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Патент USA US2408765

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Oct. 8, 1946.
H, E, VEDGERTON
2,408,764
‘HIGH-SPEED FLASH-PHOTOGRAPHY
Filed June 14, 1940
37
M81
\i
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Oct. 8. 1946.
‘H, E‘ EDGERTON
.
I
2,408,764
HIGH- SPEED FLASH-PHOTOGRAPHY
Filed June 14, 1940
u
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
8Z1 iLiwg'w/{a '1'.
Memo 5. £065,770”
2,408,764
Patented Oct. 8, 1946 _ -
UNITED ' STATES ‘ PATENT
OFFICE
'
'
will?$31112:M... ‘
Application June 14, 1940, Serial N0. 340,580
'
44 Claims.
1
,The present'invention relates to methods, sys
tems and apparatus designed for ?ash-photog
raphy, and more particularly high-speed ?ash
photography such, for example, as are used to
photograph large audiences and like scenes by
arti?cial light.
I
It has heretofore been proposed to illuminate
' the object to be photographed with the aid of
several widely spaced light sources located at
(01. 240-2)
2
they are located in pomtions for receiving light
from the master-light source.
.
According to the preferred embodiment of the
invention, this result is attained by providing each
of the units l8, l9 and 2i with some photosensi
tive element, such as a photo-electric cell 5, each
cell 5 being connected to initiate the ?ash of the
particular unit with which it is associated. Irre
spective of which unit l8, l9 or 2| may be con
di?erent positions with respect to the object, and 10 nected directly to the switch ll, therefore, the
photo-electric cells 5 of the other units will re
with the aid of electrical wiring between the light
spond immediately to the light of the ?ash pro
sources.
duced by that unit to ?ash the ‘other units also.
An object of the present invention, however, is
The lamps must be so positioned, of course, that
to provide a ?ash-photography method and sys
tem of the above-described character that shall 15 a ?ash from one of the lamps shall be directed
upon the photo-electric cells 5 of the other lamps
operate at high speed.
‘ _
as well as upon the object“, though this may be
Other and further objects will be described
effected by re?ected light as well as directly. The
hereinafter and will be particularly pointed out
difference in time between the ?ash of the ?rst
-in the appended claims.
The invention will now be described more fully 20 unit to ?ash and the responsive ?ashes of the
other units may be made of the order oil/10,000 of
in connection with the accompanying drawings,
a second, or less. This it is possible to accom
in which Fig. l is a perspective of apparatus that
plish because the photographically effective peaks
may be used in the carrying out ,of the present
of illumination of the ?ash-lamps have a time
invention; Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram that may
duration of this very small order.
be employed in practicing the invention, the fo
For practical purposes, this time difference is so
cussing-lamp circuit and other circuits being
small that the ?ashes are, in effect, simultaneous;
omitted for clearness; Fig. 3 is a fragmentary
the photographically. effective peaks of illumina
modi?ed circuit diagram; Fig. 4 is a diagram
tion of the later lamps to ?ash occur during the
matic perspective of preferred apparatus, shown
by dashed lines, with circuit connections thereto; 80 very small time duration of the first lamp to ?ash.
The resulting photograph of the object 8 is the
and Fig. 5 is a diagram of a further modi?cation‘.
same as though the lamp units l8, l9 and 2| do,
A plurality of normally unenergized electric
indeed, ?ash instantaneously, in actual rigorous
?ash-lamp re?ector units are shown in Fig. l
and precise synchronism; the lamps all ?ash
widely spaced in various parts of a room, at a
together in, unison at a time when the shutter
substantial distance from one another, in order 36 still remains open, for the time of shutter opening
that they may be focussed upon an object 8 to be
of commercial high-speed shutters is about 1/400
photographed with the aid of a camera l3. The
of a second; and this permits of all the light of
object 8 is shown as a potted plant, but it may be
the ?ashes to be utilized on the camera ?lm
a large audience or a like scene illuminated by
before the shutter closes.
‘
>
arti?cial light, Each lamp comprises a flashing 40 The switch 14 and the photo-electric cells 5 are
tube 2. A camera-shutter-synchronization switch
all independent of one another, but the cells 5 all
ll, operated from the camera shutter l5 in re
respond to the ?ash of light produced when the
sponse to the opening thereof, is connected by
switch [4 becomes closed.
wire conductors l6 and II to one lamp unit l8
only, The lamp 2 of the unit l8 may be referred
to as the master-light source, preliminarily lo
cated to illuminate. one portion of the scene. Upon
the closing of the switch H, through manipulation
of the shutter IS, the master-light-source unit l8 50
will produce a ?ash. The master-light source l8
may therefore be illuminated at will.
Other units, two of which are shown at 19 and
2i, and which may be preliminarily located in .
The switch I‘, when closed, thus serves to ?ash
one tube 2 in synchronism with the camera shut
ter l5 at the instant that the shutter I5 is opened.
The sensitized photographic surface thereupon
becomes uncovered to the scene to be photo
graphed simultaneously with the illumination of
the scene by the master-light source and the
slave-light source. All the tubes 2 will ?ash to
gether, due to the photo-electric-cell trip units
5, the energy received by which from the ?rst
position for illuminating another desired portion 55 tube 2 to ?ash will be ampli?ed by relay amplify
of the scene, will thereupon be energized to ?ash
ing tubes 8, as hereinafter‘explained. I
in response to the ?ashing oi- the unit i8, since
The lamp units it, I9 and II are each shown
supported upon a. rod 84 that is mounted-upon a
they are controllable by light from the master
portable stand 22 that carries also a box in which
light source "I. The lamps of these other units
?may be referred to as slave-light sources, since 60 isvenclosed most of the circuit apparatus and
9,408,784
upon the upper surface of which is mounted the
photo-electric cell 5. The lamp units are tele
scopically adjusted vertically and rotatably upon
the rods 34 and may be clamped in vertically and
rotatably adjusted position by clamp nuts 85.
