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Oct. 8, 1946;
2,408,774.
R. GODDARD ETAL
SPRAY TANK FOR DISPERSING FLUIDS FROM AIRCRAFT
Filed April 24, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
lnvlenfvors
3111175751. Edda/5rd
I- Asmzng‘?l WEEK/E’
Oct. 8, 1946.
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' R. ‘GODDARD ,ET AL‘
2,403,774
SPRAY TANKIFOR DISPERSING FLUIDS FROM AIRCRAFT
Filed April 24, 1942
3;
_ ‘4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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.DWe-nlars
14%‘H. WE'az/E_r
By OmwwM
Attorney
Oct 3, 1945- r
R. GODDARD EI'AL
v 2,
',774
SPRAY TANK FOR DISPERSiNG FLUIDS FROM AIRCRAFT
Filed April ‘24, 1942_
4 sheets-5119a 3
/6
2..
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E"u’
Affomey
Oct 3, 1946.
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R. GODDARD EI'AL
>
2,408,774
SPRAY TANK Fox DISPERSING FLUIDS FROM AIRCRAFT
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
29
26
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Inventors,
E‘LPEZ”? gudc/ard
jlp/Emrzzg- E , V VEEL/Ef'
Afforney
2,408,774
Patented Del. 8, 1946 ,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
SPRAY 'TANKFOR DISPERSING FLUIDS
FROM AIRCRAFT
"Rupert Goddard, Havre de Grace,v and‘Flem‘ing
.R. Weaver, .TEdgewood Arsenal, .Md.
Application April 24, 1942, Serial No. 440,388
4 Claims. (015244-134)
(Granted under the act of Marchc3, {1883, ,as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
2
mechanism. Especially ;in systems where :the
The invention described hereinmay be manu
gravity feed method of ejection is employed‘must
factured and used by ‘or for the Government-‘for
a ‘vent :be 'provided‘if the desirable rapid and
.ggovernmental purposes, without the ,paymentto _
uniform discharge of the liquid ?lling is to be
vuse of -any royalty thereon.
‘
This invention relatesingeneral to the disper CH ‘obtained.
sionof ?uids. vMore particularly the invention
is concerned with a .method .and apparatus for
Such storage type spray apparatus have in com
mon certain'objectionablefeatures, most notably
of which are the .generally complicated mechani
cally operated valve ‘discharge .and vent :mecha
or chemical agents are ejected under pressure 10 .nisms. Consequently, much time, thought, and
effort have been expended in developinggforspray
from an airplane or other moving aircraft .so
dispersing ..fluids .from .moving aircraft.
.At the present time, smoke-producing liquids
.thatthe liquid or chemical agent leaves the plane ‘
at approximately the same velocity as the-plane
passes through the air, but in a substantially
opposite direction, {the liquid fallingin the form
of ;relatively stable .drops I and reacting with the
constituents of the air :tozform .a smoke screen.
A ‘toxic :or vesicant fluid, such
.t'hat popularly
apparatus of the type with which we are ‘herein
concerned, discharge and vent mechanisms which,
respectively, will be materially less complicated
and more dependable in operation thanare :such
asare now used.
>
In the course of our pursuit toward-this :most
desirable end, many :and varying vkinds of means
for facilitating the venting and release .of ?uid
hence the method and apparatus now being used 20 from the storage reservoir were, with varying-de
grees of success, tried and ultimately for one
for dispersing irritant .and'vesicant materials, of
reason oranother abandonedpr heldin abeyance.
‘which “mustard gas” is typical, .are in general. of
termed “mustard gas’.’ is generally used, and
sucha character that the .ejected substance .will
not affect the pilotor personnel, .orlcontact‘ with
the plane.
The most efficient methods :and appar-ati that
have been, and arenow being-used for‘dispersing
.materials from moving aircraft, gembody among
In the program of development leading ultimately
to our invention as forms the subject matterof
this application, due-considerationwas given :to
the followingvnamed types of closures and in sub
stantiallygthe order indicated.
