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OCL 8, 1946i
2,408,776
J. HILSENRATH ETAL
AZIMUTH COMPUTER
Filed March 20, 1945
3 lSheets-Sheet 1
DEVIATIONS
APPROXIMATE
E'QUATION
0F
TIME [_i-IZ']
N
NE
4' Q-‘Y
è@ è
'
`
‘I `
INSTRUCTIONS
Fasben the pmtractar on Frog! or
beck as letítude dictates, then:
_|. Set the arrow on the protrachor
to the proper dec|ínatîon.
2. Rotate the protrector arm- until
> it passes through tho inbur
sectîon of the proper latitude
ellipse and the hour angle
desiredA
the Azimuth on bhe pro
l5
.SAMUEL 62 055
@QM/YL»
`~
Oct. 8, 1946.
,
`.
J. HILSENRATH ETAL
„
2,408,776
¿ix/ZIAMUTH. COMPUTER
‘
_ »"'ì?iled March 2o, 1945
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Patented Oct. â, 1946
_
f STAT ES
QPF
2,408,770
ics .
' Í, v .f Ã. AZIMUTHcomic-TE,Itv l
` I
Y@resesi1L,r,1i1,sematl1 and, saisissante,
`
'
'
_
v'I_Lnìted States Navy"
, Applicaticnlltíarch _20, 194.5,1Seria1 N9`.';5ß;3.¿82$
'
' i3 claims.
(glissa-1i)
'
'_March '-3, Ã11883,- ¿as
ì (Granted underv‘the act of .2370
0.
y'55703
vamended April ’30, 1928;
.
.
1-
,
The. difference in the grids 91,1 .from an@ .back
"This invention îrelates¿generally `to navigation
of the *base'is only vin the “scope of jlatitudes :ç_ov
ered. On the baclg `are >in_agilred ellipses Afor lati
tudes of from 40,“ _to '_6Qf’_,^v{hile„¿latitudes of 0° to
45° are marked on
front side. Front and back
instruments, and ‘particularly `to "devices _for nsolv
ing spheri'cal'tri‘angles,
'
`
__
'
` _'
.'In the art of naviga _ion it ‘is _a .constantly >re
.,cnrring problem to _solve spherical triangles for
grids will be registered so @that‘the protractor may
one .angle when ,others .are known. ’Compass ad
be used oneither side.
justers must frequently determine >azimuth of
.some celestial body vfor purpose of :checkingthe
indication of thecompassunder observation.
'
It is common practice _in >_such cases to start
'
*protractor J „of ,transparent material. A. .boit ,s
'with nut :9 _lits Àthrçnigh _the pmtractor and «may
10
with such _factors ashour angle', _latitude of thev
observer and declination _oftheobserved body,
_’anddetermine itsazimuthloy reference to various
tables, charts, etc. ,A compassadl‘uster will voften
havefa' number of _azimuth :cards or curves ca_l
Slide .a „slot , Al0 ,Glut throilgh _hase ,I parallel _t0
the axìsßßnd _togthelbottcmedgeof the hase. _ ¿In
>the _form ,Shown `the _lower _edge ,of ,the V_prQtractor
` _lovvenedge'of .thelcasetto assist
in holding the .protractor I.in prpperrelatiori to
15
thebase. y'Itssca'le is indicated at lz.
‘ ‘cnlatedjfor certain locations.
