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Патент USA US2408758

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Oçt. 8,
PILE
_1_ FABRïc
N_ DOW
MANUFACTURÉ
vET AL
Filed >April 9, 1941
v
2 sheets-sheet 1
Izwezûíoaîs.
@et g, M460
J. N. DOW ET Al.
PILE FABRIC MANUFAGTURE
Fíled'Apríl 9, 1941
A24,.0A87, 5 6
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2,408,756
Patented Oct. 8, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
y
2,408,756
PILE FABnic MANUFACTURE
and
Ara T.
James N. Dow, Longmeadow, Mass.,
_
to Bigelow
Dildilian, Suffield, ('ëmn.,
assignor's
Inc., Thompsonville,
Sanford Carpet o.,
Conn., a corporation of Massachusetts . `
Application April 9, 1941, Serial No. 387,694
14 Claims.
(c1. 154-2)
could thus b_e effected, its
through the backing before
the adhesive reaches
flow must be stopped thus stiffens
the upstanding
and impregnates and
l
This invention relates to the use of adhesives
in the manufacture of pile fabric floor coverings
of large area made of assembled smaller pieces,
andV its Objectis to frayproof the cut edges of such
fabrics and to secure such edges together by
portion of pile tufts.
' The'object of our invention is to solve these
problems. We have done so' by the provision of
the adhesives and treatments herein disclosed for
frayprooiing and tape seaming by which the back
adhesive tape seaming in a manner which is
especially adapted for use on the common com
ing of the floor covering can be impregnated in
mercial types of Asminster, Wilton, Brussels,
tapestry or velvet pile fabric floor coverings avail
able on the market'.
'
'
the desired limited amount regardless _of its con
struction sq that the subsequently out edges are
'
effectively frayproofed and a pair of _such edges
The use of adhesives for these purposes has
presented problems which, so far as we are aware,
when abutted are' joined in an adhesive seam
that is strong and enduring.'
have not been answered despite extensive efforts
by others in this fieldand in other unrelated
fields such as in'fl'at fabric adhesive impregna
>tion with thermoplastics. kThe problems here
' "
a pile fabric floor covering 'of' commercial ÍVelvet
ì weave p'r'ior to frayprooñng, partly broken away
essentially are that the adhesive of the tape,
to show the pile loops that are concealed beneath
which should be thermoplastic to avoid the hours
of drying time involved in the use of solvents,
must not be susceptible to a 'cold flow that will
"
lin the drawings:
Figl 1 is a plan View, as seen from the back, of
the backing fabric. "
20
Fig. 2' is a vertical
let the 'seam yield and part 'even'when the floor
covering is laid under tension. The tape must,
of'Fig.
'
»
' 7
section along 'the line 2--2
.
'
k
'Figs 3, 3a and 3b are progressive vertical- sec
of course, be so strongly adhered vto the rug or
tions sliowin'gA the manne'r'in which we impreg
manently. This requires that the" frayprooflng
backing to _and
nate the fabric' of"Flgs'. l and 2` with _adhesive
carpet backing that vit will hold during' long
periods of service7 to which end the tape adhesive 25 indicating theappl'ication'f'of adhesive 'in' film
form and' showing the manner in which he'a'd
and the adhesive previously applied to the back
hesive is caused to melt` and seep through the
.ing for frayprooñng must bond firmly and per
adhesive also be thermoplastic so that 'it is sof
tened by the heat used'in applying the thermo
plastic
tape.
'
'
30
'
Where the floor covering is of the usual sort,
having the loops of the pile tufts concealed within
a densely vwoven
. structure, the use, for
frayp'roofing, of 'adhesives 'that liduefy chieñy by
'around the‘p'ile loops, but not far
enough to' reach and ' 'impregnato and thus stillen
the 'upstanding portion of >the vpile tufts.