Pivotal adjustment of each unit upon the rod 84
may be effected about a pivot 36. Connection is
made to a power source by means of an input
ll, contained in the cable 4i, to the condenser 24
and a trigger starting or control electrode Hill.
The condenser 28 is connected by the conduc
tors 49 and 5| also to a bleeder resistor 33, 34 in
series with a bleeder resistor 3|, in parallel with
the tube 2. The circuit associated with the tube
2 for energizing the tube 2 is normally ineffective,
as the tube 2 is normally non-conducting, but the
condenser 26 will discharge through the tube 2
when the normally ineffective ampli?er 5 becomes
momentarily effective, or when the switch H be
comes closed. A trigger tube l4!) may be con
plug 24, a separate such plug 24 being provided
for each unit. ‘The plug 24 is connected to cir
cuits in the box 23 by a cable, the conducting
wires 25 of which enter the upper surface of the
box at 21. If the source of power is alternating,»
as is the case with the ordinary l10-volt alter
nating-current mains, the plug 24 may be con 15
nected, by the wires 25 and further wires 32 (see
Figs. 2 and 4), through a hand power switch 31,
on the upper surface of the box 23, to the primary
winding I44 of a transformer 148, the secondary
winding I41 of which is connected, through a 20
rectifier 20, and a charging impedance 35, which
may be constituted of inductance or resistance,
spark coil.
or both, to a condenser 25. A rectified or direct
transformer 30 is connected to the anode 6 and
nected to a terminal 53 and a grounded terminal
54, at the ends of the bleeder resistor 33, 34, so
as to be supplied with voltage therefrom. These
resistors are so proportioned that a desired volt~
age of, say, 300 volts shall appear across the ter
minals 53 and 54. To the terminals 53 and 54
there are also connected, in series with a con
denser 28, a primary winding 35 of a transformer
30, which may be constituted of a well known
The secondary winding 29 of the
current source I48, 20 is thus provided for charg
the trigger control electrode H10.
ing the condenser 26 to a voltage, say of 2,000 ,
‘he trigger tube i413 may be a thyratron, as
described in United States Letters Patent
Fi,l81,879, issued December 5, 19139, or it may be
of the type that is disclosed, for example, in
volts.
,
The plug 24 is connected by the wires 25 and
wires 38 (Fig, 4), in parallel to the wires 32,
through a hand switch 39 on the upper surface of
Letters Patent 2,185,189, issued January 2, 1940,
the box 23 (Figs. 1 and 4), to a focussing lamp
40. Each re?ector unit I8, i9 and 2| is provided
with one of these focussing lamps 40 in addition
to the ?ashing lamp, and the wires 38 therefor
‘to Kenneth J. Germeshausen. It may comprise
an evacuated glass envelope ?lled with a suitable
gas, such as neon, and is provided with a plurality
are contained in the same cable 4| as the wires
anode or plate 52, and one or more grids, inner
for the flashing lamp, which 1ast~named wires
extend from the box 23 at 42. The focussing lamp
40 may be of the type illustrated and described
of electrodes, namely,
solid cathode 48, an
and outer grids being shown at 55 and 5B, between
the cathode 48 and the anode 50. An impedance
S5 is connected between the cathode 43 and ‘the
grid 55, and the resistor 33 is connected between
the cathode 48 and the grid 50, between the ter~
in Letters Patent 2,277,697, issued March 31,
1942, to Herbert E. Grier, but other focussing
lamps may be employed. The function of the 40 mlnal 53 and a terminal 58.
focussing lamp 40 is to provide weak continuous
As described in the said Letters Patent 2,185,189,
light for lining up the re?ector and focussing the
the cathode 48 may comprise a metal cup con“
camera prior to operating the ?ash lamp for pro
taining a pill 55 constituted of a mixture of ma
ducing the exposure.
terials that can react chemically to produce a
The transformer I48 is provided with a furtl'icri' 4.55 substance of relatively low work-function, such
secondary winding 43 (Figs 2 and 4) for supply
as caesium chloride and aluminum ?lings. The
ing energy to a signal pilot lamp 44, also provided
pill 55 is held in place by a wire-mesh screen 5i.
on the upper surface of the box 23. The signal
The source of the electrons is a bright cathode
lamp 44, therefore, becomes illuminated upon the
spot on the surface of the pill 56.
closing of the hand switch 31, thus indicating that 50
The ampli?er tube 3 may be of the three-ele—
the condenser 28 is connected to its source of
ment, gas~filled type, such as is obtainable in the
energy. The box 23 carries, also, on its upper
market under the designation OA4G, provided
surface, a hand-controlled trip switch 45 for oper
with a cathode 54, a control electrode or grid 65
ating the flash lamp by discharging the condenser
and an anode 68. It may also, like the tube l40,
26 when the preliminary adjustments have all 55 however, be of the type disclosed in the said
been completed. The trip switch 45 is connected
Letters Patent 2,185,189. The tube 9 may also
in parallel with the camera shutter synchroniza
‘be a vacuum tube, with a heated cathode. rl‘he
tion switch l4, when the plug 46 has been inserted
ampli?er 9 is normally non-effective, but may
into a socket 41 carried on a side of the box 23.
be rendered effective by the action of the photo~
Either the trip switch 45 or the camera switch l4 60 cell 5, in response to the light from a flash. Upon
or any other set of contacts plugged into the
becoming thus rendered effective, it renders m0
socket 41, as well as the photo-electric cell
mentarily effective the normally non-effective
I, will control the instant of flash of the flash
circuit of the tube I40, to permit the condenser
lamp 2. On the upper surface of each box 23 is
26 to discharge through the tube 2, thereby to
mounted also a relay ampli?er tube 9. Further
eifect the momentary ?ashing of the tube 2.
electrical apparatus and wiring, hereinafter to be
Promptly thereafter, the circuit becomes ineffec
described, is contained inside the box 23.
tive once more, thus automatically extinguishing
The ?ash-lamp 2 may have any desired form,
the lamp. This operation results in very rapid
for providing an intense ?ash of light. In Fig. 2,
flashing, for the lamp becomes extinguished
it is shown in the form oi’ a straight tube, but in 70 promptly after it ?ashes.