`
"
’
"
Pro’ßrsctor erm L3 with ,itsirlsìexllne Missiv
Otedatlä Ito @thènrotractcr _inpsuch iashlon 'that
the pivot 'l'5`flies ,díreçtlysovrer yaxis J5. when Vthe
vligtractor is .mounted ofn .the-basa A .line rlllv is
_“_Inîthese various determinations of azimuth, in
'terpolations are oftennecessary, and the cal-cu- '
'lationsare such )that an error’early 1in the process
ymaybe multiplied as ,thel calculation proceeds,
leading 'toerrors of ‘intolerable’ magnitude._ Y`
`
Mounted 'for sliding lparallel to .the „airis '5 xris a
"marked
'
‘the motractor rroießting vertically
_Atjbest the calculations are _tedious and time
Y consuming.; ‘îï'hereiís a need .lor some means for
.determining _azímuths rapidlyan’dV with a mini
mlìm @h_anpe-‘Íor errors 4such _as vare common’inV
j It will be apparent- rhat 'theprotraatgr ,maybe
. lslid along the base With pivot f5 frilloyvingiaxis
_5 ,21nd thatdeclinaticn may beraad by, considera;
_’Itîis; therefore,
object of ltheinventi'on to
provide ‘_ajsimple> and ,practical vdevice capable ,_of .
‘facile anldrapid determinations of azimuth, when
_tion o_f line Il relative toscale 6,. ,Bositíongf
¿indexu lírie I4 ~will beraad; on suitable ,scales .con
the cuter edgesv of thenrotractor. V,In ,orderithat
itself 'for accurate solution of spherical triangles,
'andifull »directionsniarked explaining operation.
îN'ot all `rthe'-rrlarkings employed are shown _toavoid
'ihenrdí?iarymethods used...
`
'
’
`
'
'
device j_may‘ce used. for jNortn _and'âonth‘lati
local` apparentY ’time or, _hour angle',v latitude'and 30 ¿the
,tudes and Lfor vanyjhour„angle or _local „apparent
tîme,"the-variou_s fscales vvill '_be _suitablyllumbe'lled
de_c’línationareknown.’'1t isanfobjectto provide
, ,r a1_.device
Í `_ sufñcient
.
in
avoiding gany„_need‘ for reference „toîbullçy volumes
crazimuth tables, etc.
'
/
'
_
`
'
conf-using detai1.„
_In the grid 2, latitude ellipseslare definedby
lthe ¿equation
"
`mutihs.Q'Aclîdîtional“`
'
obj ects will
, appear
. y
when
` Y
the descrip
tion'î'sconsideredl
`_
'
îln‘thedrawings:
'
.
'
e
„jequationf
'of ourazimuth computer, showing the „protractor '
.mounted on vthe reverse _side.of the'hase.
FigureZ is „a section alongjline.Z-fZQfFigure 1. 45.,'
’
.
'
wz
__
i
A
x2 _
systems of l altitude ellipses ¿and ihonr ¿angle
îFigureB indicatesV the obverse side of tliebase
’
,
_Hour angle hyperbolas h are deñned JAbythe
Y
Figure 1 is arepresen'tatíon of >apreferiredjforrn
.onlyof‘the computer.
si'
Sß'ßil lil-tanti" l
40
`
_
The theoryofithe‘device‘ís as follows:
"
rAîfurther lobject ofourinventicn is ,to provide
an razimuth ,computer Which vwillgive _true f_az'î
rhvperbolas , are >l`marked `01:1 rw -. and is @ordinate
_
axes '.-Thei interseetionnf .«a,-1abli.tude
ellipse f ` th
"
As indicate‘diin r`Figure '1, our `azimuth computer»
includes anop'aque'base vI on vvhichis printed >.or
an hourrangle hyperbole-¿siennes .a point `z?rvgllcse
otherwise.suitablymarked a_grid`2. _’-I'hegridis _ 50 @coordinates-,alter
composedof hour> anglejßliyperholasr _3 >and latitude
ellipses "4 "in .suitablejincrements ‘Theiine ’5,
"
,
„ nasce-„lysine
’
" y: @tanil'fcosh
which «we Jterm the axis'of 'the grid, isv an axis of
the'confocal‘hypèrbolas; and ellipses, 4and'isjpa'ral
lel‘to'the'lower'edge’of
'Hyperbolas'ß are `n thebered'inside
base‘l.' ' and outside
‘
*the- grid. v"Latitude ellipses 4 arenumberedalong
‘the `axis y“5. vÍSinc'e the latitude Aellipses also -serve
"toi'measu-re declination; the-indications? along axis
6 :are AAbroughtdov/n - and@repeatedf- at >>sca-le 6 É)for
‘convenience inioperation.
