavities dur ing a complete pumping cycle, as aforementioned. 40 in a pump construction as, described in which the velocity of the working ?uid con?ned in the cavi The present invention proposes the use of a ties of thepumping elements is in excess of the highly e?icient pump construction that has re» velocity required to ?ll these cavitles'whereby to cently found much ‘favor in numerous pumping applications, which, although rather critical in the porting arrangement therefor, has increased e?lciency over the other known pump construc tions, particularly-at low speeds. Such a pump mechanism is described in the Hill Patent No. 1,682,563, ‘issued August 8, 1928, to ‘which atten tion is vdirected. Inv a rotor pump such, as de-' scribed in the present application having a change in volume through‘substantially' its entire carry enough excess working ?uid through the‘ _ pumping elements, at the position to which they are exposed to the inadequate primary ports in the engine block, to accommodate the change in' volume in the rotor elements that are notvexposed to said ports, but only balanced by the largése?‘ij ondary' porting in the cover element. ' ' Furthercand other ‘objects and advantages'of the present invention reside in the novel combi-l cycle, the intake and discharge cavities of said ' nation and arrangement of parts,_about to_be de mechanism are exposed to the intake and dis charge ports in the engine block, in this instance, ' drawing forming a part of this speci?cation and scribed, When considered in conjunction with the 2,408,716 3 pointed out with particularity in the appended claims. In the drawing like reference characters de note corresponding parts throughout the several views, and in which: Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view through a por tion of an engine block illustrating one form of this invention; and Fig. 2 is an elevational view of a pump boss cast integral with the engine block of Fig. l, illustrat ing the small elongated primary intake and dis, charge ports cast therein, and taken on the line 2--2 thereof; and Fig. 3 is an elevational view taken faeing the pump cover member with the pumping elements therein, on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1; and Fig. 4 is a further elevational, view similar to Fig. 3 with the pumping elements removed re 4 is shown in the cover member 30, which receives the outer toothed female rotor 21 with a running ?t, a pair of secondary distributing ports 34 and 35, being the intake and discharge, respectively, integral with the cover member and disposed in accurate timed relation with respect to the pump ing elements 26, 21 and the said inadequate pri mary intake and discharge openings 1135 and 31. In order to accommodate some inaccuracy and other slight coring defects which may occur in cidental to forming the engine block ID, as afore mentioned, the outer ends of the intake and dis charge passages l4 and I5 are cored out, or oth erwise, formed, to provide small elongated ported openings 36 and 31‘ communicated With the said passages, respectively, as best shown in Fig. 2. While the secondary distributing porting 34 and 35 is in this instance of substantially crescent shape it will be obvious the shape of the ports ondary balancing ports disposed in timed relation 20 maybe varied according to the requirements de to. the pumping‘ elements; and sired in the» ?nished pump to meet certain oper Fig, 5; is a'norizcntal sectional view through the ating conditions, and the speci?c form shown is pump'structure illustrating the substantially con merely for purposes of illustrating the general vealing the accurately formed and indexed see-. tiaucus. registration, throughout the pumping cycle, of the. elongated intake port with the dis tributing ports upon the opposite end, of the rotor elements, and, taken substantially on the broken principle. Additionally, the principal teaching of V the invention is equally applicable to comparable pump constructions other than. rotor pumps as hereindescribed and may be employed on vane type pumps, or, other rotary pumps having a section line 5-_-5 of Fig, 3. Now having reference to the drawing and par change in volume through substantially the en ticularly» Fig. 1, there is shown an engine block, 30 tire pump cycle, with» similar surrounding struc generally designated 10, which, has an oil sump tural limitations. The secondary porting 34 and or crankcase H at the lower portion thereof. 