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Oct. 8, 1946."
‘
CHUNG-CHIN KAO
2,408,780
' METEOROLOGICAL RECORDING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed April 5, 1944
'
10 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR.
C’ywva- CV/m/ K40
BY %
Oct. 8, 1946.
CHUNG-CHIN KAO
' 2,408,780
METEOROLOGICAL RECORDING METHOD AND APPARATUS
_ Filed Aprii 5, 1944
_
10 Sheets~Sheet 2‘
'
INVEN TOR.
CHU/VG- C/w/v K40
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Oct. 8, 1946. "
CHUNG-CHIN mov
2,408,730
METEOROLOGICAL RECORDING METHOD AND APPARATUS
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Filed April 5, 1944
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Oct. 8,- 1946. ’
CHUNG-CHIN KAO
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KETEOROLOGICAL RECORDING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed April 5, 1944
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Oct. 8, 1946.-
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METEOROLOGICAL RECORDING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed April 5, 1944
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Filed April 5, 1944
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METEOROLOGICAL RECORDING METHOD AND APPARATUS‘ '
Filed April 5, 1944
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Oct. 8, 1946.
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METEOROLOGICAL RECORDING METHOD AND APPARATUS
'
Filed April 5, 1944
10 Shéets-Sheet 8
INDEX
WEATHER
A-2
HAZE
CLOUDS
8-4
WIND VELO VISI-
1
N. NE. E . SE. 5; sw. w. NW.
NORMAL m I15 I19 I83 I87 |9| n95 I99
1-7
2- 8-l8
--
3 |9—3|
"
I
I-'7
8-]8
n2 l76'l80 I64 I88 I92 I96 200
113 m |8I ‘I85 I89‘l93 191 201
-.
| [-1 2 a—|s
3 l9-3l4 32-30‘
2
~
n
4 32-33
-
A"2
v
~34 COVERED
WIND DIRECTION
ClTY MPH. BILITY
|
I
I14 I13 n02 I86 I90 I94 I96 202
POOR
-
203201
204200
, 205
I 206 210
am
2|2
an
214
25219
216 220
211 22:
2:3 222
223 221
224 220
225 229
226230
am
232
233
234
*DRMAL 235 239 243 247'25I 255 259 263
"
,
3 I9-3I
4 32-38
236 240 244 248 252 256260 264 v
. "
I
237 24I 245 249 253 257 26I 265
"
‘I 8-I8
'
POOR
2 I9-3I
"
3 32-38
">
4 39-46
267 27| '275 ‘279 283 287
I 298
268 272 276 280 284 288 2 2 29
269 273 277 28I 285 289 293 297
"
-
23 242 246 250 254 258 262 266
270 274 278 282 28% 294 298
'
1.12..’
EXAMPLE OF WEATHER REPORT MESSAGE‘
STATION NO. AC-B-H
TIME‘ 2:30 PM
WEATHER CONDITION=
I. RAINING
I
7 ATMOSPHERE PRESSURE- 3|
2.CLOUDS=
8. MOVEMENT OF BAROMETER ‘ DURING .
w-CUMULUS
PAST
!-ALL_COVERED
.
THREE HOURS=
LOW AND- FALLING
-
-
RAPIDLY
3.WIND DIRECTION- E-NE. 9.TEMPERATURE- 46.75 F
4.v WIND VELOCITY=
25-3l MPH.
'
5. CEILINGr-ZOOO FT.
'
IO..HUMIDITY- 55
ll. RAIN GAGE — O.l4 INCHES,
I2.TIME
2=3O
‘
.
.
6. VISIBILITY -' 5 MILE
~
I
IN VEN TOR.
CHUNG — (‘M/v M0
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0gb. 8, v 1946;
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CHUNG-CHIN, KAO- I
2,403,789
METEOROLOGICAL RECORDING METHOD AND APPARATUS
Filed April 5, 194-4
10. Sheets-Sheet‘
TRANSMITTING CODE 4 PERFORATED ‘TAPE
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Oct. 8, 1946.
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CHUNG-CHlN KAo
- METEOROLOGICAL RECORDING METHdD AND APPARATUS
l0 Sheets-Sheet 10
Filed April 5, 1944
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2,408,780
Patented Oct. 8,_ 1946
PATENT] OFFICE.‘
UNITED.
I
I AND APPARATUS ‘7
_
Ghung-Chin Kao, New York, N. Y.
'ApplicationfApril 5, lsllas’erlal Ne. szaeee
I 18 Claims.
(Cl. 178-34)
7.
.
>
II
,
I
more particularly‘to improved methods" and-'de-j
vices for recording‘either' locally or at a distance‘;
meteorologicaldata and inforr'nation.~
v A principal object of the‘ invention is to pro
2
A- further feature relates to a type drunior
invention relates to recordingIdevicesIand ‘
platen carrying a series of» composite ‘type faces
on itsv periphery; together with anovel selector
I mechanism for positioning; said drum with? any desired type face in registry witli- a printing
5
vide' a' keyboardrc‘ontrolled machine for printing
point.
specially coded composite characters represent:
groups‘ of meteorological information arid’yth'e
composite tyne face‘Ifofprintin'g’ machines.
like."
'
"
I
'
I
I
A further" featureirelaité's to a novel! form of
A still furtherféatil eI relates to alprinting
"
liavin " a‘ series? of composite type faces,
Another principal object" relates tofa printing; 10 drum?represé'I
I ing' a coded combination‘ or intel
machine", for printing directlyat' eaeli print” ~ ‘each
ligence signals to" he ‘ ?rintedi or reproduced.
'
impression; av compositecharacter' rebr'es’enting?
