Патент USA US2408758код для вставки
Oçt. 8, PILE _1_ FABRïc N_ DOW MANUFACTURÉ vET AL Filed >April 9, 1941 v 2 sheets-sheet 1 Izwezûíoaîs. @et g, M460 J. N. DOW ET Al. PILE FABRIC MANUFAGTURE Fíled'Apríl 9, 1941 A24,.0A87, 5 6 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 2,408,756 Patented Oct. 8, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE y 2,408,756 PILE FABnic MANUFACTURE and Ara T. James N. Dow, Longmeadow, Mass., _ to Bigelow Dildilian, Suffield, ('ëmn., assignor's Inc., Thompsonville, Sanford Carpet o., Conn., a corporation of Massachusetts . ` Application April 9, 1941, Serial No. 387,694 14 Claims. (c1. 154-2) could thus b_e effected, its through the backing before the adhesive reaches flow must be stopped thus stiffens the upstanding and impregnates and l This invention relates to the use of adhesives in the manufacture of pile fabric floor coverings of large area made of assembled smaller pieces, andV its Objectis to frayproof the cut edges of such fabrics and to secure such edges together by portion of pile tufts. ' The'object of our invention is to solve these problems. We have done so' by the provision of the adhesives and treatments herein disclosed for frayprooiing and tape seaming by which the back adhesive tape seaming in a manner which is especially adapted for use on the common com ing of the floor covering can be impregnated in mercial types of Asminster, Wilton, Brussels, tapestry or velvet pile fabric floor coverings avail able on the market'. ' ' the desired limited amount regardless _of its con struction sq that the subsequently out edges are ' effectively frayproofed and a pair of _such edges The use of adhesives for these purposes has presented problems which, so far as we are aware, when abutted are' joined in an adhesive seam that is strong and enduring.' have not been answered despite extensive efforts by others in this fieldand in other unrelated fields such as in'fl'at fabric adhesive impregna >tion with thermoplastics. kThe problems here ' " a pile fabric floor covering 'of' commercial ÍVelvet ì weave p'r'ior to frayprooñng, partly broken away essentially are that the adhesive of the tape, to show the pile loops that are concealed beneath which should be thermoplastic to avoid the hours of drying time involved in the use of solvents, must not be susceptible to a 'cold flow that will " lin the drawings: Figl 1 is a plan View, as seen from the back, of the backing fabric. " 20 Fig. 2' is a vertical let the 'seam yield and part 'even'when the floor covering is laid under tension. The tape must, of'Fig. ' » ' 7 section along 'the line 2--2 . ' k 'Figs 3, 3a and 3b are progressive vertical- sec of course, be so strongly adhered vto the rug or tions sliowin'gA the manne'r'in which we impreg manently. This requires that the" frayprooflng backing to _and nate the fabric' of"Flgs'. l and 2` with _adhesive carpet backing that vit will hold during' long periods of service7 to which end the tape adhesive 25 indicating theappl'ication'f'of adhesive 'in' film form and' showing the manner in which he'a'd and the adhesive previously applied to the back hesive is caused to melt` and seep through the .ing for frayprooñng must bond firmly and per adhesive also be thermoplastic so that 'it is sof tened by the heat used'in applying the thermo plastic tape. ' ' 30 ' Where the floor covering is of the usual sort, having the loops of the pile tufts concealed within a densely vwoven . structure, the use, for frayp'roofing, of 'adhesives 'that liduefy chieñy by 'around the‘p'ile loops, but not far enough to' reach and ' 'impregnato and thus stillen the 'upstanding portion of >the vpile tufts. ' Fig. 4 is a vertical section showing vtwo strips of fabric treated as above, designate'dA. and B, l which have been cut' and assembled withl cut 35 redges abutting and with adhesive tape superim posed.' The application of"heat has 'resoftened heat rather than by solvent is also: decidedly ad vantageous because it avoids thearduous task of evaporating large quantities of 4solvent from within the dense backing structure which the adhesive must permeate to reach and secure the tuft loops. ButY the use of thermoplastics pre sents a difficult problem of achieving the degree vof penetration needed. When the usualAxmin the backing impregnating' adhesiveand softened -the tape adhesive, y,causing them to bond together. Fig. 4d. showsv the finished seamed fabrics, right side.' up, withv arrows indicatingy the direction" of tension on the seam when the floor covering is subsequently >instaled ywall to' wall in a room. Fig. 5v shows a ' modification of the fabric wherein' »thev pile loops are carried through the backing fabric, a part of the surface of the back ing being uncoate’d and the remainder coated.