Figs. 3 and 4, it is shown of the coiled-tube type.
An impedance 3 is connected between the
It may contain krypton, argon, neon or any other
cathode 64 and the control electrode 56 and an
suitable gas or mixtures of gases. It is provided
impedance 1 between the control electrode 55 and
7 with two terminals, constituted of a cathode 6
the anode 68. The impedances 3 and 1 may be
and an anode 4,-connected by conductors 43 and 75 resistors, The photo-electric cell 5 is also shown
2,408,784
connected between the control electrode 66 and
the anode 68, in parallel with the impedance 1.
voltage across the resistors 33, 34 is zero, prevent
A condenser I0 is connected between the cathode
64 and the anode 68 so as to discharge through
the tube 9 in response to the action of the photo
electric cell 5.
The ?ash-lamp 2 of any unit, as before stated,
allowing the tube to deionize. The time taken for
the circuit to function from the closing of the
switch I4 or the operation of the photo-electric
may be tripped by the switch I4, the switch 45,
or the photo-electric cell 5. If .tripped by the
switch I4, in response to the action of the camera
shutter I5, then the ?ash-lamps'2 of the other
units will be tripped by the action of the photo
ing the condenser 28 from charging again and '
gell 5 to the ?ash of light from the tube 2 is very
rief.
According to themodi?cation of Fig. 3, the tube
3 may be omitted. The photo-electric cell 5 is
connected, through a capacitor I59, to the grid
55 of the tube I40, an impedance 1!! is connected
between the grid 55 and the anode 52, and a con- '
denser 28a. is connected across the resistors 33
and 34. The trip condenser 28 is connected in
?ash, as before described. The switch I4 and
the photo-electric cell, therefore, are both con 15 series with the trip transformer 30. This sim
plicity of connection is obtained, however, at the
nected across the terminals 54 and 58, respec
expense of some degree of sensitivity. Higher
tively connected to the anode 52 and the grid 50
sensitivity than that obtained with the system
of the tube I40.
.
,
of Fig. 2, on the other hand, may be attained by
The circuit may be traced from the‘ terminal
58, connected to the grid 50, through a blocking 20 the use of more sensitive amplifier tubes or cir
cuit adjustments. The ampli?er is made more
condenser 59 and a leak resistor 91, in parallel,
or less sensitive, so that the ?ash of light from the
by way of a conductor 60, to a terminal 6|. The
electric cells 5 of those units in response to the '
circuit continues through the tube 9 and the re
‘ ?rst tube 2 to ?ash shall operate the other lamps
2, but so that dimmer ?ashes from other sources sistors 3 and 'I, by way of a conductor 62, through
a blocking condenser I2 and a leak resistor II, 25 shall not cause any of the lamps 2 to operate at
undesired times.
in parallel to a terminal 63. From the terminal
The photo-electric cell and amplifier arrange
63, the circuit continues, by way of a conductor
ment for use in the present invention may be of
65 and the conductor 5|, to the grounded ter
~ any conventional type such as are in extensive use
minal 54, which is connected to the anode 52.
The photo-electric cell 5 is enabled to trip this 30 today. The only requirement is that the pick-up
action must be rapid and the signal not delayed
circuit by reason of its connection between the
by the ampli?er or photo-electric cell.
grid 66 and the anode 68, in parallel to the re
The invention is not restricted to use with
sistor ‘I. The switch I4 is enabled to trip this cir
photo-electric cells. In Fig. 5, for example, the
cuit by reason of the fact that the socket 41, to
camera shutter I5 is shown setting into operation‘
which the switches I4 and 45 are connected in
a ?ash-lamp unit 8I adapted, at will, to transmit
parallel, by conductors ll and ‘I3, respectively is
radio waves that may be received by radio re
connected between the conductors 60 and 65.
ceivers preliminarily distributed about the scene,
The photo-electric cell 5 and the switch I4 are
one of which receivers is illustrated at 02. The
thus each enabled to trip the tube 2 by reason of
their connection to the grid 50 of the tube I40, 40 radiation source 8| here performs the function of
the master unit I8 before described, and the radio
which controls the tripping transformer 30.
receivers 82 are controllable by radiation from the
The control by means of the photo-electric cell
radiation source BI. Each radio receiver 82 may
5 is e?ected at the moment that a ?ash of light
be connected by wires 83 to the grid 50 or some
from another unit strikes the cathode thereof,
other portion of the grid circuit of a gas-?lled
effecting a change of potential on the grid 66 of
trigger‘ tube I40 for controlling the ?ashing of
the relay tube 9. The tube 9, which is normally
the tube 2.
non-conducting, becomes thereupon conducting,
Further modi?cations will occur to persons
causing a sudden surge to become impressed upon
skilled in the art and all such are considered to
the grid 50 of the tube I40.
fall within the spirit and scope of the invention,
In operation, the condenser 26 starts to become
as de?ned in the appended claims.
‘
charged from the direct-current source I48, 20,
What is claimed is:
the tube vI40 being non-conductive. The source
1. Apparatus of the character described for
I48, 20 charges the condenser 28 at the same time
photographing an object having, in combination,
at a slow rate, through the resistor 3I and the
primary winding 36. At any time after the volt 55 a plurality of widely spaced normally unener
gized ?ash lamps for producing ?ashes to illumi
age across the condenser I0 reaches its maximum
nate the object, a. camera having a shutter,
value, the switch I4 of one unit or the photo
means controlled by the shutter for ?ashing one
electric cells 5 of the other units may be caused
of the lamps, and means responsive to the ?ash
to function, raising the potential of the grid 50
until the break-down voltage between the grid 60 produced by the said one lamp for ?ashing an
other lamp.