A
still
further
featllre'relatesto
the
novel‘
or
groups of meteorological data.
II
I
' a’
‘
ganization~,‘arrangement1‘and relative loc'ation'and
Another principal object relatestola n'rintirlg
interconnection of parts which cooperate topro;
machine having largell'umberei typefaces each 1'5 ‘duce
a 'c'omna'ct and efficient printer for record
renresentin‘g code eo-mbinaticns of’ v'ec'lrologi
‘
’ "
I . in'g‘ composite‘:
data‘ such? “ meteorological COn'dii
calv data, together with seleeti'vemechanisins ‘fer
tion‘si', navigational 'c'dnditlo as", and in facteany
presenting'any desired one of the‘tyfie' races‘ to
a ?rinti‘ng'izoint'.
I
V
‘
Another principal met
v >
kind or composite codes data in- the form of- an
ideosjralahrw .
I
other {estates and ‘advantages not speci?cally’ enumerated ‘will :be anparent' after‘ a considera
non o the followingrdet'ailed descriptions andth'e
of tele-translnlssl'en "rid e?ro-duction of meteor;
ological data‘ Whe
' a ‘considerable ‘s'a‘vi-lfgv in
- transmission line time'is efie'eted.
angiendedclaimsl
machine ' for ItIransla'ting~ numeric‘
.
dléla into other pri I ‘ I
dIIinteIlllgence; such fer ex;
I
I
' ample
as weather
data; navi'g‘ationaldate'i, frieteor
ological conditions andthef'like;
I '
'
._ ~ '
While the» invention’ willvbeji described particu
larly in Comedian with ap‘ri‘ntér will-ell is con
trolled rel?otely‘by" telegraph ‘signals, it’ will be
understood that tn " central‘ andiprinting' meal-1+
anisini can be: ‘o'ic'eratédldirectly‘ either“ by Inlan
I ‘
A feature of ‘the Iinvention‘relate's' to’: a
board-controlled pristine atom having’ a‘ large
number of composite type faces, together with a
special form of selective mechanism for linking
the keyboard to the drum vwhereby any desired
ually orierat'ed keys sd‘chl' as
the" ordinary’man
~ ual typewritenor by electro-lnechanically-oper
ated keys such as, in the ordinary electro-me
chanical typewriter.
- ‘~ Furthermore; while the invention will be de
‘typeface is selected on a digital ‘or percentage. -' scribedin"connectionwith the transmission of
basis. Asa result of this Ifeature, it ‘is possible
v
’
international meteoro
to print any one of 1900 composite indicia thy-125* / r-coded data such as usedl'in: Will be understood that
"logical
communications;
itI
ing only thirty ol'oe‘r’ating‘I levers orkeys c'orre- Y
sponding to‘ the'units; tens‘ and hundreds dig‘ s _
of a given code number; These thirty keys“ are“
" the mechanism disclosed is capable of a wide
variety c-f'us'es. Accordingly, in the drawings,
. Fig. 1 is va jolan'vie‘w' of the machine, with the
preferably arranged in threero'wsl'of ten keys 40 top cover plateI-rer'rlovedto
"
’
show the relative loca
I
each, ccrrespondiné to the units,-tens and hun
tion of the printin‘gfp atenor drum, the recording
dreds digits of the particular numerical code
number assigned to the type faces. I '
' tape and related’ part‘
Fig. 2 is a schematic end view ofFig. II, with
Another feature relates to'Ia; machineIIIifIorInrint-II' I
ing directly any one of a large number, fo X 4.5
ample 1000, of composite characters iundé'r?corir
trol of permuted combinations of electric signals.
certain salts omitted for purposes oi clarity.
I Fig.5; 3‘i‘s' a perspective .view of the printingv drum
' or pla'ten'; .
Figs! 46 and 5- ‘are detailed views‘. or the selector
. m" for controllingv the rotary motion oi
A further feature relates‘ to a composite” type
face printingrn'achin'ewherein the individnal'type
faces are selected for printing by a percentage
controlled selector mechanism, which can ‘peon
eratIedIeither by remote control e. g, by‘ coded
combinations of telegraphimpulses,»or, directly
layman's of mec-hanicakor alcove-mechanically
controlled key levers.
'
‘
-
'
‘
50
the printing drum.
. >
. r
.
I
Fig; é'is'a view of the ‘selectinginechamsm for
controlling the longitudinal'setting of the prime
ms areal. 7‘
'
m osit'e structural and schematic
p
v.
.
.
,
l
.t
'circuit
1 Figl 7diagram ' ‘f the ele'etri'cal controls for op
'
2,408,780
3
erating the selector mechanism of the printer by
coded combinations of electrical impulses.
receiving station, these coded impulses represent
ing the code numbers, instead of being recorded
Fig. 8 is a chart showing the coded combina
as numbers or as letters as is done in the usual
tions of impulses used to control the mechanism
printing telegraph system, cause the reproduction
of Fig. 7.
directly of a single composite indicia which may
Fig. 9 is a developed lay-out view showing the
represent a relatively long descriptive message.
arrangement and grouping of the various type
By this novel method, there is eifected not only
faces on the drum of Fig. 3.
a great reduction in transmission time for a given
Fig. 10 ‘represents one form of semieautomatic
amount of intelligence to be'reproduced, but the
index that may be used in practicing the inven 10 actual reproduction is e?ected directly in a single
tion.
,
composite character thus reducing the chances or
Fig. 11 is a chart of the various symbols in
error.
‘
.
corporated in the type faces on the printing drum.