> Referring tothe drawings, thefa'bric of Figs. ster, Wilton, Brussels, tapestry or velvet 'floor coveringis viewed from the back the pile tuft loops are entirely invisible and the backing fabric ' ' 3 and 5, wefts land l and 2 is composed ofwarps which conceals them and which the adhesive 2, and pue'tufts'a looped about wefts 2. The must penetrate to reach and secure them is tightly compacted and seems impenetrable. The use 0f 50 warts arid' wefts form a backing fabric within which are concealed the loops lll of the pile tufts. pressures of the‘sort commonly employed to effect impregnation of fiat fabrics with thermoplastics cannot be used on a pile fabric backing because the pile is resilient and would yield and be crushed before any substantial'pressure could be applied. Furthermore, even if penetration of adhesive For 'effective‘frayproofing' these component parts must be secured together.' The pile 'loops must be secured to the wefts'and preferably 'also to the 55 warps which they contact. ' ' ' ' ' 3 2,408,756 'I'he adhesive which we employ for frayproofvelvet pile fabric ñoor covering), determined in ing has as its chief ingredient a thermoplastic accordance with “Tentative method of test for binding agent, preferably certain resins to be softening point-Ball and tapered ring appa described, which not only secures the component ratus,” A. S. T. M. designation: E28-39T. Where, parts of the fabric against fra-ying when out, 5 in the appended claims, the terni “softening but Which also unites effectively with the adhepoint” is used it means the softening point as sive ofbythe to beinapplied and sofdetermined in accordance with this method of tened thetape heat later employed applying theis tape. test. When the fabric is of the sort above described We have found a number o-f adhesive compo the adhesive also includes, compounded with the 10 sitions that will satisfy these requirements. For binding agents, certain ingredients which we example, we may lemploy the following ingredi shall refer to as plasticizers and liqueñers. The ents in parts by weight: primary function of the plasticizers is to impart Parts permanent iiexibility to the binding agents and Polyvinyl acetate (Vinylite AYAF) ________ __ 10 avoid brittleness and stiffness after application. 15 Dibutyl phthalate _______________________ __ Secondarily the plasticizers impart added fluid- Diacetone alcohol (4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2 ity to the agent at the temperature of application but we haveelevated found that this added pentanone) fluidity is not suñicient to give the desired penetration on most grades of pile fabric. >If a higher 20 __________________________ __ 1.8 agellîte; ïgeydîby 1 g T l v'n l 3°C et a te c OLvistitutes the bind‘n ‘y p be 1S p ut'l hthalaL ‘ a lasticizer. The diacetone alcohol is the liqueñer. To compound these materials, we preceed as follows: The ingredients are cold mixed and worked in fluidity without undue softness in the adhesive 25 a Werner Pfleiderer mixer at about 70° C. The compound may be subsequently milled and cal~ endered. ' Our novel adhesive compounded as above de scribed may be applied in any suitable manner the resultant adhesive with substantially its nor- 30 such as holt melt or ñlm form. We prefer the latter and for ease in applying we calender the The thermoplastic adhesive must attain suñi- ` materials, preferably during their compounding, cient fiuidity at the application temperature to ing fabric weave under application conditions, 35 tially non-absorbent tor the adhesive and readily yields the adhesive when cooled to room temper ature. By using such a carrier material we ob Viate soiling of the heating agent, preferably an iron. the adhesive ñlm should be approximately 3/ioo must be limited to avoid crushing of the pile. 45 100ps~ _ _ _ of an inch thick Although the amount of crushing under a given As shown in Fi to reach and embed the pile adhesive 6 is applied, adhesive side down and the iron 8 (Fig. 3a) at the temperature above average grade of velvet carpeting will withstand, 50 the adhesive and H'queñes it, it begins seeping y e Pressure 0f 2 Pounds pÉïrToSquare inchfabric impregnation with adhesive expedite into the backing, as shown at zo. The high uuid ity of the adhesive, enabling it to penetrate the .it is desirable to use as short a dwell of tempera ture and pressure as possible, for which reason 55 ment, attributable to the> presence of diacetone ~ _ temperature and pressure. The adhesive which we employ should have alcohol, This is a solvent for the binding agent temperature, pressure and dwell to seep down- 60 fier will evaporate. Thereafter the adhesive is cooled and becomes set and the carpeting will 65 cordance with the present invention. Extensive experiments have indicated that to down the pile and so’ be effective for this purpose the adhesive should have a softening point of between 85° C. and fier to prevent such. excessive penetration. 