,
Especially with reference to the problem in
volving-the improvement ‘Of the .dischargemecha
other things, va tank ‘or storage reservoir for the
?uid to be dispersed, and which ‘can .:be readily .30 'nism, recourse was :had to what may be :termed
a “tear-strip” closure. Without detailing the
‘installed on modern aircraft. Preferably, :the
nature of this form of closure, the same may be
storage-tank .is somounted that it may be in
dismissed with theobservationthat it'was :found
stantly released .from .the plane .in .the event-of
to be impracticable because of the difficulty of
a .forced landing or :other contingency ‘rendering
:the presence on the planeof'thighly reactive'sub :35 the proper application of force to peel off ‘the
soldered coveringof the discharge line. If this
stances hazardous to the ‘personnel and to ‘those
covering was soldered just suf?ciently to facili
in the vicinity of a crash.
tate its easy removal, it appeared too frail :for
The storage tank is-equipped with a discharge
safety.
line that v:is .so disposed, preferably as to direct
the ‘ejected ?uid rearwardly with respect ‘to the 40 Another ‘experiment :was with a ?exible ‘capfor
therdisjcharge .line. This cap was to be :removed
.airplane to prevent injury to the .personneLmon
by the useof an electrically ignited pyrotechnic
tact of the .?uid with the plane, .and for other
'mixture but-also was :found tobe impracticable.
desirable results known to thoseskilled in:this:art.
It appeared from tests made: that before suffi
:Previous to now, the liquid tobe dispersed has
cient heat could ‘be applied to completely melt
been freed to?owiout throughithe discharge line
. the fusible alloy holding the ‘cap ingplace, liquid
by gravity .feed, :or, alternatively, a pressure-pro
escapedfromtherdischargeiline and caused solidi
ducing medium is resorted to; the latter being
,?cation of ‘the fusedalloy,.thereby preventing the
either~in the form of compressed carbon dioxide
freeing of the cap.
o-rsome mechanical apparatus, for example, a
pump or air compressor incorporatedin the sys- -
tem for forcing the reservoir .v?lling therefrom
and through the discharge or'outlet line. For
best performance, whether gravity or pressure
deed is resorted :to, .the systemic-r . apparatusvusu
.Next resort washadto a frangibleplate closure.
This form of closure was .held in abeyancebecau-se
of the apprehension at the time ,of the danger of
‘premature breakage where the closure was of
glass and “mustard gas” was used as the'liquid to
ally, additionally, embodiesisome form of vent .55 be dispersed, and the possibility of destruction of
2,408,774
3
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the closure by reaction with smoke-producing
paratus and methods employed for dispersing
chemical agents from moving aircraft. The in
vention contemplates the employment of such
agents in the case where the closure was fabri
cated from synthetic resinous materials.
Finally, as a result of this trial and error
procedure in a manner such that the toxic or
method- of approach to the problem ‘at hand, re
course was had to what might be aptly termed a
vesicant ?uid, 'as for example,v the typical ?uid
“mustard gas” may safely be employed without
risk to the safety of the apparatus employed, or
30 the pilot or personnel of the plane.
“mechanically released rigid plate closure.” EX
perimentation with this type of closure lead to r
the discovery of means whereby a frangible or
Primarily, the invention contemplates the pro
readily rupturable disc in association with simple 10 vision of improved means for venting the reser
and efficient mechanism for rupturing the/same
could, advantageously, be incorporated in and
' voir tank of the apparatus, as well as improved
, means for controlling the discharge of the chem
made part of the chemical spray system or appa
ratus to be used therewith for venting and dis
charge control purposes.
ical agent or fluid from the tank. The invention
further contemplates the provision of a mecha
nism that can be used with equal faciilty and
‘
An object of this invention is, therefore, to
improve generally upon known methods and ap
advantages either as the vent control or as the
discharge control, optionally, and, consequently
parati for discharging?uidsfrom aircraft.
can be used in pairs, and of which pair one such
mechanism may be used as the vent control and
other such mechanism of the pair used as the
Another object of the invention is to materially
simplify vent and discharge mechanisms as are
now known and used in such methods‘ and ap
discharge control.
Referring now more particularly to Figure 2 of
parati.
More speci?cally, an object of the invention
is to render practical the use of a frangible ele
ment in the discharge and/or vent line of a chem
ical spray tank.
.
~
the drawings, there is illustrated in this figure a
form of apparatus for carrying the invention in
a simple phase into effect.
In the ?gure, as well as in other ?gures of the
.
Another speci?c object of the invention is the
provision of an effective, and practical assembly
embodying a frangible sealing element and
drawings, Bindicates a tank adapted to act as a
rupturing mechanism therefor which can with
equal e?iciency be used in either or both the vent
and the discharge line.