In accordance with one phase'of the invention,
Fig. 12 is a typical page of the index of Fig. 11,
the original weather or meteorological data are
showing the code numbers for punctuation marks 15
translated into coded numbers. These numbers
and letters of the alphabet.
are used to operate any well-known telegraph
Fig. 13 is another typical page of the index
tape perforator which in turn is used to operate
showing the code numbers for certain Weather
a corresponding tape-controlled telegraph trans
conditions.
mitter. By employing code numbers of three
Fig. 14 represents a typical Weather report.
20 digits, it is possible to transmit approximately
Fig. 15 shows the code numbers transmitted for
1000 different composite symbols. At the receiv
the message of Fig. 14.
ing station, the telegraph impulses representing
Fig. 16 shows the symbols as actually printed
these three digits are applied through a conven
by the mechanism of Figs. 1 to 9 under control
tional
telegraph distributing mechanism to con
of the code numbers of Fig. 15.
trol a printing machine of novel construction.
Fig. 17 is a schematic block diagram of a tele
This machine comprises, in general, a cylindrical
graph system embodying the invention.
Fig. 18 is a typical composite ?ve-unit type _
printing drum or platen on which the 1000 sym
bols are arranged in coordinate rows peripherally
face ‘according to the invention.
and longitudinally of the drum. A specially de
It is common practice in marking maps, to
designate weather or meteorological conditions by 30 signed percentage selector mechanism is con
trolled by'the received electric impulses so as to
special'indicia or code markings. Also for pur
position the drum with the proper selected com
poses of navigation control, the information is
posite symbol or type face adjacent a printing
usually included in the following ?ve main
hammer or the like.
groups:
For example, the numbers 000 to 006 may be
(1) Weather; (2) cloud condition; (3) Wind di
assigned to the seven punctuation marks; the
rection; (4) wind velocity; (5) visibility. Thus,
numbers 007 to 032 may be assigned to the 26
by various combinations of these ?ve main char
letters of the alphabet; the numbers 033 to 042‘
acteristics, most of the information necessary for
may be assigned to the numerical digits 0 to 9;
aerial or other kinds of navigation are discernible.
the numbers 043 to 799 may be assigned to 757
Heretofore, two general methods of transmitting
different composite type faces or symbols repre
this type of information have been employed,
senting
757 di?erent combinations of the above
namely by telefacsimile transmission or by trans
mentioned ?ve weather conditions. The remain
mitting the description of the conditions by or
ing code numbers 800‘ to 999 may be assigned
dinary telegraph methods, wherein each letter of 45 to
represent individual indicia or symbols each
the written description is transmitted as a code
representing
a different individual weather con
combination of telegraph impulses. The telefac
dition as represented in Fig. 22.
simile method while satisfactory, is limited as to
For ease in remembering and locating, the
the detail which can be transmitted by commer
various symbols, the following is a typical ar
cial telefacsimile systems and also by the relia 50 rangement under the five main headings.
A
B
Weather‘
C
Wind
Clouds
Sunshine ____________________ __
direction
D
1. N0 cl0uds__
Visibility
1. Normal.
‘2. Poor.
_ 2. %th cloudy_
3. % covered__
4 %covered__
E .
Wind velocity
___
6. All covered _____ __
6. Obscured _______ _.
. Line squall.
. Thunderstorms"
bility of the transmission channel, particularly
It will be found convenient to assign the code
numbers, for example 043 to 799 to the various
combinations of weather conditions in accord
method, is costly and requires a considerable 70 ance
with the following typical arrangement.
“holding” time for the transmission channel. In
accordance with the present invention, the ?ve
Weather condition:
main divisions or characteristics above men
where a radio channel is employed.
The ‘usual
letter-by-letter telegraph message transmission
tioned, are transmitted by previously assigned
code numbers which can be transmitted by any
known method of electrical transmission. At the
I
Sunshine ______________________ __
043-170
Haze __________________________ __ 171-298
_____ __' ____________________ __
299-362
Drizzle _.__,_._ ___________________ __
Fog
353-394
2,403,?801 @
>
6%.}
matically- provided with? regular ‘feed holes along
Weather conditionq-fc‘ontinued-z
its edge's'o as to control‘ its‘ automatic feeding
through the tape perforator andthe tape trans
Hail
mitter. For a detailed description of one kind
' ‘of't'ape perforator that’ may be used,» reference is
___________ __
Hurricane ; ______ __
_
_>_'_~_-____-~__
hereby made to U. S. Patent No. 2,308,543, the
disclosure of which is expressly incorporated
7191758
herein: by reference...
Tornado ______________________ ___-_‘. ‘7591-790
'.
a
The. perforated‘ tape is‘ fed through any well
10' known type of tape-controlled telegraph trans‘
In" the event that itis'désired to reproduce
mitter 3, whereby ‘each transverseset of code
individual symbols for‘ wearer inland‘ weather
perforations‘is converted‘ into a corresponding
report communications", they may be assigned in
code combination of electric impulses. For a de
I Warning symbols;shamanism“; 7914799
accordance with the ‘following chart‘; I
'
tailed description of a. typical tape-controlled ‘
' transmitter,‘ reference‘is made to U.“ S. Patent
No. ‘2,213,476, the'disclo'sure of. which is express‘
1yv incorporated herein by'reference. These suc
cessivev code combinations of electrical impulses
are then applied to modulate ‘or key any well
20" known radio transmitter 4, preferably of the con
'
tinuous wave type.