'
’
`
`
Y
`where :d=._:dec1ination,. a' line
, drawn, such
60 zrepresents the 4azimuth fof «ia '-ibody -of r`>declination
«d «from Í'latitudeT laatßhour l«angle
’
The device described has been designed- to solve
l point ` coinciding with'- saidî minori axis whereby
this system mechanically. In the grid 2 the line
the pivot may move along said minor axis, said
5 corresponds to the y coordinate axis.
f _ bearing surfaces and said cooperating and en
In operation, to determine azimuth of a given
body, with declination, hour angle, and latitude
known, the ñrst step is to mount the protractor
gaging means including an edge on one of said
members parallel to said minor axis and a lip on
, the other of said members bearing against and
on front or back of the base l, as dictated by
latitude. The protractor will then be secured> `
by tightening nut 9 in such position that line
Il crosses scale 6 at the proper declination.
Arm `
I3 will then be moved to locate line I4 at the in
¿tractor member mounted on the base member,
said protractor member having means cooperat
Y
ing with and engagingsaid bearing surfaces,
whereby said protractor member is slidably but
non-rotatably moveable parallel to said- minor
In Figure 1, the instrument is set to determine
azimuth when:
Latitude=56° S.
Declination=15° S.
Hour angle=2h36m E.
axis, and an arm pivoted on the protractor, at a
point coinciding with said minor axis whereby
Athepivot may move along said minor axis, said
bearing surfaces and said cooperating and en
lAzimuth reads on protractor ‘I- as 0510.8.
As is apparent, the entire problem is solved by
the one instrument. There is no need for refer
yence to any books or charts. To facilitate this
operation, directions and rules may be printed on
the device. Some are shown, others omitted for
gaging means including a slot in at least one of
said members and a threaded bearing pin and
locking nut in the other of said members.
5. In an azimuth computer, a base member
comprising a grid composed of confocal hour an
gle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
member having a plurality of bearing surfaces
parallel to the minor axis of the ellipses, a pro
tractor member mounted 0n the base member,
said protractor member having means cooperat
ing with and engaging said bearing surfaces,
whereby said protractor member is slidably but
non-rotatably moveable parallel to said minor
clarity of illustration. The computer may be
used for any latitude or declination to 60° either
‘north or south; Azimuth is found directly as
`
'
Obviously many changes are permissible while
` adhering to the principles of the invention as -ex
pressed in the following claims.
' The invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by` or for the Government of
the United States of America for governmental
purposes without the payment `of any royalties
vthereon or therefor.
'
We claim:
.
'
L
CO Ui axis, and an arm pivoted on the protractor, at a
point coinciding with said minor axis whereby
the pivot may move along said minor axis, said
bearing surfaces and said cooperating and en
'
gaging means including an edge' on one of said
'
members parallel to said minor axis and a lip lon
the other of said members bearing against and
engaging with said edge, anda slot in at least one
of said’members‘ and a threaded bearing pin and
locking nut in the other of said members.
j y 1. In an azimuth computer, a base member
comprising a grid composed of confocal hour
>angle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
:member having a plurality of bearing surfaces
parallel to the minor axis ofthe ellipses, a pro
' 6. In an azimuth computer, a base member
tractor member mounted onthe base member,
comprising a grid composed of confocal hour
said protractor member having means cooperat
angle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
member having a plurality of bearing surfaces
'ing with and engaging said. bearing surfaces,
-whereby said protractor member„is slidably but
non-rotatably moveable parallel'to said minor
, axis.