50 and the cathode 48 is exceeded, and the trigger‘
2. Apparatus of the character described for
tube I40 becomes conducting. The condenser 28
photographing an object having, in combination,
then discharges through the condenser-discharge
a plurality of ?ash-lamps for producing ?ashes
circuit comprising the tube I40 and the primary
winding 36 of the transformer 30. The resulting 65 to illuminate the object, a camera having a shut
ter, a plurality of means, one associated with
high-voltage surge of the secondary winding 20
each of a plurality of the lamps, and individually
of the transformer 30 is applied to the trigger
controllable by the shutter to ?ash the respective
electrode I00 of the tube 2. This causes the gas
lamps selectively, and means for thereupon ?ash- - 7
in the tube 2 to ionize, permitting the condenser
26 to discharge through the ?ash lamp 2 between 70 ing the other lamps.
3. Apparatus of the character described for
its electrodes, producing a very brilliant flash of
photographing an object having, in combination,
short duration. When the condenser 26 is fully
a plurality of ?ash-lamps for producing ?ashes
discharged, the tube promptly extinguishes and
to illuminate the object, a. camera having a shut
the cycle is ready for repetition.
When the condenser 26 is fully discharged, the 75 .ter, a plurality of means, one associated with
7
2,408,764
each of a plurality of the lamps, and individually
?ash-lamps e?’ective, means for automatically
rendering the said circuit ineffective promptly
after the said one ?ash-lamp becomes lumines
controllable by the shutter to ?ash the respective
lamps selectively, and photosensitive means, one
associated with each of the other lamps, ior
?ashing the said other lamps.
4. Apparatus of the character described for
photographing an object having, in combination,
a plurality oi widely spaced ?ash-‘lamps that are
cent promptly to extinguish the said one ?ash
Cl
lamp, whereby the said one ?ash-lamp becomes
luminescent momentarily only to produce a ?ash,
means responsive to the ?ash produced by the
said one ?ash-lamp for rendering the circuit as—
unconnected by electric wiring for producing
sociated with another ?ash~lamp effective, and
?ashes to illuminate the object, a camera having 10 means for automatically rendering the said cir
a shutter, means controlled by the shutter tor
cuit associated with the said other ?ash-lamp in
?ashing one of the lamps, and means controlled
effective promptly after the said other. ?ash~
by the ?ashing of the said one ‘lamp for ?ashing
lamp becomes luminescent promptly to extin
the other lamps.
guish the said other ?ash~lamp, whereby the said
5. Apparatus of the character described for
other ?ash-lamp becomes luminescent momen
photographing an object having, in combination,
tarily only to produce a
substantially simul
a plurality of widely spaced ?ash-lamps that are
taneously with the flash‘ produced by the said
unconnected by electric wiring for producing
one ?ash-lamp.
?ashes to illuminate the object, a camera having
10. Apparatus of the character described for
a shutter, means controlled by the shutter for 20 photographing an object having, in combination,
?ashing one of the lamps, and photosensitive
a master-light source for illuminating the objec ,
means controlled by the ?ashing of the said one
a slave~1ight source for illuminating the object,
lamp for ?ashing the other lamps.
means for illuminating the master-light source,
6. Apparatus of the character described for
photosensitive means for illuminating the slave
photographing an object having, in combination,
light source with the illumination of the master~
a plurality of ?ash-lamps positioned at a sublight source, and means for exposing a sensitized
stantial distance from one another in order that
photographic surface simultaneously with the il
they may produce ?ashes upon the object from
lumination oi’ the object by the masteriélight
substantially different directions, a camera have
source and the slave-light source.
ing a shutter, means controlled by the shutter for ,
11. Apparatus of the character described hav
?ashing one of the lamps, and photosensitive
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un»
means associated with another lamp and respon»
energized ?ash-lamps each provided with a cath
‘ sive to the ?ash‘ produced by the said one lamp
for ?ashing the said other lamp.
7. Apparatus of the character described for
photographing an object having, in combination,
a plurality of ?ash-lamps positioned at a sub»
stantial distance from one another in order that
they may produce ?ashes upon the object from
ode and an anode between which current may be
caused to ?ow when the respective ?ash-lamps
are energized, thereby to render the respective
?ash~lamps luminescent, a plurality of normally
ineffective circuits respectively associated with
the respective ?ash-lamps and respectively op
erable when eiiective to energize the respective
substantially different directions, a plurality of 40 ?ash-lamps to cause current to ?ow between the
normally ineffective circuits respectively associ
cathodes and the anodes thereof, a normally
ated with the respective lamps for respectively
ineffective discharge device operative when ef
energizing the respective lamps, a camera having
fective to render the circuit associated with one
a shutter, means controlled by the shutter for
of the flash-lamps effective, means for render
rendering one of the circuits effective to cause
ing the discharge device effective, means for au
the lamp associated therewith to produce a ?ash,
tomatically rendering the said circuit ineilective
and photosensitive means associated with an
promptly after the said one ?ash-lamp becomes
other lamp and responsive to the ?ash produced
luminescent promptly to extinguish the said one
by the said one lamp for rendering another cir
?ash-lamp, whereby the said one ?ash-lamp be
cuit effective to cause the said other lamp to pro~
comes luminescent momentarily only to produce
50
duce a ?ash.