At the‘. receiving station which may be aboard
an aircraft, vessel orat- any other point at which
. the weather‘ signals are to be recorded, the coded
combinations‘ of ' electric impulses are‘ detected
, andampli?e'd in1 the conventional-radio receiver
5 to produce direct‘ current'impulses‘ correspond
ing .to those originallyjdelivered by device ,3 at’the
Referring to Fig. r1, there is shown in block
diagrammatic ,form', a typical communication.
system for practicing the invention. At the
transmitting point the weather reports aretrTar'i's
transmitter. These impulses are then applied to
a commutator 'or' distributing _i switch" to control
the printing machine 6 according to the inven
tion, the printing" of eachv complete composite
character being effected in a single “printing oper-a
ation.
35
lat'ed into ‘their respective code‘ numbers. For
purposes of explanation‘, assume that the report
to be sent‘is‘ as‘ follows:
‘
,
weathers-cloudy three-quarters covered; ‘
wind north-wind velocity‘32 to 38 M. P.‘
visibility poor.
The composite character representinjg'this come" plete‘information is illustrated in'Fi'g; 18‘as will "
be clear from they tah-legiven in Fig. 11. The
code number assigned to this particular com-v
posite character may for example‘be 206. These
code digits are set up on‘ the'keyboard of any‘
well -known type of telegraph keyboard-controlled
perforator I, which is ‘ arranged to" perforat'e'ithe
tape 2' with transverse rows of perforations in
accordance with the permutation code‘, showni in v
In accordance with one feature of the
invention,- these composite characters may be
referred to generically as ide‘ographs‘ and‘ are
' preferably all of thesame size and arrangement.‘
Thus, as shown in Fig. 18, the generic symbol
may‘ consist of a square or rectangle divided'int'o
four‘quadrants designated AYB, C,‘D,-and a cene
tral circular regionv E‘. The symbol'for the weath;
or condition e. g., haze, is in quadrant A; the gym
bol for cloudy weather is in quadrant l3;v the
symbollfor wind direction is in quadrant C;_ the
symbol for Wind velocity is in' quadrant D; and
the symbol for’ visibility is in section
There‘
fore,lthe reception of each set of three code com
hinations of impulses results-in the automatic and .
direct printing‘in a single printing operation of
‘ the desired one of a great number of composite
symbols. -It will be understood of course, that
each of the- 757 composite symbols is represented
Fig. 8‘. Since each composite" characteris' t’i‘be'
spaced" from the succeeding character. on‘ .1 the‘
printed tape at the‘ receiver, each‘ set,’ of three“
by? aj-‘corresponding type face on the printing
digits is followed'by the letter ‘in’? which‘ con-‘l
binations of impulses-representing the three digit
code numbers" assigned to each composite signal
trols the single space'function betWeenfsuccesJ
sive printed characters‘ as indicated'bythe codev
in Fig. 8.
If no space is to be had‘betweenj
successive printed composite characters-onilthel
receiving tape, the three code digits ar'e'followed"
by'the “R” signal, while if a mmtespace is to ‘be
drum or pl'aterif'ofimachine 6; and the. desired
type face is automatically presented to the print- .
ing point under control of the received code com
as above enumerated.
‘
‘
Referring‘- to the ‘drawings, the printing machine '
"according to the invention and represented by
the block 6 in'Fig. 17,-‘comprises' a cylindrical
“platen or drum‘? (Figs. 1 to 9). Drum T is slid
ably v'k'eyed to asquare or rectangular shaft 8
mounted
vertically'in suitable bearings, and driv- ‘
lowed by theFM” signal. Ifthe tape is) to‘ be ‘ '
en by a continuously running motor 9 through
fed without‘ any printing whatever, the “S”;sig-'
the intermediary of a slip-friction clutch iii‘ and
nal is transmitted.
'
" >
produced at the receiver between successive'coml
posite characters, the three code digits‘ are fol.
Accordingly, under the above assumption; the;
gear sets H; Hafii'b.
In the _ vabsence of any '
.receifv'ed signals therefore, the drum 1 is in con
numeral
code to be
2, transmitted'is
the tape will be206N;v
.perforated'injposi-i'
Thus'g'vfor the; "tinuous.rotationand in its lowermost position
as shown in Fig.
To‘ control the vertical slid-‘
tions 2 and 3; For the numeral 0, the tape is
ing movement of the drum on shaft 8, tlie‘drum
perforated in positions 2 and 4; ' For the numeral _,
is'supported between horizontal arms I2, rigidly
6, it is perforated in the position 4,'while. for
fastened'to .ver tically reciprocable lead screw shaft
the letter “N” it is perforated in positions 1'“ andv
I4.’ It Will be understood ‘that’ the members I2,
4; “It will lbe'uri'derstood that“ the tape is auto‘-:
2,408,780.
7
8
l3, allow the shaft 8 topass freely therethrough
understood that the mechanismv 6i which con
trols the printing hammerii? to effect printing
is connected. through suitable ratchet mechanism
(not shown) with the usual paper feed mecha
so as not to interfere with its rotation. The drum
‘5 is normally held in its lowermost position as
shown in Fig. 2 by retractile spring 15.
'
For selectively raising and lowering the drum
nism so that on the return stroke of the hammer
'5, the lower end of shaft It has a lead screw
the paper is automatically fed the distance of
it which is engaged by the thrust follower ll,
attached to shaft 58. Shaft i8 is mounted for
rotation, but is not capable of longitudinal mo
one character space as is conventional in manual
typewriters.
.
Suitably mounted on the base of the machine
is an impulse. receiving and distributing mecha
tion, so that when it is positively rotated by mo
tor 9, it causes the shaft ill to be raised. Shaft
nism comprising two commutators or telegraph
I8 is driven from motor it through gear sets lib,
distributors E—l and 151-4, such as are well known
slip-friction clutch 20, gear set 2 i, shiftable clutch
in the start-stop telegraph printing machine art.