2. In an azimuth computer, a base ,member
comprising a grid composed of confocal hour
angle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
member having a plurality of bearing surfaces
parallel to the minor axis of the ellipses, a pro
tractor member mounted on the base member,
said protractor member having means cooperat
ing with and engaging said bearing surfaces, `
gle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
» parallel to the minor axis of the ellipses, a pro
will then indicate on the scale of the protractor
Zn.
4. In van azimuth computer, a base member
comprising a grid composed of confocal hour an
member having a plurality of bearing surfaces
tersection of the ellipse and hyperbola represent
ing the known latitude and hour angle. Line :I4
the azimuth, commonly referred to as Zn.
l engaging withsaid edge. .
50
parallel to the minor axis of the- ellipses, a pro
tractor member mounted on the base member,
said protractor member having means cooperat
ing with and ‘engaging said bearing surfaces,
whereby said protractor member is slidably but
non-rotatably moveable parallel to> Said minor
axis, and an arm pivoted on the protractor, at a
point coinciding with said minor axis whereby
vthe pivot may move along said minor axis, said
bearing surfaces and said cooperating and en
gaging. means including an edge on one of said
whereby said protractor member is slidably but 60 `members parallel to said minor axis and a lip
non-rotatably moveable parallel to said minor
on the other of said members bearing against
axis, and an arm pivoted on the protractor, at
a point coinciding with said minor axis whereby
the pivot may move along said minor axis.
and engaging with said edge, and a slot in at
least one of said members and a threaded bearing
pin and locking nut in the other of >said mem
3. In an azimuth computer, a base member 65 bers, the declination axis being duplicated below
comprising a grid’composed of confocal hour an
theQminor axis, an indicator means on said pro
gle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
member having a plurality of bearing surfaces
parallel to the minor axis of the ellipses, a pro
tractor member mounted on the base member,
said protractor member `having means cooperat
ing with and engaging said bearing surfaces,
whereby said protractor member is slidably but
non-rotatably moveable parallel to said minor
axis, and an arm pivotedîonthe protractor, at a
tractor member reading onsaid duplicate decli
nation axis, an indicator means on said protrac
tor larm comprisinga -line extendingV from the
pivot, said protractor member being'offset'be
tween said duplicate declination- axis and said
minor axis, said protractorarm being pivoted to
the bottom of said Vprotractormember between
`said protractor member and said base member
with said indicator means V.closelyVv >adjç'i’cent `the
2,408,776
base member thereby avoiding kparallax between
6
member comprising a grid composed of confocal
hour angle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, the
said indicator means and said grid.
grid on one side of said base member being a
7. In an azimuth computer, a base member
comprising a grid composed of confocal hour an
`continuation of and registered with the grid on f
the other side thereof, said base member having
a plurality of bearing surfaces parallel tothe
minor axis of the ellipses, a protractor member
gle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
member having a plurality of bearing surfaces
parallel to the minor axis of the ellipses, a pro
tractor member mounted on the base member,
said protractor member having means coop-er
ating with and engaging said bearing surfaces,
` whereby said protractor member is slidably but
non-rotatably moveable parallel to said minor
mounted on the base member, said protractor
member having means cooperating with and en
gaging said bearing surfaces, whereby said pro
tractor member is slidably but non-rotatably
moveable parallel to said minor axis.
l2. In an azimuth computer, a reversible base
axis, and an arm pivoted on the protractor, at
member comprising a grid composed of confocal
a point coinciding with said minor axis whereby ` 15 hour angle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, the
the pivot may move along said minor axis, the
grid on one side ofs‘aid base member being a
declination axis being duplicated below the minor
continuation of and registered with the grid on
axis, an indicator means on said protractor mem
the other side thereof, said base member having
ber reading on said duplicate declination axis, an
a plurality of bearing surfaces parallel to the
indicator means on said protractor arm com
minor axis of the ellipses, a protractor member
prising a line extending from the pivot, said pro 20 mounted on the base member, said protractor
tractor member being offset between said dupli
member having means cooperating with and en
cate declination axis and said minor axis, said
gaging said bearing surfaces, whereby said pro
protractor arm being pivoted to the bottom of
tractor member is slidably but non-rotatably
said protractor member between said protractor » moveable parallel to said minor axis, said bearing
member and said base member with said indi
surfaces and said «cooperating and engaging
cater means closely adjacent the base member
means including an edge on one of said members
thereby avoiding parallax between said indicator
parallel to said minor axis and a lip on the other
means and said grid.