3.51" 1:11 the‘ inner’ face of the outer end of the cover Projecting from an end wall of the block, con veniently located adjacent the end of a driving means therein, is a boss or- pad l2 that is cast and cored out integral with the engine block and incidental to operations performed thereon. From the face of; the boss or pad l2 intake and di-scharsc- Passages l4. and I5, respectively, are drilled inwardly at any suitable angle, thereto along- wit-h the other operations performed upon the blpck‘ to provide channels for the working ?uid of_ the pump. In: communication with the passage or line [4 is a suction pipev l1 secured, theretov by means of; a ?tting" l8_ and having a ?lter screen [-8 over the lower pipe end to strain oil‘ inducted thereinto. The discharge passage 15 is commumcatcd. with oil galley it which‘ con ducts: lubricant: under pressure to any desired. point-v In order to connect triapump mechanism with a driving means; in the. engine.v a cam shaft 23 is i0 - I nailed adjacent thereto in. a pocket formedv int-h bl .handfrom the inner end‘ of: the pocket on chains.- is formed: through. the outer Wall of the block; at substantially the,» centralportion of the boss: or; pad 1,2;- for reception of a reduced end portion of; the: 0.81m Shaft 23 which serves as the drive, shaft 25 for the pumping elements. Press ?tted, or; otherwise‘ suitably keyed to the drive shaft 25; a pumping element, in this case the inner; male rotor member 26-, is secured. Sur rounding; the male» rotor 26 is an outer female rotor 2L It; will; be apparent that the female rotor Zjl has.’ one more internal cavity than the number-of generated; teeth on the male rotor 26 such as the pump construction described: in the mentioned patent; to which reference may be; had- florr a, more cqniplete description. Dis posed adjacent the outer;_ end of-the rotorele merits is-apump. cover’ element 30 having algas ket. sealing‘ means 3| pressed tot-he- 'ooss l2 and mQmbe-r 30. will be hereinafter referred to gen erally» as “distributing” porting in the specifica~ tion and claims, since these ports are not in com-v munication with the; 'primary intake and dis charge passages except through the pumping ele ments. One; of, the principal features of'this invention 40 is the- provision in a rotary type pump. of the character described‘, in which a volume change is e?ected through most of its cycle, to have the ports- which are; inadequate to accommodate. suf~ ?cient. working; ?uid for a complete pumping 1 cyclev communicate with the pumping chamber through, the same.- portioni ofv the cycle; and this is- accomplished, in the present instance by omis sion of‘ a separate porting plate insert and com— municating the pump rotors directly with said 50v inadequate ports the engine block on one end and’ on the other opposite end; of‘ the rotors by means. of said secondary‘ or distributing ports, which balance: the pressure through substantially theientireipumpl cycle, and‘ are disposed in timed 55 relation to-theirotor elements housed‘ inthe pump cover‘ member. To illustrate the principle of intaking and dis charging the' working‘ ?uid of the pump through inadequate port'means ‘which are balanced by distributing ports formed in a pump cover ele ment: that is disposed in timed relation to the pumping elements, there’ is shown in Fig. 5 a horizontal sectional. view; through the pump, as onthe; broken line: 5-—5 of'Fig. 3. From this view‘ 65 it-wrill; be seen that, to have a continuous efficient discharge; from the pump it is, essential that: the velocity of,’ the ?uid Con?ned between the. cavie.» ties-in; the; pumping element. as, at 40 be in- excess ' of the-velocity required to ?llthat volume as it isnecessary toimove enough excess?uid through, the pumping; elements atthe time’ during which each eavity'is,v exposed to the- inadequate primary ports 36 and 31. to: compensate for. the change securedinpredetermined position byany suitable fastening means- 32. iILVolume of. the cavitiesin the pumping ele~~ Now: havinarcfcrcnceitc Figs. 2,. 8. and, 4, there . ,ments, during the time they‘ are’ not exposed to 2,408,716 6 ;said.inadequate prhnaryports36 and 31 in the block but only balanced by the secondary dis tributing porting '34 and 35 in the cover element '30.. Investigation and re?ection will reveal this to be necessarily true and essential since without " such accurate timing of thesecondary distrib zutingports at one end of the‘ rotors with respect to the inadequate intakeand discharge ports at the other end of the rotors, would result in a condition Where ?uid would: be inducted into the cavities between the rotors, moved partially around aiportion of the cycle of the rotors by the rotation thereof, and'then have no place to relieve ‘or discharge the'pressure built up» in the pressures developed in the working ?uid through the same portion of the pumping cycle as-?rst mentioned, whereby a continuous e?icient dis charge is effected during that portion of the pump cycle in whicha portion of the pumping cavities communicated with said inadequate intake and discharge ports are compensated for by' the change in Volume of the working ?uid in other pumping cavities communicated therewith only through the distributing porting. ' ' 2. The combination in a rotary pumping mech anism of the character described having a change in volume of the Working fluideffective through a substantial'porticn of :a pumping cycle and in ?uid; :A rotary pump having ports inadequate 15 cluding intake and discharge ports communicated to v?ll the rotor spaces throughout the entire‘ pump’i‘cycle‘ without adequate balancing ports would beinoperative because the ?uid con?ned in'the rotor spaces not exposed to the ports would with the pumping mechanism through the same portion of the cycle; of housing means forming a pumping chamber, pumping‘ elements in said chamber which cooperate to de?ne hollow cavi be'raised to an excessive pressure, and the rotor 20. tiesltherebetween ‘that expand and contract in volume to "produce suction and ‘compression ‘spaces'notexposed to the'intake would cavitate, resultingr in an extremely inefficient pumping phases during rotation thereof, said housing means having an intake and a discharge port cycle. ‘Accordingly in’the claims, where the sec located adjacent one end of said pumping ele ondary or distributing porting is referred to as “balancing” or “compensating” cavities in the 25 ments which ports are of inadequate length 'cire larly of said elements to accommodate su?icient pumping, elements not in communication with the Working ?uid for a complete pumping cycle inadequate intake and/or discharge ports, it will thereof'with relation to the respective pumping be understoodto mean that changes in volume cavities, said housing means being provided of the workingv ?uid in these cavitiesis accom“ modated or effected through_ communication with 30, with distributing porting therein at the ‘op: the adjacent distributing porting. posite end of said pumping elements, and-said V distributing porting being of a su?icient length circularly of said element as to adopt said dis tributing porting to accommodate changes in construction directly mountable upon an engine block which has been operated upon incidental 35 pressure in the volume of the working ?uid through substantially an entire pumping cycle on to the usual casting and machining operations the opposite end of said pumping elements to thereof and may result in inadequate intake and effect a continuous e?icient discharge through the discharge ports therein to be, communicated with pumping elements from the ?rst side thereof. one end of a set of pumping elements that are 3. In a rotary pumping mechanism of the char pressure balanced upon the opposite end thereof 40 From the foregoing disclosures it will now be apparent there has been provided a novel pump by accurate distributing ports readily incorpo rated in a pump cover element, thereby eliminat ing a separate porting plate insert, and which embodies among other things the objects and acter described having a change in volume of the working ?uid effective through a substantial por ' tion of a pumping cycle and including intake and discharge ports communicated with the pumping advantages of the invention ?rst enumerated. It 45 mechanism through the same portion of the cycle; the combination of housing means forming is to be understood, however, the speci?c form of a pumping chamber, pumping elements in said the invention disclosed is merely for purposes of chamber which de?ne hollow cavities between illustration, as many other formal modi?cations them that expand and contract in volume to pro will now be suggested to those skilled in the art duce suction and compression phases during rota and in actual practice, which will come within ‘ tion thereof, said housing means having an intake the spirit and substance of the broad invention as and a discharge port therein opening onto one de?ned‘ by the scope of the following claims. end of said pumping elements, each of said ports What I claim is: being of inadequate length circularly of said ele l. The combination in a rotary pumping mech anism of the character described havinga change in volume of the working ?uid e?