22, and gear sets 23, 24 and 25. Normally, the
Each distributor has six separate conducting seg
members of clutch 22 are mechanically disen 15 ments, four of which are used as selecting im
gaged so that under the force of spring IS, the
pulse-distributing segments, the ?fth being a
drum is free to drop to its lowermost position.
‘stop control segment, and the sixth being a start
The drum 1 is arranged to-be rotated in succes
drum segment; Each distributor also has an in
sive stages, the ?rst stage being a group selec
ner continuous contact ring and a rotatable brush
tion, and the second stage being a unit selec» 20 which'bridges the ring With the respective seg
tion. For this purpose, there are two sets of
ments as the brush rotates. The shaft which
shiftable stops 2'! and 28, there being ten stops
carries the distributor brush iii is connected
in each set. The stops 2‘! are mounted for radial
through a step-by-step 0r Geneva gear train ‘Hid,
movement in a ?xed ring 29, and are held in
'i?b (Figs. 2 and '7) to the shaft which carries
their retracted position by individual springs 36 25 brush ‘H, so that for each complete revolution of
' as shown in Fig. 4. Fastened to shaft 8 and in
brush it, the brush ‘H is advanced to a succeed
the same horizontal plane as ring 29, is a wheel
ing segment of distributor E-4.
3! (Fig. 4) which carries on its outer periphery,
The energization of the successive four code
a series of ten teeth 32 to M. These teeth are
segments of distributor E-i is controlled by the
so related to the stops 2'! that the wheel 3! can 30 line relay ‘[2 (Fig. 2), whose contacts when oper
be selectively stopped in any one of ten positions
ated apply D. 0. potential to ring 73 of distribu
corresponding to the digits 0-9. Likewise, the
tor E—~I. In accordance with well-known start
ten shiftable stops ‘28 are mounted for radial slid
stop telegraph practice, each set of code impulses,
ing movement
a ?xed ring 43 (Fig, 5), and
in this case 4, is preceded by a start impulse
fastened-to shaft 8 in the same plane as ring 35 which causes the brush shaft to be clutched
E3 is a wheel 44 having a single tooth 45. Thus,
through a slip-friction clutch (not shown) to the
by selectively operating one of the stops 28, wheel
motor 9 or to a special driving motor (not shown)
44 can be stopped in any one of its ten unit po
for the distributor mechanism. At the end of
sitions. Preferably, the stops 23 are responsive
each numerical impulse combination, a stop im~
to the first or “hundreds” digit of the code num
pulse is received to declutch the distributor brush
ber so that they may be referred to as group se
from its driving shaft.
lecting- stops. The stops 2? may be referred to
Associated with distributors E—| and E—4, is
as unit stops and respond to the second or “tens”
a permutation selection control mechanism com
digit of the number. Thus, by successive setting
of the stops 28 and 21, the drum can be stopped
45
prising four sets, of permutation bars c-—i, 0-2,
0-45, 0-4 (Fig. 7), each set consisting of four
in any one of a hundred different circumferential
bars.
Likewise, in order to control the selective stop
ping of the drum in its vertical movement along
shaft 8, a third series of stops 50 (Figs. 2 and 6), 50
control electromagnet M|—M4 whose operating
circuit is completed partially by the segments of
distributor E—l and partially by the segments
of distributor E—4. The magnets of each set
positions.
Each bar is provided with an individual
are radially mounted in a ?xed ring 5| which co‘
have a common return conductor RCi—RC4
operates with a wheel 52 fastened to shaft 53.
which is connected to the respective one of the
Wheel 52 has ten peripheral teeth 54 so related
segments of distributor E—4. The permutation
to stops 59 that by means of members [6 and
bars are connected to the armatures of their re
H, the shaft Ill and drum 8 can be selectively 55 spective electromagnets so that when a magnet
stopped in any one of ten vertical positions.
is energized the corresponding bar is rotated
As shown in Fig. 3, and in developed form in
around its longitudinal axis through an angle of
Fig. 9, the printing drum carries‘ on its periph
180°. The bars have notches on diametrically
eral face a series of composite type faces (see
opposite sides of their periphery, which notches
Fig. 18) arranged in a series of ten parallel cir
are arranged in permutated combinations so that
cumferential rows with 100 type faces in each
by operating the bars in any particular combi
circumferential row._ Pivotally mounted adjacent
nation under control of the associated electro
the drum is a printing hammer 80 (Figs. 1 and 2),
magnets, only one of the overlying ten operating
whose operation is controlled by mechanism 6|
bars OH--OU is allowed to move by entering the
responsive to the impulse control device 62, which 65 aligned notches in the associated four permuta
is shown in detail in Fig. 7.
tion bars. It Will'be understood that when the
Mounted for step-by-step feed movement be
selection has been complete, the bars are auto
tween the printing hammer and the printed drum ‘
matically returned through an angle of 180° to
is an inked ribbon 53 (Fig. 1) which is carried
their normal positions under control of associ
on the usual ribbon spools Bit. The paper on
which the record is printed is in the form of a
tape 65 provided on the payoff reel 55 and re
ated springs.
‘
The ten operating bars OH associated with the
permutation bars c-—i , respond to the “hundreds”
ceived on the reel 5?. The recording tape passes
digit of the code number; the ten operating bars
over suitable guides 68, 69, and between the rib
OT associated with the permutation bars c-—2,v
bon 63 and the printing hammer. It will be 75 respond to the "tens” digit; the ten operating
2,408,786
‘bars 0U associated with ,the four permutation
bars 0-3, respond. to the “units” digit; while the
four function bars M, N, R, S, associ‘atedwiththe
four “function” permutation bars‘, c-t, are, re
sponsive respectively to the codeimpulsesrepre
senting “multi-space’.’ between printed charac
ters‘; “single space” between printed characters;
“no space” between printed characters; andf‘con
tinuous steps” corresponding to the successive
operation of a spacingbar on a typewriter.