.
8. In an azimuth computer, a base member
of said members bearing against and engaging
with said edge, and a slot in at least one of said
comprising a grid composed of confocal hour Si) members and a threaded bearing pin and locking
angle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
nut in the other of said members enabling said
Ymember having a plurality of bearing surfaces
protractor member to be slidably but non-rotat
parallel to the minor axis of the ellipses, a pro
ably secured on either side of said base member.
tractor member mounted on the base member,
said protractor member having means cooperat
ing with and engaging said bearing surfaces,
whereby said protractor member is slidably but>
non-rotatably moveable parallel to said minor
axis, 'said bearing surfaces and said cooperating
13. In an azimuth computer, a reversible base
member comprising a grid composed of confocal
hour angle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, the
grid on one side of said base member being a
continuation of and registered with the grid on
the other side thereof, said base member having
and engaging means including an edge on one
a plurality of bearing surfaces parallel to the
of said members parallel to said minor axis and
minor axis of the ellipses, a protractor member
a lip on the other of said members bearing
mounted on the base member, said protractor
against and engaging with said edge.
member having means cooperating with and en
9. In an azimuth computer, a base member y. gaging said bearing surfaces, whereby said pro
comprising a grid «composed of confocal; hour
tractor member is slidably but non-rotatably
angle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
moveable parallel to said minor axis, and an arm
member having a plurality of bearing surfaces - pivoted on the protractor, at a point coinciding
with said minor axis whereby the pivot may move
parallel to the minor axis of the ellipses, a pro-`
tractor member mounted on the base member,
along said minor axis, said bearing surfaces and
said protractor member having means cooperat
said cooperating and engaging means including
ing with and engaging said bearing surfaces,
an edge on one of said members parallel to said
whereby said protractor member is slidably but
minor axis and lip on the other of said members
non-rotatably moveable parallel to said minor
axis, said bearing surfaces and said cooperating
bearing against and engaging with said edge, andv
and engaging means including a slot in at `least
one of said members and a threaded bearing pin
and locking nut in the other of said members.
10. In an azimuth computer, a base member
comprising a grid composed of confocal hour
threaded bearing pin and locking nut in the other
angle hyperbolas and latitude ellipses, said base
member having a plurality of bearing surfaces
parallel to the minor axis of the ellipses, a pro
tractor member mounted on the base member,
said protractor member having means cooperat
ing with and engaging said bearing surfaces,
whereby said protractor member is slidably but
non-rotatably moveable parallel to said minor
axis, said bearing surfaces and said cooperating
and engaging means including an edge on one of
a slot in at least one of said members and a
of said members enabling said protractor member
to be slidably but non-rotatably secured on either
side of said base member, the declination axis
being duplicated below the minor axis, an indi
cator means on said protractor member reading
on said duplicate declination axis, an indicator
means on said protractor arm comprising a line
extending from the pivot, said protractor member
being offset between said duplicate declination
axis and said minor axis, said protractor arm
being pivoted to the bottom of said protractor
member between said protractor member and
said base member with said indicator means
closely adjacent the base member thereby avoid
said members parallel to said minor axis and a
ing parallax between said indicator means and
lip on the other of said members bearing against
said grid.
and engaging with said edge, a slot in at least
JOSEPH HILSENRATH.
one of said members and a threaded bearing pin
SAMUEL GLOBE.
and locking nut in the other of said members.
11. In an azimuth computer, a reversible base 76
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