Still another object of the invention is to pro
vide a vent through the medium of which the air
alloys as Duraluminum may be used if the em
ployed chemicals are non-corrosive, while if the
chemicals employed are of a corrosive nature,
the tank is preferably constructed of commercial
material, as for example‘, the commercial metal
entering the reservoir may be utilized to insure
known as Monel. Also, while the shape of the
the desired rate of discharge of the reservoir
?lling, that is, the ?uid to be dispersed.
Yet another object of the invention is the
adaption thereof to moving and stationary op
tank may vary as desire or-expediency may dic
tate, it is preferably streamlined and so propor
tioned as to reduce to the minimum the air resist
ance encountered in ?ight‘.
In practice, the tank 5 may be located on the
reservoirfor the particular ?uid that is to be
dispersed. In constructing the tank, steel or such
-~erations with equally advantageous results; and .
also its adaptability to'any shape or size of reser
voir tank, and particularly to a tank having a
plane wherever deemed most advantageous, but
by way of illustration and not by limitation, the
streamlined body or otherwise shaped or equipped
tank is shown as mounted on and as nearly
as may be warranted or required'to insure cor
tangential to the wing as practicable. Any suit
rect rates of ?uid discharge and air admission.
The invention together with the above ‘enumer
ated and other objects as will presently appear,
and convenient bracket structure (not
shown) may be resorted to for suspending the
tank, and a streamlined fairing 6, as shown, is
-will be best understood and appreciated from a
provided to shield thesupporting brackets and
perusal of the following speci?cation made in
other external interfering members with the View
connection with the accompanying drawings, Q 50 to further reducing the wind resistance.
wherein:
1
Prior ‘art forms of reservoir tanks generally
Figure 1 is a fragmentary outline of an air
employ what is commonly known and referred
plane showing our improved spray tank mounted
to as an “elbow type of discharge line,” and as
thereon.
,
such type of discharge line is well known, detailed
Figure 2 is an elevational view of ‘the tank, 55 description thereof is unnecessary. The tank
with certain parts broken away and other parts
of this invention eliminates this type of elbow
shown in section, and illustrating one form of as
discharge line since it has formed integral with
sembly of vent and discharge mechanisms in ac
the walls thereof a tubular discharge neck ‘I. Dis
cordance with the invention.
charge neck 1 extends rearwardly from the bot
Figure 3 is a view similar to'Figure 2 and show
tom portion of tank 5 and has connected there
ing an alternate assembly of vent and discharge
with through the medium of a nipple 8 a tubular
mechanisms in accordance with the invention.
discharge spout or nozzle 9.. By reason of this
Figure 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary vertical
characteristic feature of the tank, there results,
section through the vent-equipped end of the
in effect, an in-line ?ow of the liquid from the
tank, and illustrating a spring loaded vent valve 65 tank during the period of discharge.
assembly in accordance with this invention.
In accordance with this invention the reser
Figure 5 is a view similar to Figure 4, and illus
voir tank is advantageously equipped with an in
trating a frangible vent valve assembly forming
ternal vent tube [0. The tube It) is in the form
part of this invention.
4
of an elbow, and extends inwardly and upwardly
Figure 6 is a fragmentary top plan of the tank 70 from the front wall of the tank in registry with
at the vent-equipped'end thereof.
a vent opening provided, as shown, in the tank
Figure '7 is a view similar to Figure 2 and illus
wall.
trating still another form of vent and discharge
For conveniently ?llingthe tank 5 the same
. able
i
assembly.
~ I
Generally, the invention is concerned with ap
is equipped, preferably in the top wall thereof,
75 with a ?lling opening for which a closure plug H
6
5
sealing element may be iii-the" form of a- plate
i's-provided': '~_A1'ccess to this opening) may}: easily
behad'iupon removal ofithelfairingg?i \
' of glass, or alternately, in the‘ form? of? a, plate-‘or
_
disc? molded- from‘ some phenolic condensation
F‘ To’lenhance-theeflioiency of the-apparatus and
product,» such-vasl?Bakelite” or, similar‘ plastic
as a pronounced safety feature, the'reis provided
readilymold'able-'to"shape. Glass is least pre~
an anti-splashishield 1-2. The shield; H is tubular
ferredldueto-itstendency to crack or break!‘ as>a
result-"of shock 'or' from pressure resulting» from
in- form and telescopes the upper or'inner end of
the vent or, air inlet-‘H11; being spacedcircum
the tightening up of the retaining member-for
members ~‘employed for securing it~in place;
{It may also" be found; advantageous‘, especially
so;in1'theca_se= of ‘glass; to=conStl1uct1the~ sealing
element of‘laininatedzsh'eets rather; than a single
feren'tially from‘ the tube: l0v for obvious ‘reasons.