10
vertical movement of the drum. If desired, any
well-known retaining and centering pawl ar
rangement may be provided for shaft‘ It to keep
it centered in its selectedv vertical position. When
the mechanism is to be cleared‘ for the next suc-.
ceeding selective operation, this pawl may be re
leased by. any suitable mechanism (not shown)
to allow the drum to restore to normal. The de
sired type face on the drum is now positioned in
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10 registry withthe printing hammer to.
‘Upon receipt of the “N” impulses, the distribu
Each of the “hundreds” operating bars OI-I'is
tors E-i and E—4 distribute ‘the impulses to
connected to its individual arm to (Fig; 2)., so
that when one ofthe associated operating ba‘rs is
the’ appropriate magnets associateol'with bars -
c-Ji to operate the “N” bar (Fig. '7). This bar
is connected through suitable. links so that it
end of member ‘89 is connected to an. armsal 15 causes the printing hammer ?ll to press the re
which latches at its left-hand end against-the,
cording tape andinked ribbon against the par
lower end of lever 82. Member St is pivoted ad
ticular type face which has been presented to the
jacent its left-hand end so that when member
printing point. Itwill be understood that the
80 is moved downwardly, it causes the lever-82 to
members or and NH when selectively operated as
be rotated around its pivot 33 in a counter-clock
above‘described, .are locked in their operated
wise direction against the tension of :spring?d.
position by a common locking bail (not shown),
The latched end of member 8| isnormally held ~
so that/upon the return movement of the printing
in engagement with lever 82 by a suitable spring
selected it pulls member Bildown. .TheEupper
hammer 69, this bail isoperated by suitable links
pulses representing the “hundreds” digit results
(not shown), toallow the selected stops to return
to normal. Likewise, the return of the printing
in the selective operation of one of the “hun
dreds” bars and the setting of one of the ten‘stops
21, thus stopping the drum- 8 in its ?rst rotary
anism‘for all the previously operated parts. If
desired, the permutation magnets (Fig. '7), can
85.
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‘
-
Therefore, the ?rst set: of numerical code im
hammer can operate a common clearing mech
be provided with a common holding circuit so
selective position. .The brush‘H is then advanced ‘
that when energized they remain energized until
the completion of the printing. This holding cir
to the next segment to prepare the circuit'forthe
appropriate magnets associated with the permu
tation bars c-—2. Upon receipt of the codedim
pulses corresponding to the “tens” digit, one of
the “tens” operating bars OT is operated. Each
cuit can be controlled by the printing hammer so
that when the printing is completed, this common
holding circuit is broken and the mechanism is
cleared to normal in readiness for the next opera
tion. If desired, instead of locking the magnets,
the various operating bars (Fig.7), can be held
in locked position until the printing hammer Eb
of these “tens” bars is connected to a correspond
ing individual bar 86 and thence through a piv
oted latch member 81 to the lever 88 pivoted at
89. The levers 88 control therespective-stopsi 28.
It will be noted that as soon as a member lit-is 40
‘operated downwardly, its pin Sliiengages a piv
oted lever 9! whose right-hand end- is located
has-completed its. printing movement, whereupon
‘the locking members for the said bars can be
‘ released.
When the previously selected members _
I33 have been restored to normal, the clutch 22 is
beneath the member 80. The lever 9! may be in
disengaged and the retaining and centering pawl
the form of. a plate or ball which is- common to
for the shaft I4 is likewise disengaged thus allow
all the members 85 and also common to the lower 45
ing the drum to return downwardly to normal.
end of all the members 89. In other words, as
.Referring to Fig. 1, it will be noted that the
soon as the selection for the “tens” digit begins
recording tape after it passesv the printing point,
to take place, the previously selected member 80
passes a re?ecting mirror [29 adjacent to which
is pushed upwardly to release thelatched end of
image
member 81 from lever '82,’ thus allowing the pre 50 is a lens arrangementv l2! for projecting
of
the
printed
Character
on
the
ground
glass
screen
viously selected stop to return’ to normal position
I22 in the front wall I23 of the machine casing.
and thereby allowing the drum to continue *its
While in the foregoing, the printer machine
rotary motion until stopped by the “units” stop
28. 1 The drum remains in this :rotaryposition
until the selection and printing of the character
is
completed.