'
Fig. 4 is a vertical section showing vtwo strips
of fabric treated as above, designate'dA. and B,
l which have been cut' and assembled withl cut
35 redges abutting and with adhesive tape superim
posed.' The application of"heat has 'resoftened
heat rather than by solvent is also: decidedly ad
vantageous because it avoids thearduous task of
evaporating large quantities of 4solvent from
within the dense backing structure which the
adhesive must permeate to reach and secure the
tuft loops. ButY the use of thermoplastics pre
sents a difficult problem of achieving the degree
vof penetration needed. When the usualAxmin
the backing impregnating' adhesiveand softened
-the tape adhesive, y,causing them to bond together.
Fig. 4d. showsv the finished seamed fabrics, right
side.' up, withv arrows indicatingy the direction" of
tension on the seam when the floor covering is
subsequently >instaled ywall to' wall in a room.
Fig. 5v shows a ' modification of the fabric
wherein' »thev pile loops are carried through the
backing fabric, a part of the surface of the back
ing being uncoate’d and the remainder coated.>
Referring tothe drawings, thefa'bric of Figs.
ster, Wilton, Brussels, tapestry or velvet 'floor
coveringis viewed from the back the pile tuft
loops are entirely invisible and the backing fabric
'
'
3 and 5, wefts land
l and 2 is composed
ofwarps
which conceals them and which the adhesive
2, and pue'tufts'a looped about wefts 2. The
must penetrate to reach and secure them is tightly
compacted and seems impenetrable. The use 0f 50 warts arid' wefts form a backing fabric within
which are concealed the loops lll of the pile tufts.
pressures of the‘sort commonly employed to effect
impregnation of fiat fabrics with thermoplastics
cannot be used on a pile fabric backing because
the pile is resilient and would yield and be crushed
before any substantial'pressure could be applied.
Furthermore, even if penetration of adhesive
For 'effective‘frayproofing' these component parts
must be secured together.' The pile 'loops must
be secured to the wefts'and preferably 'also to the
55 warps which they contact.
'
'
'
' '
3
2,408,756
'I'he adhesive which we employ for frayproofvelvet pile fabric ñoor covering), determined in
ing has as its chief ingredient a thermoplastic
accordance with “Tentative method of test for
binding agent, preferably certain resins to be
softening point-Ball and tapered ring appa
described, which not only secures the component
ratus,” A. S. T. M. designation: E28-39T. Where,
parts of the fabric against fra-ying when out, 5 in the appended claims, the terni “softening
but Which also unites effectively with the adhepoint” is used it means the softening point as
sive ofbythe
to beinapplied
and
sofdetermined in accordance with this method of
tened
thetape
heat later
employed
applying
theis tape.
test.
When the fabric is of the sort above described
We have found a number o-f adhesive compo
the adhesive also includes, compounded with the 10 sitions that will satisfy these requirements. For
binding agents, certain ingredients which we
example, we may lemploy the following ingredi
shall refer to as plasticizers and liqueñers. The
ents in parts by weight:
primary function of the plasticizers is to impart
Parts
permanent iiexibility to the binding agents and
Polyvinyl acetate (Vinylite AYAF) ________ __ 10
avoid brittleness and stiffness after application. 15 Dibutyl phthalate _______________________ __
Secondarily the plasticizers impart added fluid-
Diacetone alcohol (4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2
ity to the agent
at the
temperature
of
application
but we
haveelevated
found that
this added
pentanone)
fluidity is not suñicient to give the desired penetration on most grades of pile fabric. >If a higher 20
__________________________ __ 1.8
agellîte;
ïgeydîby
1 g
T
l v'n l 3°C et a te c OLvistitutes the bind‘n
‘y p
be 1S p
ut'l hthalaL ‘ a lasticizer. The
diacetone alcohol is the liqueñer.
To compound these materials, we preceed as
follows:
The ingredients are cold mixed and worked in
fluidity without undue softness in the adhesive 25 a Werner Pfleiderer mixer at about 70° C. The
compound may be subsequently milled and cal~
endered.