140° C. (preferably about 100° C., for an average 75 Upon removal of the heat source the adhesive amarte. good. bond; isv obtained both»` for“v frayproofing and' tape; adhesion. and cold flow“ is: minimized. For a. short time, after' Whi'cl'ri is.l allowed: to cool for thef carrier: 1' mayv be removedr asr shown' in' Fig.. 3b'v and the@ fabric may immediately be cutï and frayprîoofing; We prefer-‘ably-> empl‘oy thermoplastic binding. agentsf of the same- nature as those em ployedf'. for ordinary weaves, althoughv those ad hesives may',.if-~ desired; be appliedto such readily accessible loops» by the; use of solutions or emul to shape» thev fabricv to fit1 oddly-shaped floor siona of solutions rather' than heat softened films. areas; the fabric'may be installedï and-usede with The adhesive with whichthe-r rug is frayproofed > out further treatment, although for better ap-` pearancel some s’ortïof‘ edget binding or trimming 10 in accordance with ther foregoing“ treatments is particularlyy well- adapted to- bond with certain may- be employed: tape adhesives', now to be described, by which In additionl toA` the composition@ above specif several pieces of frayproofed and cut fabric mayv ically described we. have fo. i nd anurnbery of other be seamed together at their abutting edges. compositions that will- satisfy the: requirements The: tape adhesive preferably consists of a of our` invention and undoubtedly still- furtherv materials will- occur to- those: familiar with. the 15 thermoplastic res'n which not only' bonds- with handled without danger of frayingf.` For some purposes, such asf- where‘/ the cut hasv been made thezfrayprooiing: adhesive, particularly when- the principles of" our invention. Thus, as a' binding agent, we may employ, in place of they polyvinyl latter is also reheated during` the! application of the" tape, but which, after' application and cool ing, is susceptible to~ aÍ minimum~ of- cold flow so that the seam does' not part under tension. Our acetatel other types of thermoplastics» such as polyvinyl chloride", polyvinyl acetals, polyvinyl’ idin‘e chloride, mixtures' or copolymers of -these shown that at room tempera tures- up to 50° C. a seam madev with this tape thermoplastics. As» a substitute . experiments have for the dibutyl phthalate other knowngpla-sticizers may be employed such as tri should have a tensile strength sufficient to with standl a pull in theI direction. ofy the arrows in Fig. cresyl phosphate, butyl» ricinoleate, dibutoxy 25>> 4u; of at' least 1'00' pounds per linear inch of seam ethyl phthalate, etc. and a` cold@ iicw insufficient to permit partingv of As a primary li'queñer wemay' use in place of the seam morev than ¿e of' an inch between- the the? diacetone alcohol- otherimaterials whichare good solvents' for the ingredients of the plastic, especiallyI for the thermoplasticv resin. Its- boil abutting edges of the carpeting at the seam under a sustained load of 25 pounds" per inch of ing range should be such that there will. not be 3()A a great: spread between the initial boiling. point andthe end point.. rI‘he vapor pressurel of the solvent must not be seam. , As a preferred> example of our tape adhesive we employ the following materials in parts by weight: the compound during mixing, calendering and se Copolymer vinyl .chloracetate (Vinylite . so‘ high that it will’ evaporate appreciably from storing. under normalV ‘atmospheric conditions. VYNS) must not be sof low as to ì prevent the evaporation of solvent from the' film Hg- at 30»o C'. and an initial boiling point above135° C. and an end point below »200° C'. 'I-‘hefollowing is a list of solvents' of commercial gradeV which mightV be» used for the purpose.. G . _______ ___ _________ ____-__- ____ __'l0` » To >compound the above ingredients the tri cresyl phosphate is first heated to a temperature of about 105° C. after which the vinyl resin and the stabilizer are added and> Worked in with a i ` ' the resultant .kneading action. After cooling, compound can» be worked> with heated rolls and calendered onto-the tape- cloth in much the same having a vapor pressure between 0.5 and 84.0 mm; . Parts Tri'cresyl phosphate ____________________ __ ‘2.3 Slaked limeA_____________________________ __ 0.1 under the application conditions. found that best results are obtained with solvents Bmlmg ram? ' way as smoked rubber. .Vapor pressure , The' following is a further tape adhesive that 50 we . have found effective: ` - Parts Copolyrner vinyll chloracetate ('Vinylite .__-___._d-...?-J-_F Cellosolvc acetate. _ _ ____ _ 3 VYNS)-____-_- __________________________ __ '73y Di-2.