Recourse to such a shield willlprevent the liquid
in» the tank» risingto a’ levelin'the region‘ of-the
vent1 tube- as wouldi- result in the covering‘of this
end of» the tube [0- vvith thei-liquid-contents of
thick sheet,‘ duex to thefa‘ct that then" a-slieetlv of
known breaking strength might be used, and2 as
the tank, andpossiblythespilling over and‘ escape
of the-?lling through thev'e‘nt- tube. Thus ‘the
many'thicknesses' ofi‘such sheet-‘used together; as
use-0f such as‘shi'eld' l 2 mustibe regarded highly
as asafety factor.
‘
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would be‘ required to » give the element; a- selected
'
predetermined breaking strength.
The’ manner/of‘: mounting or suspending the
shield l2 may be varied-‘,of- course, ‘as circum
~Ilni~ addition to the above observations? regard;
stances-warrant orldicta-te; its simplicity of-struc
ing the I‘ materiaili ironi- which the sealing element
Hll providing ?exibility with respect‘ to- mode of
sucl'i'm-ateri’al should be acid-proof? or non-cor
welded- or otherwise ‘made’ substantially integral
with the inner side-of thetopwalliof the tankias
usedv as smoke agentse
ture and the location\ of theventor air intake 20 is 'togbelfabr-icated, it may» also be observed?- that
‘ rodiblel so- as toilwithstandi the "effects; off such
installation. ‘ Thus incidental‘ to‘ the’ assembling
of‘ the tank the shield l2~atone end’may be‘readily , substances‘ as- titaniu-m tetrachloride commonly
shown in’ Figure 4. ' Alternately, and as- best
shown» in Figure 5,, the shield I2‘ is intimately
associated with a screw-cap or plug l3 removably
30
Thev boss I4‘ is welded‘ to or, otherwise perma
nently united-with the tank wall to rim an open
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indicated generally‘ by thevreferencenulnerlal‘l Ill;
ber I'B-i that at its'll‘owerend: i'sL torme'di with» an
internal‘ groove into which isI-‘snug-l'y ?ttedF-the
upper extremityofithevent tube Ht ‘Atv its? lower
end,'the-caplbodyr I8 is‘ weldedi'or otherwise made
fast'ito, the vent tube: as shown‘, thus completing
an': air tight joint betweenE th'es'ememl'mrs;v
At its: upper end'1 cap body-'- 118? is diametrically
'
To facilitate placement; and removalthereo'i,
cap-plug I3 is provided‘witlrdiametrically opposed
pairs of closely spaced lugs IE to be engaged by '
a suitable tool in a manner'apparent to'effect a
enlarged, and this enlargement is ‘characterized
by being'formed with an; annular internaligr‘oove
turning movement of the cap-‘plug, in thedesired'
orcnecessary direction}
--
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A! suitable gasket l6 is-interpos'ed between the
boss {E 4i and the projecting peripheral edge of the
cap-plug l=3~0verlying~the boss as‘shown.
~i -_ v ,
Access» to cap-plug I3 is'had in the same‘ man
ner‘as- above set out with reference to gaining
access to the'aforementioned plug‘ I l'.
‘
I
Asshown in Figure 5, thereis-mo‘unted cm the
inner end‘? of the‘ vent tube: I20" axcap‘v assembly
This‘. cap assembly includes; a tubular‘ body; num
ing provided therein;- and through which the
shield I2“ is passed into the tank toiassume‘ proper
position with respect to the-"vent tube, as‘ the cap
plu'g: I this threaded home;-
' I
this particular form of vent mechanism.
seating within an internally threaded boss i4
provided on the'top wallof the tank.