'
Our novel adhesive compounded as above de
scribed may be applied in any suitable manner
the resultant adhesive with substantially its nor- 30 such as holt melt or ñlm form. We prefer the
latter and for ease in applying we calender the
The thermoplastic adhesive must attain suñi- ` materials, preferably during their compounding,
cient fiuidity at the application temperature to
ing fabric weave under application conditions, 35 tially non-absorbent tor the adhesive and readily
yields the adhesive when cooled to room temper
ature. By using such a carrier material we ob
Viate soiling of the heating agent, preferably an
iron.
the adhesive ñlm should be approximately 3/ioo
must be limited
to avoid crushing
of the pile. 45 100ps~
_ _
_
of an inch thick
Although the amount of crushing under a given
As shown in Fi
to reach and embed the
pile
adhesive 6 is applied, adhesive side down and
the iron 8 (Fig. 3a) at the temperature above
average grade of velvet carpeting will withstand, 50 the adhesive and H'queñes it, it begins seeping
y e Pressure 0f 2 Pounds
pÉïrToSquare
inchfabric impregnation with adhesive
expedite
into the backing, as shown at zo. The high uuid
ity of the adhesive, enabling it to penetrate the
.it is desirable to use as short a dwell of tempera
ture and pressure as possible,
for which
reason 55 ment, attributable to the> presence of diacetone
~
_
temperature and pressure.
The adhesive which we employ should have
alcohol, This is a solvent for the binding agent
temperature, pressure and dwell to seep down- 60
fier will evaporate. Thereafter the adhesive is
cooled and becomes set and the carpeting will 65
cordance with the present invention.
Extensive experiments have indicated that to
down the pile and so’
be effective for this purpose the adhesive should
have a softening point of between 85° C. and
fier to prevent such. excessive penetration.
140° C. (preferably about 100° C., for an average 75
Upon removal of the heat source the adhesive
amarte.
good. bond; isv obtained both»` for“v frayproofing and'
tape; adhesion. and cold flow“ is: minimized. For
a. short time, after' Whi'cl'ri
is.l allowed: to cool for
thef carrier: 1' mayv be removedr asr shown' in' Fig..
3b'v and the@ fabric may immediately be cutï and
frayprîoofing; We prefer-‘ably-> empl‘oy thermoplastic
binding. agentsf of the same- nature as those em
ployedf'. for ordinary weaves, althoughv those ad
hesives may',.if-~ desired; be appliedto such readily
accessible loops» by the; use of solutions or emul
to shape» thev fabricv to fit1 oddly-shaped floor
siona of solutions rather' than heat softened films.
areas; the fabric'may be installedï and-usede with
The adhesive with whichthe-r rug is frayproofed >
out further treatment, although for better ap-`
pearancel some s’ortïof‘ edget binding or trimming 10 in accordance with ther foregoing“ treatments is
particularlyy well- adapted to- bond with certain
may- be employed:
tape adhesives', now to be described, by which
In additionl toA` the composition@ above specif
several pieces of frayproofed and cut fabric mayv
ically described we. have fo. i nd anurnbery of other
be seamed together at their abutting edges.
compositions that will- satisfy the: requirements
The: tape adhesive preferably consists of a
of our` invention and undoubtedly still- furtherv
materials will- occur to- those: familiar with. the 15 thermoplastic res'n which not only' bonds- with
handled without danger of frayingf.` For some
purposes, such asf- where‘/ the cut hasv been made
thezfrayprooiing: adhesive, particularly when- the
principles of" our invention. Thus, as a' binding
agent, we may employ, in place of they polyvinyl
latter is also reheated during` the! application of
the" tape, but which, after' application and cool
ing, is susceptible to~ aÍ minimum~ of- cold flow so
that the seam does' not part under tension. Our
acetatel other types of thermoplastics» such as
polyvinyl chloride", polyvinyl acetals, polyvinyl’
idin‘e chloride, mixtures' or copolymers of -these
shown that at room tempera
tures- up to 50° C. a seam madev with this tape
thermoplastics.