,
a ?ash, a second normally ineffective discharge
8. Apparatus or the character described hav~
device operative when effective to render the cir
ing, in combination, a support, a normally unen
cuit
associated with another flash~lamp effective,
ergized gaseous-discharge ?ash-lamp carried by
means responsive to the ?ash produced by the
the support, means carried by the support for
said one flash~lamp for rendering the second dis
connecting the lamp to a source of power, a
charge device effective, and means for automati
camera having a shutter means controlled by the
cally
rendering the said circuit associated with
shutter for energizing the lamp to ?ash it, means
the said other ?ash~lamp ineffective promptly
for extinguishing the lamp promptly after it has
after the said other ?ash-lamp becomes lumines
?ashed, and means carried by the support for
cent promptly to extinguish the said other ?ash
?ashing the lamp in response to illumination
lamp, whereby the said other flash-lamp becomes
from an external source.
luminescent momentarily only to produce a ?ash
9. Apparatus of the character described hav
substantially simultaneously with the flash pro
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un
duced by the said one ?ash-lamp.
energlzed ?ash-lamps each provided with a cath 65
12. Apparatus of the character described hav
ode and an anode between which current may be
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un
caused to ?ow when the respective ?ash-lamps _ energized flash-lamps each provided with a cath
are energized, thereby to render the respective
ode and an anode between which current may be
?ash-lamps luminescent, a plurality of normally
caused to ?ow when the respective ?ash-lamps
ine?ectlve circuits respectively associated with 70 are energized, thereby to render the respective
the respective ?ash-lamps and respectively oper
?ash-lamps luminescent, a plurality oi! normally
able when e?ective to energize the respective
ine?ective circuits respectively associated with
?ash-lamps to cause current to ?ow between the
the respective ?ash-lamps and respectively oper
cathodes and the anodes thereof, means for ren
‘able when effective to energize the respective
during the circuit associated with one or the 75 ?ash-lamps to cause current to ?ow between the
2,408,784
9
10
the said one ?ash-lamp becomes luminescent mo
mentarily only to produce a flash, inertia-less
rent to flow between the cathodes and the anod
thereof, each unit having a switch for rendering
its circuit effective and having also photosensitive
means operable independently of its switch in re
sponse to light rays from the ?ash-lamp of an
other unit to render its circuit effective, and each
unit having means for automatically rendering its
circuit ine?ective promptly after‘ its flash-lamp
means responsive to the ?ash. produced by the
becomes luminescent promptly to extinguish its
' cathodes and the anodes thereof, means for ren
dering the circuit associated with one of the flash
lamps e?'ective, means for automatically render
ing the said circuit ineffective promptly after the
said one ?ash-lamp becomes luminescent prompt
ly to extinguish the said one ?ash-lamp, whereby
vsaid one ?ash-lampfor rendering the circuit as 10 ?ash-lamp.
sociated with another ?ash-lamp effective, and
16. Apparatus of the character described for
means for automatically rendering the said cir
photographing an object having, in combination,
a plurality of widely spaced normally unenergized
cuit associated with the said other ?ash-lamp in
effective promptly after the said other ?ash-lamp
?ash-lamps for producing ?ashes to illuminate
becomes luminescent promptly to extinguish the 15 the object, each flash-lamp being provided with
said other flash-lamp, whereby the said other
a cathode and an anode between which current
flash-lamp becomes luminescent momentarily
may be caused to flow when the respective ?ash
only to produce a ?ash substantially simultane
lamps are energized. thereby to render the re
o-usly with the ?ash produced by the said one
spective ?ash-lamps luminescent, a plurality of.
?ash-lamp.
normally ineiTective circuits respectively asso
13. Apparatus of the character described hav
ciated with the respective ?ash-lamps and re
spectively operable when effective to energize the
ing, in combination, a unit having a normally
unenergized ?ash-lamp provided with a cathode
respective ?ash-lamps to cause current to ?ow
and an anode between which current may be
between the cathodes and the anodes thereof, a
caused to flow when the ?ash-lamp is energized, 25 normally ineffective camera, means for rendering
thereby to render the ?ash-lamp luminescent, the
the camera effective and for rendering the circuit
flash-lamp having also a normally unenergized
associated with one of the ?ash-lamps effective,
triggering electrode that may be energized to
means for automatically rendering the said cir
energize the lamp, the unit having a normally in
cuit ineffective promptly after the said one ?ash
effective circuit associated with the ?ash-lamp 30 lamp becomes luminescent promptly to extin
guish the said one ?ash-lamp, whereby the said
and operable when effective to energize the elec
one ?ash-lamp becomes luminescent momentar
trode to cause current to ?ow between the ‘oath
ily ‘only to produce a flash, means responsive to
ode and the anode of the ?ash-lamp, the unit
the ?ash produced by the said one ?ash-lamp for
having a switch for rendering the circuit effec
tive to energize the electrode, the unit having also 35 rendering the circuit associated with another
photosensitive means operable independently of
?ash-lamp effective, and means for automatically
the switch in response to light rays to energize the
rendering the said circuit associated with the said
other ?ash-lamp ineifective promptly after the
electrode to render the circuit effective, and the
unit having means for automatically rendering
said other ?ash-lamp becomes luminescent
the circuit ineffective, thereby deenergizing the 40 promptly to extinguish the said other ?ash-lamp,
whereby the said other ?ash-lamp becomes lumi
electrode, promptly after the ?ash-lamp becomes
luminescent promptly to extinguish the ?ash
nescent momentarily only to produce a?ash sub
stantially simultaneously with the hash produced
lamp, whereby the ?ash-lamp becomes lumines
by the said one flash—lamp.
cent momentarily only to produce a flash.
17. Apparatus of the character described for
14. Apparatus of the character described hav
photographing an object having, in combination,
ing, in combination, a unit having a normally un
a plurality of widely spaced normally unenergized
energized flash-lamp provided with a cathode
?ash-lamps for, producing ?ashes to illuminate
and an anode between which current may be
the object, each flash-lamp being provided with
caused to ?ow when the ?ash-lamp is energized,
thereby to render the ?ash~lamp luminescent,
a cathode and an anode between which current
the ‘unit having a normally ineffective circuit as
sociated with the ?ash-lamp and operable when
effective to energize the ?ash-lamp to cause cur-1
rent to flow between the cathode and the anode
thereof, the unit having a switch for rendering
the circuit effective, the unit having also photo
sensitive means operable independently of the
switch in response to light rays to render the cir
cuit effective, and the unit having means for
may be caused to flow when the respective ?ash
lamps are energized, thereby to render the re
spective ?ash-lamps luminescent, a plurality of
normally ineffective circuits respectively asso
ciated with the respective ?ash-lamps and re
spectively operable when effective to energize the
respective ?ash-lamps to cause current to ?ow
between the cathodes and the anodes thereof, a
camera having a shutter, means for operating the
automatically ‘rendering the circuit ineffective 60 shutter and rendering the circuit associated with
one of the ?ash-lamps effective, means for auto
promptly after the ?ash-lamp becomes lumines
matically rendering the said circuit ineffective
cent promptly to extinguish the ?ash-lamp,
promptly after the said one ?ash-lamp becomes
whereby the ?ash-lamp becomes luminescent
luminescent promptly to extinguish the said one
momentarily only to produce a ?ash.