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I
a
v
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7'
~
Upon receipt of the impulses corresponding ‘to
the “units” digit of the code number, the brush
‘H is advanced to #3 segment, thus causing? the
impulses to be distributed by brush ‘Hi to the
magnets associatedwithbars c—3,~and causing
_ is controlled by permuted electric impulses, it will
‘ be understood that the machine canbe' operated
directly by manual keys. Thus, each of thezten
members: 8 I, can be linked to corresponding keys
l I!) onthe keyboard (Fig. 2) ; the ten'membersg'l
maylikewise betlinked to ten. keys H I; 'theate'n
members Hi! may be linked to keys IE2‘; andithel
60
-bars;M,.N,jR,IS,, (Fig. 2) , may likewise be linked
to correspondingikeys. This linkage mechanism
the selective operation of one of—the “units” op
and key arrangement can be the same as is used,
erating bars 0U. Each of these bars (Fig. 2’) is
in ordinary manual keyboard typewriters, and
connected to its individual arm ltd-whichv is
linked to its individual arm l-lll, causing-the lat 65 if desired the keys may be providedwith a looking
ter to be rotated clockwise around its pivot m2. . mechanism so that each key remains in its oper
ated, position until released by the operation of- a
Each member it! is latched to a corresponding
lever H33, pivoted at 1-04, and adapted tor‘operate
the corresponding stop 56. Common to all the
ten members I93, is a shiftable’bail 26 so that
when any stop 58 is operated it immediately
operates clutch 22 causing shaft M-to rotate-and
subsequent-key.» '. Merely for simplicity in the ' ’
drawings, only one of each of these keys is shown,
but it will be clear that they can be arranged in
threernumbered rows of ten- keys each, and a
fourth row will include the keys" M, N, R, SI It
will also be understood that the keys H37, ill,
l l12-,1M, N ,y R, S, instead of being operated directly
operated, the wheel 52 and shaft 53 are stopped
:at the appropriate'point thereby stopping further : ‘ 'by hand, can. each have an individual operating
raise drum '7. Depending upon which stop‘ 5t is
ll
electromagnet which can be energized by signal
ling current received from a distance.
In order to facilitate the ascertainment of the
code number assigned to the various type faces,
an automatic index such as shown in Fig. 10, may
be employed. This index may beof the construc
tion disclosed in U. S. Patent No. 2,141,761 having
a movable pointer l I 5 for selecting the particular
pages or groups of pages desired; and a spring
retained cover H6 which can be released by a
button ill. As shown in Fig. 10, the front cover
of the automatic index will have a table of con~
12
with the type faces arranged in coordinate rows
each type face comprising a plurality of separate
intelligence bearing elements, two sets of shift
able stops, the product of the number of stops in
the two sets equaling the number of type faces
in each coordinate row, another set of shiftable
stops, permutation controls for each set of stops,
and means for setting said permutation controls
in accordance with preassigned digital code num
10 bers for the respective type faces.
5. In a machine of the character described, a
drum having a series of type face-s each having
tents numbered in accordance with the various
a preassigned identifying code number, a printing
general classi?cations, so that by moving pointer
hammer for cooperation with said type faces,
H5 to the appropriate point and pressing the 15 means to rotate said drum, means to produce rela
button I H, the desired page showing the com
tive linear movement between said drum and
posite type faces and their corresponding code
hammer, a plurality of cam wheels rotatable with
numbers can quickly be found.
the drum, one cam wheel being a group stopping
It will be understood that various changes and
control and the other being a unit stopping con
modi?cations may be made in the particular 20 trol, a series of shiftable stops mounted for move
embodiments disclosed without departing from
ment toward and away from the ?rst cam wheel,
the spirit and scope of the invention. 'Features
a second series of shiftable stops mounted for
disclosed herein but not claimed, are claimed in
movement toward and away from the second cam
co-pending applications Serial No. 542,492, ?led
June 28, 1944;, and Serial No. 513,826, ?led
December 11, 1943.
What I claim is:
1. In a machine of the character described, a 4
wheel, permutation controls for selectively mov
ing the ?rst set of stops, and other permutation
controls for selectively moving the second series
_ of stops.
6. In a machine of the character described, a
type face drum having a large number of type
drum having a series of type faces each repre
faces on the periphery thereof each type face 30 sented by a preassigned multiple-digit code num
comprising a plurality of separate intelligence
ber, a printing hammer mounted for cooperation
bearing elements, said drum being mounted for
with said type faces, means to rotate said drum,
rotary and axial movement; ?rst, second and
means to produce relative linear movement be—
third digit selector means each including permu
tween said drum and hammer, a plurality of cam
tation-control mechanism; and means respon 35 wheels rotatable with the drum, a ?rst series of
sive to the settings of said permutation control
shiftable stops cooperating with said cam wheels,
mechanisms to position the drum with a selected
type face in registry with a printing point.
2. In a machine of the character described, a
drum carrying a series of type faces each having
an identifying code number each type face com
prising a plurality of separate intelligence bear
ing elements; ?rst, second and third digit selector
means including permutation control mechanisms
adapted to be set in permuted combinations in
accordance with the identifying code numbers;
means to support said drum for rotary and axial
movements, means responsive to the combined
settings of the ?rst and second digit selector
means to control the rotary setting of said drum,
and means responsive to the setting of the third
digit selector means to control the axial setting
of the drum.
3. In a machine of the character described, a
type face carrier mounted for coordinate move
ments each type face comprising- a plurality of
separate intelligence bearing elements, a ?rst
digit selector means including a series of shift
able stops, a second digit selector means including
a series of shiftable stops, the product of the num
ber of stops in the two series equaling the num
ber of positions at which the drum is to be stopped
in one of its coordinate movements, means re
sponsive to the setting of said stops for control
ling said coordinate movement, other digit select
means to set a selected one of said stops under
control of one digit of the code number of a de
sired type face, a second series of shiftable stops
cooperating with the said cam wheels, means to
set said second series of stops under control of
another digit of said code number, and means
responsive to the combined settingof a stop in
each of said series for stopping the drum with
a selected type face in line with the printing
hammer.