' a
‘The: f orrn of vent? control» mechanism 'slrown‘iin
Figure 2'? i's-detaiiled‘to advantagesin ‘Figures; and
to-‘thisi latter ?gure reference/is:nowlmadei'for a
better understanding ofithe' assembly involvediin
l9'and‘ external'isorew threads'as shown.- The
groove‘- lylconstitut'es-a seat for‘ a'\ sealing element
45 2 0i embodying those" characteristicsi/ herein before
detailed as most desirable» flori'thejpurpose" of ‘this
invention; andi gaskets 21“, 21? of? non-corrod'ible
and? acid-proof material 1 between whi'chtthe‘; mar~
gi'n‘alv edge‘: of’ the sealingf_'element-'is~ acc'om'
the invention, airrfrom the surrounding atmos 50
I
securing" ring or‘ annulus ZZ‘threads home on
phere-passes through- the tube 10 into‘the tank
the=enlargementfofitheic'ap' body f8‘, andiembod'ies
under positive pressure for' displacing the ?uid
an». inwardly directed‘flange 2‘3"that'has-pressure
discharging under- pressurethrough the. outlet
exerting contactiwi'th the upper gasket 2'li'to
nozzle 9; Thus‘ with‘v this tank ‘mechanical ap
pliances; compressed- carbon' dioxide,v andv similar 55 tightly?- c'l'ampethe sealing element or closure 20
and: associated gaskets within the’ con?nes of
pressure-producing apparatus are advantageous
When this tank is employed in accordance with
modatedi.
elimination of such’pressure-producing- media as
just referred to, air-under positive pressure is, as
60
out the period of discharge, and hence recourse
to gravity feed of ‘the ?uid to the‘ discharge line
isnot‘necessary.-v
1
"
"
pects,- these‘ forms of control mechanisms are
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iEor: 'Iru'pturi'ng, or' as actually"contemplate‘dl
completely -»“'blo'win'gv out” the‘ frangible" sealing
->
substantially identical; each essentially embody
'
13, is equipped with pairs of‘ tool-co-acting lugs
24;‘,
or closure element 20‘, resort may be’ had toany '
‘ 'Ad'verting‘ again to Figure 2; there are illus
trated therein simple forms of vent‘ and dis
chargecontrol mechanisms; Intheir broad‘ as
I
groove Tori seat I59 1 to thereby‘ prevent leakage;
‘To facilitate: placement! and‘ removal of the
securing? annulus 22’the' same‘; similarly to‘ plug
ly eliminated. Also notwithstanding the desired
aboveiexplained', admitted into thetank through
'1
65
suitable" mechanically, electrically or otherwise
readily: operated, andi preferably: remote con‘
trolledi'd'evice found‘ suitable for the intended
purpose;
‘
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"
By way of illustration, and not‘ by way'of' re
ing‘ a frangible sealing- element and means for
applying‘ force to the sealing element to- com 70 striction; a preferred comme'rci‘ali type of? deto
pletelyidissipate the-latter-for assuring free flow
orcpass'age through the respective control mech
anis'mi.
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7
'- > Different: types : of- frangible-- or rupturable '1 seal
ing élementslmay belemployeds; For example, the
nat‘or, Z5: is, shown‘ mounted?‘ within the tube In
and‘ insu?icient proximity to-tlier closure 20? that
the latter-will" receive the full‘ force‘ of theex-e
plosionranaconsequently be so‘ishatte'red’and‘rupl
'turedior"cbmpletelyefragmented asitoloffer 'no »r'e
2,408,774
7
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sistance to the on-rush of air passing through the
shattering the frangible closures following the
tube I0 and into the tank 5.
exhausting of the tank contents is eliminated.
-
Any suitably supporting or clamping means 26
is employed to hold fast the detonator 25 or its
equivalent in place. A control wire or the like
extends from the detonator to adjacent the op
erator so that he may operate the detonator
readily.
Obviously in the case of solenoids, they may be
used repeatedly over ‘a considerable period of
time,‘ and no replacement thereof is ordinarily
required incidental to each operation of recharg
ing the tank with the chemical agent, and as is
required where detonators or similar self-de
U
.
As before noted, and as illustrated in Figure2
structive media are employed.