?ash-lamp, whereby (the said one ?ash-lamp be
15. Apparatus of the character described hav
comes luminescent momentarily only to produce
ing, in combination. a plurality of units each
a ?ash, means responsive to the‘fiash produced
having a normally unenergized ?ash-lamp pro
by the said one ?ash-lamp for rendering the cir
vided with a’ cathode and an anode between which
cuit associated with another ?ash-lamp e?ective,
current may be caused to flow when the respec
and means for automatically rendering the said
tive ?ash-lamps are energized, thereby to render
circuit associated with the said other ?ash-lamp
the respective ?ash-lamps luminescent, a plural
ine?'ective promptly after the said other ?ash
ity of normally ineffective-circuits respectively
lamp becomes luminescent promptly to extin
associated with the respective units and respec
guish the said other ?ash-lamp, whereby the said
tively operable when effective to energize the
75
other ?ash-lamp becomes luminescent momen
?ash-lamps of the respective units to cause our
9,408,764
11
tarily only to produce a flash substantially simul
taneously with the ?ash produced by the said one
flash-lamp.
18. Apparatus of the character described hav
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un~
energized ?ash-lamps, means for storing elec
tric energy, means for charging the energy-stor
ing means to store energy therein, means for
effecting a discharge of the stored energy
through one of the lamps to energize the
said one lamp, thereby to cause the said one lamp
to produce a flash, and means responsive to the
?ash produced by the said one lamp for effecting
a discharge of the stored energy through another
lamp to energize the said other lamp, thereby to
cause the said other lamp to produce a ?ash.
19. Apparatus of the character described hav
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un
energized ?ash-damps of a type that, when suc~
12
peak of illumination of very small time dura
tion followed by prompt extinguishment, a first
normally ineffective circuit for energizing one of
the lamps when rendered effective, a second
normally ineffective circuit for energizing another
lamp when rendered effective, means for ren
dering the first circuit momentarily effective to
cause the said one lamp to produce a ?ash, an
amplifier connected with the second circuit,
means responsive to the flash produced by the
said one lamp and operable through the ampli
her for momentarily rendering the second circuit
effective to cause the said other lamp to pro
duce a ?ash, and means whereby the peak of
illumination of the ?ash of the said other lamp
is caused to occur during the very small time
duration of the peak of illumination of the ?ash
of the said one lamp.
‘
23. Apparatus of the character described hav
cessively energized momentarily, will produce 20 ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un
?ashes, each having a photographically effective
energized ?ash~lamps of a type that, when sucw
peak of illumination of very small time duration
followed by prompt extinguishment, means for
momentarily energizing one of the lamps to cause
the said one lamp to produce a ?ash, means re
sponsive to the ?ash produced by the said one
cessively energized momentarily, will produce
?ashes each having a photographically effective
peak of illumination of very small time duration
followed by prompt extinguishment, a ?rst nor
mally ineffective circuit for energizing one of the
lamp for momentarily energizing another lamp to
lamps when rendered effective, a second normally
cause the said other lamp to produce a'?ash. and
ineffective circuit for energizing another lamp
means whereby the peak of illumination of the
when rendered effective, means for rendering the
?ash of the said other lamp is caused to occur 30 ?rst circuit momentarily effective to cause the
during the very small time duration of the peak
said one lamp to produce a ?ash, photosensitive
of illumination of the ?ash of the said one lamp.
means responsive to the ?ash produced by the
said one lamp for rendering the second circuit
20. Apparatus of the character described hav
momentarily effective to cause the said other
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un
energized ?ash-lamps of a type that, when suc
lamp to produce a'?ash, and means whereby the
cessively energized momentarily, will produce
peak of illumination of the ?ash of the said other
?ashes, each having a photographically effective
lamp is caused to occur during the very small
peak of illumination of very small time duration
time duration of the peak of illumination of the
?ash of the said one lamp.
followed by prompt extinguishment, means for
momentarily energizing one of the lamps to cause 40
24. Apparatus of the character described hav
the said one lamp to produce a ?ash, photosensi
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un
tive means responsive to the ?ash produced by
energized ?ash-lamps of a type that, when suc
the said one lamp for momentarily energizing
cessively energized momentarily, will produce
?ashes each having a photographically effective
another lamp to cause the said other lamp to
produce a ?ash, and means whereby the peak of
peak of illumination oi’ very small time dura
illumination of the ?ash of the said other lamp
tion followed by prompt extingulshment, a first
normally ineffective circuit for energizing one of
is caused to occur during the very small time du
the lamps when rendered effective, a second nor
ration of the peak of illumination of the ?ash of
the said one lamp.
mally ineffective circuit for energizing another
21. Apparatus of the character described hav 50 lamp when rendered effective, means for render
ing the ?rst circuit momentarily effective to
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un
energized ?ash-lamps of a type that, when suc
cause the said one lamp to produce a ?ash, in
cessively energized momentarily, will produce
ertia-less means responsive to the ?ash produced
by the said one lamp for rendering the second
?ashes each having a photographically effective
circuit_momentarily effective to cause the said
peak of illumination of very small time duration
other lamp to produce a ?ash, and means where
followed by prompt extinguishment, a first nor
by the peak of illumination of the ?ash of the
mally ineffective circuit for energizing one of the
lamps when rendered effective, a second nor
said other lamp is caused to occur during the
very small time duration of the peak of illumi~
mally ineffective circuit for energizing another
lamp when rendered effective, means for render 60 nation of the ?ash of the said one lamp.