As» a substitute
. experiments have
for the dibutyl phthalate other
knowngpla-sticizers may be employed such as tri
should have a tensile strength sufficient to with
standl a pull in theI direction. ofy the arrows in Fig.
cresyl phosphate, butyl» ricinoleate, dibutoxy
25>> 4u; of at' least 1'00' pounds per linear inch of seam
ethyl phthalate, etc.
and a` cold@ iicw insufficient to permit partingv of
As a primary li'queñer wemay' use in place of
the seam morev than ¿e of' an inch between- the
the? diacetone alcohol- otherimaterials whichare
good solvents' for the ingredients of the plastic,
especiallyI for the thermoplasticv resin. Its- boil
abutting edges of the carpeting at the seam
under a sustained load of 25 pounds" per inch of
ing range should be such that there will. not be 3()A
a great: spread between the initial boiling. point
andthe
end point..
rI‘he vapor pressurel of the solvent must not be
seam.
,
As a preferred> example
of our tape adhesive
we employ the following materials in parts by
weight:
the compound during mixing, calendering and se Copolymer vinyl .chloracetate (Vinylite
.
so‘ high that it will’ evaporate appreciably from
storing. under normalV ‘atmospheric conditions.
VYNS)
must not be sof low as to
ì prevent
the evaporation of solvent from the' film
Hg- at 30»o C'. and an initial boiling point above135° C. and an end point below »200° C'.
'I-‘hefollowing is a list of solvents' of commercial
gradeV which mightV be» used for the purpose..
G
.
_______ ___ _________ ____-__- ____ __'l0` »
To >compound the above ingredients the tri
cresyl phosphate is first heated to a temperature
of about 105° C. after which the vinyl resin and
the stabilizer are added and> Worked in with a
i
`
'
the resultant
.kneading action. After cooling,
compound can» be worked> with heated rolls and
calendered onto-the tape- cloth in much the same
having a vapor pressure between 0.5 and 84.0 mm;
.
Parts
Tri'cresyl phosphate ____________________ __ ‘2.3
Slaked limeA_____________________________ __ 0.1
under the application conditions.
found that best results are obtained with solvents
Bmlmg ram?
'
way as smoked rubber.
.Vapor pressure
,
The' following is a further tape adhesive that
50
we . have
found effective:
`
-
Parts
Copolyrner vinyll chloracetate ('Vinylite
.__-___._d-...?-J-_F
Cellosolvc acetate. _ _ ____ _
3
VYNS)-____-_- __________________________ __ '73y
Di-2.-ethylhexoate of ` triethylene glycol____`__ 20
Diìso‘ontyl líetone _
_ _ _ __
'
~ 4
_i.sopfooyl'laetatc. _
5
Diacetone alcohol_ _
_
iNIethyl-n-besyl lieto
_ _
Butyl Cellosolve-_~ _» _.
_...
Butyl Cellosolve acetate..
'
Lead stearatoî_________ ___ __________ ___'_____
2
2
3
-
0.9'
Less thanl
The fabric of which the tape is made ris pref- `
erably of an open leno weave type for maximum
strength.. To inhibit the flow of thermoplastic
adhesive through the open meshes of the tape
and onto the heat applying device used to apply
flammability of the solvents Amust be taken into
the coated tape to the carpeting we preferably
consideration depending on the workroom con
sup’erimpose temporarily over the tape va lining
ditions.
the drawingsl we have shown a I material'. such as a highly glazed Holland cloth
In Fig. 5 of
or C'ellophane,- but we may coat the tape itself
specialv type of fabric,- available on the market,
the tape
Naturally the odor, the toxicity and the in
which may be similarto that shown in Figs. 1
to 4 except that it is woven, in accordance with
well-known practices, to cause the pile loops Illa.
to protrude through the backing fabric to ap~
pear on its exposed surface. When frayproofing
such a fabric the need for the high fluidity of the
adhesives above mentioned is, of course, obvi
' with a material which will bridge over
interstiœs
In the latter case, the bridging ma
terial must be flexible and, if thermoplastic, must
have a high softening point so that it is stable
forl av few minutes at the application temperature,
210° C., or thereabouts. For this purpose we
have effectively employed nitrocellulose lacquers,
ated but otherwise >our invention is as applicable
cellulose acetate, or the like.
toV this type of fabric as to the conventional
Weave; Thus, we employ adhesives which are
`
thermoplastic to frayproof lsuch fabricsr and on
tapes to secure cut pieces together, such that a.