_
V
of the drawings, substantially the same identical 10
In order to control venting of thetank, or the
means is employed as the discharge control mech
admission of air into the tank in response to the
anism, In Figure 2 such means is phantomly il
lustrated, whereas in Figure 7 this particular dis
charge control mechanism is detailed. Thus in
Figure7, 21 indicates the frangible or rupturable
sealing element of the discharge control mech
anism illustrated. The sealing or closure element
27 is securely held in place by having its mar
ginal edge clamped between an annular ?xed
shoulder 28 formed internally, of the coupling
nipple 8 and that end of the discharge nozzle
that is threaded into the nipple as shown.
The sealing or closure ‘element 21 is identical
in practically every respect with the sealing or
closure element 20, and like the latter has its 25
marginal edge disposed between non-corrodible
and acid-proofgaskets 29, 29 to assure a ?uid
and air tight joint at the location of the sealing
air speed of the plane, and at the same time as
sure admission of air under a positive pressure
throughout the period of discharge, a type of
spring loaded vent control valve shown in Figure
4 may be used with bene?cial results.
The valve of Figure 4 as a vwhole is shown
mounted at the inner end of vent tube l0 and
comprises a disc 36 and a stem 31, the stem being
axially movable within the said end of the vent
tube and the disc normally seating on the ex
tremity of the tube.
,
Valve stem 3‘! at one end is diametrically‘re
duced to provide a thread pin “and a shoulder
39. Disc 36 is removably secured on the stem,
being clamped on the pin 38 between shoulder
39 and a nut 40 threaded on the pin as illus
tratedl
.
To improve the seating action of disc 36 and
‘Like the element 29, sealing element 21 is 30 to compensate for wear there is disposed at the
subject to the shattering force and effect of ‘a
seating side of the disc a somewhat resilient gas
detonator 30. Detonator 30 is identical with det
ket 40 of substantially the same diameter as the
onator 25, and means 3|, similar to the securing
valve disc. Gasket 40 is held flat against the disc
and fastening means 35, utilized for securing det
by a washer plate 41 of slightly less diameter
onator 30 in place.‘ Preferably, detonator 30 is
than the gasket and the disc and'is accom
advantageously»positioned within nozzle 9, and
modated with the inner end of the vent tube.
Washer plate 4| is interposed between the gasket
has a control wire or the like extending therefrom
element.
_
.
to adjacent the operator so that he may con
40 and shoulder 39 as shown.
veniently operate the detonators in desired se
quence or simultaneously as might be found most
desirable.
V
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Manifestly any suitable means may be em
ployed for mounting the valve provided such
means makes provision for constraining the seat
ing and unseating action of the valve to an axial
movement relative to the inner end of the vent
,
vIn order to illustrate the manner in which the
principles of the invention may be further ap
plied, a slightly modi?ed form of closure-shat
tering, closure “blow-out,” or force-applying de
tube. In the embodiment illustrated, such means
comprises a spider 42 secured in a mannerfound
vice is shown in Figure 3.
V
' In this Figure 3 the force-applying or blow-out
to be most practical for the purpose within the
inner end of vent tube l0 and a removable guide
device for the shatterable closure 23 of the vent
sleeve 43 threaded through the hub of the spider
and through which the valve stemr3'l has a sliding
?t.
The guide sleeve 43 preferably has at one end
control mechanism is indicated generally by the
numera1 32 while 33 indicates generally the force
applying or blow-out device for the shatterable
vclosure 21 of the discharge control mechanism.
thereof an enlarged head as shown to seat against
Each of the devices 32, 33 is in the form of a
solenoid that, in the case of the device 32 is se
cured in operative position relative to closure 20
and within the vent tube I 0 by a suitable clip 34,
and in the case of the device 33 is'secured in op
erative position relative to closure 21 and within
in)
the spider hub and limit movement of the sleeve
through the hub incidental to assembly thus
facilitating proper adjustment of the sleeve.
The spring of this valve is indicated at 44,
the nozzle 9 or where otherwise found most de
and is sleeved on the valve stem 31. One end
of the spring impinges against a collar 46 on the
inner end of the valve stem, pin 41 acting as a
sirable by a similar clip 35.
stop or abutment for the collar. The opposite
'
Devices 32, 33 are equipped with control means
extending therefrom to adjacent the operator in
order that-he might, as in the case of detonators
25, 30, conveniently operate them in sequence or
simultaneously as desired or expediency may dic
tate, and to the end that venting of the tank
end of the spring is suitably seated against the
sleeve 43. As is obvious, spring 44 ‘acts in opposi
tion to air pressure developing in the vent tube
for normally holding the valve in closed or
> seated condition.