ing the ?rst circuit momentarily effective to
25. Apparatus operable with a normally inef
cause the said one lamp to produce a ?ash, means
fective camera for photographing an object hav
responsive to the ?ash produced by the said one
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un
lamp for momentarily rendering the second cir
energized ?ash-lamps for producing ?ashes when
cuit effective to cause the said other lamp to ' momentarily energized to illuminate the object,
produce a ?ash, and means whereby the peak
the lamps being of a type such that the ?ashes
of illumination of the ?ash of the said other
produced thereby each has a photographically
lamp is caused to occur during the very small
effective peak of illumination of very small time
time duration of the peak of illumination of the
' duration followed by prompt extinguishment,
flash of the said one lamp.
means for rendering the camera momentarily ef
22. Apparatus of the character described hav
fective and for thereafter promptly rendering it
ing, in combination, a plurality of normally un
ineffective, means for momentarily energizing
energized ?ash-lamps of a type that, when suc
one of the lamps with the rendering effective of
cessively energized momentarily, will produce
the camera to cause the said one lamp to pro
?ashes each having a photographically e?ective 75 duce a ?ash having its peak of illumination at
2,408,704
13
?ash when momentarily energized to illuminate
a time before the camera is rendered ineffective,
the object, the lamp, being of a type such that
the flashes produced thereby each has a photo
graphically effective peak of illumination of very
means responsive ‘to the ?ash, produced by the
said one lamp for momentarily energizing an
other lamp to cause the said other lamp to pro
duce a ?ash, and means whereby the peak of ii
lumination of the ?ash of the said other lamp
is caused to occur before the'camera becomes
rendered ineffective during the very small time
duration of the peak of illumination of the ?ash
small time duration followed by prompt extin
guishment, the unit having a switch operable
with the opening of the shutter for momentarily
energizing the lamp to cause it to produce a ?ash
having its peak of illumination at a time before
10 the shutter becomes closed, and the unit having
of the‘ said onelamp.
means for momentarily energizing the lamp to
26. Apparatus operable with a‘camera having a
cause it to produce a ?ash in response to a ?ash
normally closed shutter for photographing an
from the ?ash-lamp of another unit.
object having, in combination, a plurality of nor
30. Apparatus operable with a camera having
mally unenergized ?ash-lamps for producing
a normally closed shutter for photographing an
?ashes when momentarily energized to illumi
object having, in combination, a unit having a
nate the object, the lamps being of a type such
normally unenergized ?ash-lamp for producing a
that the ?ashes produced thereby each has a
?ash when momentarily energized to illuminate
photographically effective peak of illumination of
the object, the lamp being of a type such that
very small time duration followed by prompt ex
the ?ashes produced thereby each has a photo
tinguishment, means for opening the shutter and
graphicaily effective peak of illumination of very
momentarily energizing one of the lamps to
small time duration followed by prompt extin
cause the said one lamp to produce a ?ash hav
guishment, the unit having means controlled by
ing its peak of illumination at a time before
the opening of the shutter for momentarily en
the shutter becomes closed, means responsive to
ergizing the lamp to cause it to produce a ?ash
the ?ash produced by the said one' lamp for
having its peak of illumination at a time before
momentarily energizing another lamp to cause
the shutter becomes closed, and the unit having
the said other lamp to produce a ?ash, and means
photosensitive means for momentarily energizing
whereby the peak of illumination of the ?ash of
the lamp to cause it to produce a ?ash in response
the said other lamp is caused to occur before
to a ?ash from the ?ash-lamp of another unit.
the shutter becomes closed during the very small
31. Apparatus operable with a camera having
time duration of the peak of illumination of the
a normally closed shutter for photographing an
?ash of the said one lamp.
2'7. Apparatus operable with a.’ camera having
object having, in combination, a plurality of
a normally closed shutter for photographing an
object having, in combination, a plurality of nor
mally unenergized ?ash-lamp for producing
units each having associated therewith a nor
?ashes when momentarily energized to illumi
nate the object, the lamps being of a type such
?ashes when momentarily energized to illumi
that the ?ashes produced thereby each has a
nate the object, the lamps being of a type such
photographicaily effective peak of illumination
that the ?ashes produced thereby each has a
photographically eifective peak of illumination of 40 of very small time duration followed by prompt
extinguishment. each unit having means selec
very small time duration followed by prompt ex
tively operable with the opening of the shutter
tinguishment, means controlled by the opening
for momentarily energizing the lamp associated
of the shutter for momentarily energizing one of
therewith to cause the said lamp selectively to
the lamps to cause the said one lamp to produce
a ?ash having its peak of illumination at a time 45 produce a ?ash having its peak of illumination
mally unenergized ?ash-lamps for producing
before the shutter becomes closed, means respon
sive to the ?ash produced by the said one lamp
for momentarily energizing another lamp to
cause the said other lamp to produce a ?ash, and
means whereby the peak of illumination of the 50
at a time before the shutter becomes closed,
each unit having means for momentarily ener
gizing the'lamp associated therewith to cause it
to produce a ?ash in response to a ?ash from
the lamp associated with another unit, and each
unit having means whereby the peak of illumina
tion of the ?ash produced in response to the
action of its energizing means responsive to the
small time duration of the peak of illumination
?ash produced by the said lamp of the said other
of the ?ash of the said one lamp.
unit is caused to occur before the shutter be
28. Apparatus operable with a camera having
comes closed during the very small time dura
a normally closed shutter for photographing an
tion of the peak of illumination of the ?ash pro
object having, in combination, a unit having a
duced by the said other lamp of the said other
normally unenergized ?ash-lamp for producing
unit.