'
7. In a machine of the character described, a
drum having a series of type faces each repre
sented by a corresponding plural-digit code num
ber, a movable printing hammer for pressing a
recording web against the selected type face,
means to rotate the drum, a pair of cams fastened
to the drum shaft, a plurality of selectably shift
able stops for cooperation with one of said cams,
another plurality of shiftable stops for coopera
tion with the other cam, permutation control
members arranged to be set in accordance with
one digit of the code number assigned to each
type face, other, permutation control members
arranged to be set in accordance with another
digit of said code number, means responsive to
the setting of the ?rst permutation members for
moving a selected stop in the first set into en
gagement with the associated cam, and means
65 responsive to the setting of the second permuta
ing means including another set of shiftable stops,
tion members for moving a selected stop in the
means responsive to the setting of said other
second set into contact with the associated cam.
selecting means for controlling the other coordi
8. A machine according to claim 7 in which the
nate movement of the drum,- and permutation
drum is normally rotating and said stop mem
control means arranged to be set in permuted 70 bers are arranged to stop the drum in successive
combinations under control of code combinations
group and unit positions, and means are pro
of impulses for controlling said digit-selecting
vided for automatically releasing the selective
means.
stop member of the ?rst set in response to the
4. In a machine of the character described, a
selection of a stop‘member of the second set.
rotatable and axially movable type face drum 75
9. A machine according to claim 7 in which
2,408,786 >
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13
means are provided for moving the drum axially,
and a third cam is provided together with a cor;
responding third series of shiftable stops, and
means for selectively setting one of said stops
in the third series in accordance with a third
digit of said code number to control the selective
stopping of the drum in its aXial movement.
14
13. In a printing machine of the type which is
controlled by coded combinations of electric im
pulses, a printing drum and a printing hammer,
means to position said drum with a desired type
face in registry with said hammer, each type face
comprising a plurality of separate ‘intelligence
bearing elements, the last-mentioned means in
cluding a pair of commutators one of which is
10. In a machine of the character described
rotated at a multiple speed with respect to the
a printing drum, first driving means for rotating
other, a plurality of sets of permutation members,
the drum, second driving means for moving the 10 electric control circuits for controlling said mem
drum axially, a source of motive power for both
here, said circuits being completed in part by the
of said means, a slip-friction clutch between said
?rst commutator and in part by the second com
source and the ?rst-mentioned means, a slip—
mutator, the second commutator serving to trans
friction clutch between said source and the sec
fer the control circuit from one to the other of
end-mentioned means, a shiftable clutch between 15 said sets of permutation members in cyclical suc
said source and said second-mentioned means,
cession, a plurality of selectively shiftable stops
permutation controlled stops adapted to be set
for controlling the stopping of said drum, and
in accordance with two digits of a code number
means for operating said stops in accordance with
representing a type face on the drum for selec
the setting of said permutation members.
tively stopping the first-mentioned means, and
14. A machine according to claim 13 in which
other stopping means adapted to be set in ac—
means are provided for maintaining the drum in
cordance with a third digit of said code num
rotation when none of said stops is selectively set.
ber for selectivelyv stopping the second-men
15. In a machine of the character described, a
tioned means, and means responsive to the set~
printing
drum mounted for rotation and for an“
ting of said other stopping means for operating 25 ial movement, a plurality of cam wheels affixed
said clutch to couple the second driving means
to'the drum shaft for rotation therewith, a sta
to said drum.
tionary ring surrounding each cam wheel, a plu
11. In a machine of the character described a
rality of radially shiftable stop members mount
printing drum, a plurality of numerical keys ar
ed in each ring, control means for moving a se
ranged in groups and adapted to be operated in 30 lected one of the stops in the first ring into stop
accordance with pro-assigned plura1~digit code
ping relation with the associated cam wheel to
numbers for each typeface on the drum, each
“group” position, other con
type face comprising a plurality of separate in
telligence bearing elements, means to rotate the
drum to bring a desired row of type faces to a
, stop the drum in a
trol means for moving a selected stop in the sec
ond ring into stopping relation with the asso
ciated cam wheel to stop the drum in a “units”
position, a third cam wheel driven from the drum
ping members for stopping the drum in a de
shaft, 2. third stationary ring surrounding said
sired position, means connecting each of the keys
third wheel and having a series of radially shift
in one group with one set of stopping'means to
able stops, means to move the drum axially, and
operate a group stop-ping member, means con 410 control means for moving a selected stop in said
necting each of the keys in another group ‘with
third set into stopping relation with said third
another set of stopping means to operate a “units”
cam wheel whereby the axial movement of said
stopping member, the number of selected posi
drum is stopped to present a selected type face to
, tions in which said drum can be stopped being
a printing point, said drum being held in its pre
the product of the number of keys in said groups, 45 viously
stopped unit position while it is being
and. permutation control means arranged to be
moved axially.
set in permuted combinations in accordance with
16. A machine according to claim 15 in which
printing position, group and unit selective stop
said code numbers for selectively controlling said
stop members.
the selected stop in the first set is automatically
controlled by coded combinations of electrical im
second set.
12. In a printing machine of the kind which is
pulses, a type face drum having a series of type
faces each represented by a corresponding plural
digit code number each type face comprising a
plurality .of separate intelligence bearing ele
ments, means to subject said drum to continuous
rotation, sets of selective stopping means for said
drum one set acting to stop the drum in a group
position, another set acting to stop the drum in
a units position, impulse distributing means come
prising a group impulse distributor and a units
impulse distributor operated in. fixed time re
lation, permutation control mechanism set un
der control of said distributors, and means be
tween said permutation mechanisms and said sets
of stops for selectively operating the latter.
released in response to a setting of a stop in the
.
17. A machine according to claim 15 in which
each of said sets of stops is provided with per
.
mutation members and coded electric impulse
distributors for setting said permutation members
and thereby selecting a desired stop in each of
said sets.
18. A machine according to claim 15 in which
each of said sets of stops has an associated group
of permutation control members which are con
nected successively in circuit under control of
“group” and “units” impulse distributors.
CHUNG-CHIN KAO.
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