After the'open weave tape has been treated
with any of the foregoing bridging compounds,
ifsuch are; used, it is coated- withv the thermo'
2,408,756.
plastic adhesive
above. For this
This calendering is effected by
bond together.
4. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric
of extensive area from assembled smaller pieces
passing the tape and thermoplastic film together
over or between heated rolls.
»
The tape is applied by an iro-n 8 preferably of
the weight and at the temperature employed as
above described with reference to Fig. 3.
i
adhesive having a softening point
of between 85° C. and 140° C., said solvent having
a low vapor pressure at room temperature and
20.
of the individual rug manufacturer.
Our inven
tion is not to be limited to such details except as
the appended claims require.
This application is a continuation in part of
our prior application Serial No. 140,696, filed May 25
4, 1937, allowed October 10, 1940, and abandoned
to the filing of the present applica
tion.
We claim:
1. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric 30
of eXtenslve area from assembled smaller pieces
5. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric
of extensive area from assembled smaller pieces
35
40
said adhesives to bond together.
6. The method of
softening point of between 85° C. and 140o C. and
composed chiefly of vinyl resin. cutting the pile
60
ric by applying to its backing an adhesive having
a softening point of between 85° C. and 140° C,
and including a thermoplastic binding agent and
a liqueñer composed of a solvent for said agent,
and said solvent having a low vapor pressure at
room temperature and being readily evaporat
able at elevated temperatures below the soften
ing point of said adhesive, and heating the ad
hesive to liquefy the adhesive and to evaporate at
least the major portion of said solvent to impreg
nate the fabric and embed the pile loops in ad
hesive, cutting the pile fabric s0 fray proofed,
assembling .a plurality of pieces so cut with their
fray proofed by an adhesive havlng a softening
point of between 85° C. and 140° C. and composed
chíeñy of vinyl resin, said pieces being seamed
`8.` The method o-f manufacturing a pile fabric
of extensive area from assembled smaller pieces
of pile'fa'bric at least some of which have pile
tuft loops concealed in a densely woven backing
fabric, which. consists in disposing pieces of fab
2,408,756
ric with their backs uppermost, applying to the
exposed backs of the woven backing fabrics ther
moplastic adhesive films in solidified condition
and containing a '
’
the fluidity
of said films when heated, heating the adhesive
under pressure to render it sufficiently fluid to
seep into the fabrics from theirbacks downward
to and around said pile loops and to cause a por
tion at least» of said liduefier to evaporate, solidi
fying the adhesive by allowing it to cool to bind
the pile loops against fraying when cut, cutting
said pieces, assembling some of said cut pieces
with at least some of their cut edges in abutting
relation, applying a tape carrying an adhesive,
composed chiefly of thermoplastic
' to the
backs of the fabric
and heating said tape to
to 9.said
Thefabrics.