a ?ash when momentarily energized to illuminate
32. Apparatus operable with a camera having
the object, the lamp being of a type such that 60
a normally closed shutter for photographing an
the flashes produced thereby each has a photo
object having, in combination, a unit having a
graphically effective peak of illumination of very
?ash of the said other lamp is caused to occur
before the shutter becomes closed during the very
normally unenergized ?ash-lamp for producing
small time duration followed by prompt extin
guishment, the unit having means operable with
a ?ash when momentarily energized to illuminate
the object, the lamp being of a type such that
the ?ashes produced thereby each has a photo
graphically effective peak of illumination of very
small time duration followed by prompt extin
the opening of the shutter for momentarily en
ergizing the lamp to cause it to produce a ?ash
having its peak of illumination at a time before
the shutter becomes closed, and the unit having
means for momentarily energizing the lamp to.
cause it to produce a ?ash in response to a ?ash
from the ?ash-lamp of another unit, '
29. Apparatus operable with a camera having
a normally closed shutter for photographing an
object having, in combination, a unit having a
normally unenergized ?ash-lamp for producing a
70
guishment, the unit having a normally ineffec
tive circuit for momentarily energizing the lamp
when rendered effective, the unit having means
controlled by the opening of the shutter for ren
dering the circuit momentarily effective to cause
the lamp to produce a ?ash, and the unit having ,
75 photosensitive means for rendering the circuit
15
2,400,704. _
effective to cause the lamp to produce a flash in U
response to a flash from the flash-lamp of an
other unit.
33. Apparatus of the character described hav_
ing, in combination, a plurality of portable sup
ports, a flash-lamp carried by each support,
means carried by each support for connecting
the respective lamps to a source of power, a
16
ing the light source, and means for exposing a
-\ sensitized photographic surface to the object
while illuminated by the light source.
40. Apparatus of the character described for
photographing an object having, in combination,
a plurality of light-sources for illuminating the
object, means for illuminating one of the light
sources, means responsive to the illumination of
camera having, a shutter, means controlled by the
the said one light source for illuminating an—
shutter for ?ashing one of the lamps, and means 10 other light source at a time when the said one
controlled by the ?ash of the said one lamp for
light source is illuminated, and means for expos
flashing another lamp.
ing a sensitized photographic surface at the said
34. The method of photographing large audi
time to the object while illuminated by the said
ences and like scenes illuminated by artificial
one light source and the said light source.
light, which comprises preliminarily locating a
41. Apparatus of the character described for
radiation source, preliminarily distributing about
the scene, each in a location to illuminate a de
photographing an object having, in combination,
a plurality of light sources for illuminating the
sired portion thereof, a plurality of light sources
object, means for illuminating one of the light
controllable by radiation from such radiation
sources, a plurality of means, one associated
source, at will transmitting radiation from the 20 with each of the other light sources, and re
radiation source and thereby effecting simulsponsive to the illumination of the said one light
taneous illumination of the scene by the several
source for respectively illuminating the other
light sources, and simultaneously uncovering a
light sources at a time when the said one light
sensitized photographic surface to the scene thus
source is illuminated, and means for exposing a
illuminated and thereby photographing the scene. 25 sensitized photographic surface at the said time
35. The method of photographing large audi
to the object while illuminated by the light
ences and like scenes illuminated by arti?cial
sources.
a
light, which comprises preliminarily locating a
42. A system for use in photographing an ob
master light source for illuminating one portion
iect having, in combination, a master unit and
of the scene, preliminarily locating a slave light
one or more physically uninterconnected slave
source, controllable by light from the master 30 units, the master unit including a wave trans
i light source, in position for receiving light from
mitter and means operable at will to energize
the master lmht source and for illuminating an
the same, each slave unit including alight source
other portion of the scene, at will illuminating
for illuminating the object and a receiver respon
the master light source and thereby energizing 35 sive to the transmitter to be energized by the
the slave light source for simultaneous illumina
transmitted wave for illuminating the light source,
tion of the scene by both light sources, and simul
and means for exposing a sensitized photographic
taneously uncovering a sensitized photographic
surface to the scene thus illuminated and there
surface to the object while illuminated by the
light source.
by photographing the scene.
40
43. A system for use in photographing an ob
36. A method of photographing an object that
ject having, in combination, a. master unit and
comprises locating a radiation source, locating a
light source adapted to be illuminated in response
to radiation from the radiation source to illumi
one or more physically uninterconnected slave
sponseito radiation from the radiation source to
surface within the camera.
units, the master unit including a wave transmit
ter and means operable at will to'energize the
nate the object, transmitting radiation from the 45 same, each slave unit including a light source
radiation source to the light source to illuminate
for illuminating the object and a receiver re
the light'source, and exposing a sensitized'photo
sponsive to the transmitter to be energized by the
graphic surface substantially simultaneously with
transmitted wave for illuminating the light
the illumination of the object by the light source.
source, and means for actuating a camera shut
37. A‘ method of photographing an object that 50 ter at a time when the light source is illumi
comprises locating a radiation source, locating a
nated to uncover to the object while illuminated
light source adapted to be illuminated in re
by the light source a sensitized photographic
illuminate the obi ect, transmitting radiation from
44. A system for photographing an object hav
the radiation source to the light source to illu~ 55 ing, in combination, a master unit including a
minate the light source, and exposing a sen
light source for illuminating the object and con- sitized photographic surface to the object while
trol means operable at will to effect energization
illuminated by the light source.
of the light source, and a slave unit including a,
38. Apparatus of the character described hav
light source for illuminating the object and con
ing, in combination, a radiation source, a light 60 trol means physically uninterconnected with the
source for illuminating an object,‘ means re
control means of the master unit and comprising
sponsive to the radiation of the radiation source
means responsive to light from the master-unit
for illuminating the light source, and means for
light source for illuminating the slave-unit-light
exposing a sensitizetbphotographic surface sub
source at a time when the master-unit-light
stantially simultaneously with the illumination 65 source is illuminated, a camera having a shutter,
of the object by the light source.
and means operable at the said time for_ opening
39. Apparatus of the character described for
the shutter to uncover to the object while illumi
photographing an object having, in combina
nated by the light sources a sensitized photo
tion, a. radiation source, a light source for illu- '
graphic surface within the camera.
minating the object, means responsive to the 70
radiation from the radiation source for illuminat
HAROLD E. EDGERTONJ
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