It'is apparent that this spring-loadedvalve is
and release of the ?uid to be dispersed may be ac
utilized as the vent control for the tank in con
complished with the most advantageous and
effective results.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that in
junction with eltherthe discharge control mech
sofar as the factors pertaining to vent and dis
the operation is substantially as follows:
The spring 44 of the vent valve is normally
of sui?cient tension to keep the disc 36 seated
against the inner end, of the vent tube against
charge control, all the desirable features noted
in connection with Figure 2 are retained, while
at the same time the needgfor replacing the
shock-producing instrumentalities employed for
anism of Figure 2 or the discharge control mech
anism of Figure 3, optionally. In either event,
the action of air pressure just below that of the
52,408377l4
110
‘air-speed or :thecplanee a
whioh'onerationmthat -
,
.
itub'e terminates within: the con?nes 10f the :ring.
lAiglailld ring :49 isi?tted into :the {mounting ring
isz-discharseandidisnersionofthe chemiealasent '
48,-. and . at “its .inner {end is preferably :formed
contents :Qf jtaink "drsisfdesirsd; It. may 53.6 6.8.5.
sumed that this :eperating tor icriticalrair speed , with :an internal groove-ell in ‘which :the inlet
extremity of . the vent :tube‘seats. , At its .outer
:01’, the-plane ‘is 309
1B.
:.;Thusat any ‘air
speed. below this; icritical air speed the vent valve
,is closed, {while at ,wthisicritical speed or-at a
speed
‘excess 20101112103‘). :speedg-thezsent valve
‘end the gland-ring ‘has formed ;-integ_rally there
with a .?a'nge 5;| between :which and the :ring .148
agasketr?z
is-disposed.
'
-'
'
.
~
'
'
,
The funnel, indicated by numeral 53,*isithre'ad
'10 ed onto thesm'ountingrin'galiB, and when- threaded
tank;
~
1-:
.
.home .an internal ‘shoulder ‘:54 formed :inwardly
,: :In. oneratingtthe-aapparatus initialupressure is
.ofqthe naredrend :of the funnel jams :against :the
.built1up-intank, dybyjnoreasing the air speed
~flange lid of thegland fringed?) ito'urge :the latter
?f‘ilihe plane above; the herein assumed critical
inward .of ‘the mounting :ring and :into ‘tight fit.
speed-to an extent isu?i'cient to "cause :suchxa
tin'g engagement :With the inlet :enclof the vent
pressure through the vent tube that impinging
is open, '1 admitting :an =;ingress , :of iair - ~into ‘- the
v
' agamstxitheivalve
rcli
compnession of spring"
'36 will result in a slight
and an opening of the
valve to admit a stream of air into the tank.
When as a result of this action an equalization
of external and internal pressures is attained,
the air speed is reduced until critical or oper
ating speed is reached. When critical speed is
reached, the operator then actuates the discharge
control device of Figure 2 or Figure 3 as the case
1111136.‘.
> gItzis' obviously
'
clear that the
: eonsideredznmn?l
.a '1. y
assembly can be used regardless of the speci?c
form of vent control employed.
It will also be understood from the foregoing
that the various forms of vent and discharge con
trols may be interchangeably used, and that
many variations in selection and use of the sev-_
eral forms of controls illustrated and described
may be for shattering or-blowing out the seal or 25 herein may be made. Likewise it is to be under
stood that the invention comprehends many
closure element 21, permitting the escape of the
variations in the mode of operation. Conse
?uid from tank 5 through the discharge nozzle 9.
quently, the invention is not limited to that
This discharge of ?uid will naturally result
which has been detailed herein by way of ex
in a reduction of internal pressure, but the ex
ternal air pressure on valve disc '36 at the critical 30 ample, but is to be considered as embracing all
forms of apparatus and variants of method fall
air speed of the plane will, as is apparent from
ing within the scope of the appended claims.
the foregoing, maintain valve disc 36 for the
For example, to those skilled in the art it will
period of discharge open. Consequently, air
be appreciated that the invention may be readily
under positive pressure is admitted through the
vent valve throughout this period of ?uid dis- -. adapted to the elbow-type of discharge line re
ferred to in the reference herein to prior art
charge, or until such time as the air speed is
forms of tanks. Then, too, any one of the vent
reduced below critical or operation speed, and
controls contemplated by the‘ invention may be
at which time the valve will then close.
utilized
on connection with, for example, a suit
By “critical” or “operation speed” of the air
craft, and as such terms have been herein em- .i. able intermittent valve in the discharge line so
that intermittent discharge of the ?uid may be
ployed, is meant the velocity of the moving plane
had when found desirable, and as would be de
in the air which is the factor determining tl e .
sired in the employment of the invention as a
opportune moment of release of the smoke-pro
signaling system.