-ethylhexoate of ` triethylene glycol____`__ 20 Diìso‘ontyl líetone _ _ _ _ __ ' ~ 4 _i.sopfooyl'laetatc. _ 5 Diacetone alcohol_ _ _ iNIethyl-n-besyl lieto _ _ Butyl Cellosolve-_~ _» _. _... Butyl Cellosolve acetate.. ' Lead stearatoî_________ ___ __________ ___'_____ 2 2 3 - 0.9' Less thanl The fabric of which the tape is made ris pref- ` erably of an open leno weave type for maximum strength.. To inhibit the flow of thermoplastic adhesive through the open meshes of the tape and onto the heat applying device used to apply flammability of the solvents Amust be taken into the coated tape to the carpeting we preferably consideration depending on the workroom con sup’erimpose temporarily over the tape va lining ditions. the drawingsl we have shown a I material'. such as a highly glazed Holland cloth In Fig. 5 of or C'ellophane,- but we may coat the tape itself specialv type of fabric,- available on the market, the tape Naturally the odor, the toxicity and the in which may be similarto that shown in Figs. 1 to 4 except that it is woven, in accordance with well-known practices, to cause the pile loops Illa. to protrude through the backing fabric to ap~ pear on its exposed surface. When frayproofing such a fabric the need for the high fluidity of the adhesives above mentioned is, of course, obvi ' with a material which will bridge over interstiœs In the latter case, the bridging ma terial must be flexible and, if thermoplastic, must have a high softening point so that it is stable forl av few minutes at the application temperature, 210° C., or thereabouts. For this purpose we have effectively employed nitrocellulose lacquers, ated but otherwise >our invention is as applicable cellulose acetate, or the like. toV this type of fabric as to the conventional Weave; Thus, we employ adhesives which are ` thermoplastic to frayproof lsuch fabricsr and on tapes to secure cut pieces together, such that a. After the'open weave tape has been treated with any of the foregoing bridging compounds, ifsuch are; used, it is coated- withv the thermo' 2,408,756. plastic adhesive above. For this This calendering is effected by bond together. 4. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric of extensive area from assembled smaller pieces passing the tape and thermoplastic film together over or between heated rolls. » The tape is applied by an iro-n 8 preferably of the weight and at the temperature employed as above described with reference to Fig. 3. i adhesive having a softening point of between 85° C. and 140° C., said solvent having a low vapor pressure at room temperature and 20. of the individual rug manufacturer. Our inven tion is not to be limited to such details except as the appended claims require. This application is a continuation in part of our prior application Serial No. 140,696, filed May 25 4, 1937, allowed October 10, 1940, and abandoned to the filing of the present applica tion. We claim: 1. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric 30 of eXtenslve area from assembled smaller pieces 5. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric of extensive area from assembled smaller pieces 35 40 said adhesives to bond together. 6. The method of softening point of between 85° C. and 140o C. and composed chiefly of vinyl resin. cutting the pile 60 ric by applying to its backing an adhesive having a softening point of between 85° C. and 140° C, and including a thermoplastic binding agent and a liqueñer composed of a solvent for said agent, and said solvent having a low vapor pressure at room temperature and being readily evaporat able at elevated temperatures below the soften ing point of said adhesive, and heating the ad hesive to liquefy the adhesive and to evaporate at least the major portion of said solvent to impreg nate the fabric and embed the pile loops in ad hesive, cutting the pile fabric s0 fray proofed, assembling .a plurality of pieces so cut with their fray proofed by an adhesive havlng a softening point of between 85° C. and 140° C. and composed chíeñy of vinyl resin, said pieces being seamed `8.` The method o-f manufacturing a pile fabric of extensive area from assembled smaller pieces of pile'fa'bric at least some of which have pile tuft loops concealed in a densely woven backing fabric, which. consists in disposing pieces of fab 2,408,756 ric with their backs uppermost, applying to the exposed backs of the woven backing fabrics ther moplastic adhesive films in solidified condition and containing a ' ’ the fluidity of said films when heated, heating the adhesive under pressure to render it sufficiently fluid to seep into the fabrics from theirbacks downward to and around said pile loops and to cause a por tion at least» of said liduefier to evaporate, solidi fying the adhesive by allowing it to cool to bind the pile loops against fraying when cut, cutting said pieces, assembling some of said cut pieces with at least some of their cut edges in abutting relation, applying a tape carrying an adhesive, composed chiefly of thermoplastic ' to the backs of the fabric and heating said tape to to 9.said Thefabrics. method of manufacturing a pile fabric of extensive area from assembled smaller pieces of pile fabric at ' of pile fabric at least some of which have pile