method of manufacturing a pile fabric
of extensive area from assembled smaller pieces
of pile fabric at
'
of pile fabric at least some of which have pile tuft
loops concealed in a densely woven backing fab
ric, which consists in disposing pieces of fabric
with their backs uppermost, applying to the ex
posed backs of the woven backingfabrics thermo
plastic adhesive films, having a softening point
C. and 140° C'. and composed
`of
between
85° resin, in solidified condition and
chiefly
of vinyl
containing a plasticizer and a liqueiier having a
low vapor pressure at .room temperatures and
readily evaporatable at elevated temperatures be
low the softening point of said adhesive to in
crease the ñuidity of said films when heated,
heating the adhesive under pressure to render it
sufficiently fluid to seep into the fabrics from
their backs downward to and around said pile
a portion at least of said lique
fier to evaporate, solidifying the adhesive by al
lowing it to cool to bind the pile loops against
fraying when cut, cutting said pieces, assembling
20 some of said cut pieces with at least some of their
have pile
tuft loops concealed in a densely woven backing
`
`
consists in disposing pieces of fab
backs uppermost, applying tothe
cut edges in abutt
applying a tape
carrying an adhesive, composed chiefly of a co
polymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride' to the
backs of the fabric overlying their abutting edges
exposed backs of the woven backing fabrics ther 25 and heating said tape to cause the same to ad
here to said fabrics.
moplastic` adhesive films, composed chiefly of
vinyl resin, in solidified condition,
adhesive under pressure to render it sufficiently
pieces of
cealed in a densely woven
abutting cut edges frayproofed
downward to and around said pile loops, solidify 30 having
hesive, composed chiefly of vinyl resin, in engage
ing the adhesive by allowing it to cool to bind the
ment with the pile loops, said pieces being seamed
pile loops against fraying when cut, cutting said
together by tapes secured over the backs of their
pieces, assembling some of said cut pieces with at
abutting edges by an adhesive composed chiefly
least some of their cut edges in abutting rela
tion, applying a tape carrying a thermoplastic 35 of a copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride.
13. As an article of manufacture, a plurality of
adhesive to the backs of the fabric overlying their
pieces
of pile fabric having abutting cut edges
abutting edges and heating said tape to cause the
frayproofed by an adhesive composed chiefly of
same to adhere to said fabrics.
'
vinyl resin and seamed together by a tape secured
10. The method of manufacturing a pile fab
40 over’the abutting edges by an adhesive composed
ric of extensive area from assembled smaller
chiefly of a copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl
pieces of p
of which have
chloride, said adhesives being combined to form
pile tuft loops concealed in a densely woven back
a unitary bond between said pieces and said tape.
ing fabric, which consists in disposing pieces of
1-4. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric
fabric with their backs uppermost, applying to
of
extensive area from assembled smaller pieces
the exposed backs of the woven backing fabrics
of pile fabric at least some of which have pile
thermoplastic adhesive films, composed chiefly of
tuft loops concealed in a densely woven backing
vinyl resin, in solidified condition and containing
fabric, which consists in disposing pieces of fab
a plasticizer and a liquefier having a low vapor
he
pressure at room temperatures and readily evapo 50 ric with their backs
exposed backs of the woven
ratable at elevated temperatures below the sof
thermoplastic adhesive havingv
tening point of said adhesive to increase the
of between 85° C. and 140° C. and composed
fluidity of said
heated, heating the
chiefly of vinyl resin, in sufficiently fluid condi
adhesive under pressure to render it sufficiently
tion to seep into the fabrics from their backs
fluid’to seep into the fabrics from
to and around said pile loops and to 55 downward to and around said pile loops, solidify
fluid to seep into the fabrics from their backs
the pile loops against fraying when
cut, cutting said pieces, assembling some of said
ing the adhesive to bind the pile loops
fraying when cut, cutting said pieces, assembling
some of said cut pieces with at least some of their
cut edges in abutting relation, applyingbacks
a tape
of
cut pieces with at least some of their cut edges in
abutting relation, applying a tape carrying an
the fabric overlying
cause a portion at least of said liqueiier to evap
the adhesive by allowing it to
adhesive, composed chiefly of a thermoplastic
heating said tape to cause the same
resin, to the backs of the fabric overlying their
abutting edges and heating said tape to cause the
65
same to adhere to said fabrics.
said fabrics.
11. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric
of extensive area. from assembled smaller pieces
.
JAMES N. DOW.
ARA T. DILDILIAN.
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