‘ective through ments to accommodate su?icient working ?uid for a complete pumping cycle of said pumping a substantial portion of a ‘pumping cycle; of housing means forming a pumping chamber, a pair of rotary pumping elements in said chamber which cooperate to de?ne hollow cavities be tween them that expand and contract to produce cavities,-said housing means being provided with distributing porting therein opening onto the‘ opposite end of said pumping elements, the suction and compression phases during rotation thereof, said housing means having intake and discharge ports located therein adjacent one end of said pumping elements and of inadequate length circularly of said elements to accommo _ date sufficient working fluid for a complete pump ing cycle thereof with relation to the respective pumping cavities adjacent thereto, said housing means being provided with distributing porting therein adjacent the opposite end of said pump ing elements, and said distributing porting being of sui?cient length circularly of said elements and disposed in accurately timed relation to the cavities in said pumping elements to balance - elements with relation to the respective pumping distributing porting indirectly communicated through said expanding cavities between the pumping elements with the inadequate intake ' port and through said contracting cavities be tween the pumping elements with the inadequate discharge port on the opposite end thereof, and , said distributing portings extending angularly of said elements beyond said intake and discharge ports and being so constructed and arranged that the velocity of the Working ?uid in the pumping cavities connecting said inadequate intake port with its corresponding distributor port is in excess of that required to provide only the volume nec essary to fill the pumping cavities in communica tion with the intake port, whereby to compensate 23408,?161 7 8 for a‘ change in‘ volume of'the- working fluid in acter‘ described. comprising. means forming a other pumping cavities notexposed to said‘ intake pumping chamber and a- housing therefor; rotary pumping means in said" housing, said pumping . port but. only balanced'by said distributing port ing: 44A rotary pumping mechanism for liquids comprising housing means forming a pumping means exerting a. discharge and a suction e?ect each over- a material angular extent of said chamber'with respect to'the center of said cham her; one end ofv said‘ chamber having an intake chamber therein and rotary pumping means in and. a; discharge port' opening thereinto‘ and onto said chamber, said. pumping means exerting a said pumping means, each’ of‘ said ports being of suctioni effect angularly of said chamber over substantially 180° thereof and: exerting a pressure 10 an angular extent insufficient to, accommodate the vfullv angular extent of said discharge andisu'c effect; over substantially the remaining 180° tiorr effects and‘ forming thersole‘ means for in thereof,- said: housing means‘ having an intake roducing and discharging liquid‘ to and. from port and" a discharge port- opening onto one end said chamber; and: thezopposite end’ of’said cham-_ 0f:saidcchamber- serving as the sole means for in. her: having a pair of.’ blind- ports therein opening tro'ducing and’ discharging liquid to and from said onto said pumping‘ means; one of- the» last-men chamber; said- ports being so materially smaller inanguiar extent as compared to the correspond~ ing suction and discharge‘ effects of, said pumping mechanism as to be~ inadequate for complete functioning of said effects, the opposite end of said chamber having a‘ pair of blind ports formed tioned portsbeing of»: an angular extent-substam tia'lly' equal to said suction effect of - sai'd pumping means and being scr locatedwith respect thereto as ' to enable‘ said suction effect‘ to \be- completely satis?ed by‘ flow' axially through said; pumping therein,‘ one- of said blind ports extending over approximately the angular extent of said suction means from said suction- port‘ and through said one‘of said- blind-ports, and the other of said last eiTect and“ the other of said blind‘ ports extending over approximately the angular extent of said discharge effect, whereby‘ to enable said pumping mechanism to exert suction and discharge effects over- approximately the‘ complete angular extent thereof regardless of the angular inadequacies of said suction and: discharge ports" by cross-flow 30? throughsaid pumping means. 5., A rotary pumping» mechanism of the char mentioned' ports being of an angular extent sub stantialiy equal to said discharge effect of’ said pumping means and'being'so- located with respect thereto as" to enable said discharge eiTect to be completely satis?ed by-‘flow axially through said pumping means: from said other of said.- blind ports to said discharge port. EUGENE S; W'ITCHGER. '