tuft loops concealed in a densely woven backing fab ric, which consists in disposing pieces of fabric with their backs uppermost, applying to the ex posed backs of the woven backingfabrics thermo plastic adhesive films, having a softening point C. and 140° C'. and composed `of between 85° resin, in solidified condition and chiefly of vinyl containing a plasticizer and a liqueiier having a low vapor pressure at .room temperatures and readily evaporatable at elevated temperatures be low the softening point of said adhesive to in crease the ñuidity of said films when heated, heating the adhesive under pressure to render it sufficiently fluid to seep into the fabrics from their backs downward to and around said pile a portion at least of said lique fier to evaporate, solidifying the adhesive by al lowing it to cool to bind the pile loops against fraying when cut, cutting said pieces, assembling 20 some of said cut pieces with at least some of their have pile tuft loops concealed in a densely woven backing ` ` consists in disposing pieces of fab backs uppermost, applying tothe cut edges in abutt applying a tape carrying an adhesive, composed chiefly of a co polymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride' to the backs of the fabric overlying their abutting edges exposed backs of the woven backing fabrics ther 25 and heating said tape to cause the same to ad here to said fabrics. moplastic` adhesive films, composed chiefly of vinyl resin, in solidified condition, adhesive under pressure to render it sufficiently pieces of cealed in a densely woven abutting cut edges frayproofed downward to and around said pile loops, solidify 30 having hesive, composed chiefly of vinyl resin, in engage ing the adhesive by allowing it to cool to bind the ment with the pile loops, said pieces being seamed pile loops against fraying when cut, cutting said together by tapes secured over the backs of their pieces, assembling some of said cut pieces with at abutting edges by an adhesive composed chiefly least some of their cut edges in abutting rela tion, applying a tape carrying a thermoplastic 35 of a copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride. 13. As an article of manufacture, a plurality of adhesive to the backs of the fabric overlying their pieces of pile fabric having abutting cut edges abutting edges and heating said tape to cause the frayproofed by an adhesive composed chiefly of same to adhere to said fabrics. ' vinyl resin and seamed together by a tape secured 10. The method of manufacturing a pile fab 40 over’the abutting edges by an adhesive composed ric of extensive area from assembled smaller chiefly of a copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl pieces of p of which have chloride, said adhesives being combined to form pile tuft loops concealed in a densely woven back a unitary bond between said pieces and said tape. ing fabric, which consists in disposing pieces of 1-4. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric fabric with their backs uppermost, applying to of extensive area from assembled smaller pieces the exposed backs of the woven backing fabrics of pile fabric at least some of which have pile thermoplastic adhesive films, composed chiefly of tuft loops concealed in a densely woven backing vinyl resin, in solidified condition and containing fabric, which consists in disposing pieces of fab a plasticizer and a liquefier having a low vapor he pressure at room temperatures and readily evapo 50 ric with their backs exposed backs of the woven ratable at elevated temperatures below the sof thermoplastic adhesive havingv tening point of said adhesive to increase the of between 85° C. and 140° C. and composed fluidity of said heated, heating the chiefly of vinyl resin, in sufficiently fluid condi adhesive under pressure to render it sufficiently tion to seep into the fabrics from their backs fluid’to seep into the fabrics from to and around said pile loops and to 55 downward to and around said pile loops, solidify fluid to seep into the fabrics from their backs the pile loops against fraying when cut, cutting said pieces, assembling some of said ing the adhesive to bind the pile loops fraying when cut, cutting said pieces, assembling some of said cut pieces with at least some of their cut edges in abutting relation, applyingbacks a tape of cut pieces with at least some of their cut edges in abutting relation, applying a tape carrying an the fabric overlying cause a portion at least of said liqueiier to evap the adhesive by allowing it to adhesive, composed chiefly of a thermoplastic heating said tape to cause the same resin, to the backs of the fabric overlying their abutting edges and heating said tape to cause the 65 same to adhere to said fabrics. said fabrics. 11. The method of manufacturing a pile fabric of extensive area. from assembled smaller pieces . JAMES N. DOW. ARA T. DILDILIAN.