'
g
ducing agent. In this connection, it might be
It will also be observed that while the inven
observed that complete atomization of the liquid
tion is particularly well adapted to military pur
to be dispersed can be obtained if counter-longi
poses, it may be used to advantage for agri
tudinal motion between the liquid and the air
is permitted to prevail at the time of release
of the liquid, whereas the liquid falls as if poured
vfrom an elevation at rest and travels to the
ground in substantially stable drops if this
counter-longitudinal motion of the air at the
time of discharge is prevented. Such counter
longitudinal movement of the air is prevented by
projecting the liquid from the moving aircraft
cultural protection.
Having so described the invention, what we
claim is:
i
.
1. A liquid spray device for airplanes compris
ing a jettisonable storage tank for the liquid to
be dispersed and adapted to be mounted on the
airplane, an internally positioned vent tube open
ing at one end thereof to the atmosphere through
with a velocity substantially equal and opposite
the wall of the tank whereby positive pressure is
to the velocity in the air of the moving aircraft.
producedv for discharging the contents of the
Complete atomization at'the instant of discharge
tank and at an opposite end opening into the
makes possible the discharge of highly persistent
a discharge line extending from the tank,
materials in comparatively non-persistent vform (30 tank,
destructible
closure elements for the vent tube
on the ground, whereas if the liquid'is permitted
and discharge line respectively, and detonating
to fall to the ground in the form of stable drops,
instrumentalities disposed in proximity to each
the resulting smoke curtain may be made to
of the respective closures for removing them,
rest advantageously on the ground.
‘
.
each of said instrumentalities having electrical
Obviously the spring loaded vent valve just
control wires extending therefrom for operation
considered may be used in lieu of the vent con
trols of Figures 2 and ‘3 Without sacri?cing any
advantage, while at the same time obviating the
by remote control.
2. A liquid'spray device for airplanes compris
ing a. jettisonable storage tank for the liquid to
need of replacing the vent seal or closure fol
70 be dispersed and adapted to be mounted on the
lowing each liquid dispersing action.
airplane, an internally positioned venttube open
A funnel for effectively directing the air
ing at one end thereof to the atmosphere through
stream into the vent tube - I 0 may be made readily ’
‘the wall of the tank whereby a positive pressure
available. As best shown in Figure 4, where a
' is produced for discharging and atomizing the
funnel is used there is welded to the wall of tank
contents of the tank and at an opposite end
75
5 a mounting ring 48 and the inlet end of the
2,408,774
11
opening into tank, a discharge line extending
from the tank, a rupturable sealing element
mounted at the inner end of the vent tube, a
' rupturable sealing element mounted inward of
the discharge line, detonators for rupturing each
of the respective sealing elements respectively
disposed within the vent tube and discharge line,
and electric control wires extending from the
12
rupturable sealing element mounted inward of
the discharge line, and solenoids for rupturing
the respective sealing elements disposed within
the vent tube and discharge line.
4. A storage tank for liquid spray purposes
having vent control means including a vent tube
opening to the atmosphere at one end and at an
opposite end opening to the interior of the tank
and extending upwardly therein, and a vertical
3. A liquid spray device for airplanes compris 10 tubular shield telescoping the second named end
ing a storage tank for the liquid to be dispersed
of the tube and circumferentially spaced from
and adapted to be mounted on the airplane, a
the tube, said tubular shield extending down
vent tube opening at one end thereof to the at
wardly from a, top wall of the tank to prevent liq
mosphere through the wall of the tank and at an
uid in the tank from splashing into the vent tube.
opposite end into the tank, a rupturable sealing
element mounted at the inner end of thevent
RUPERT GODDARD.
tube, a discharge line extending from the tank, a
FLENIING R. WEAVER.
detonators.
-
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