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@et 8, 1946.
A. J. MEYER
ENGINE
File@ Feb. 2o, 17940
' 2,408,800
` e sheets-sheet 1
oci» 3» w46»
A.v J. MEYER
»
' _
2,408,800 l
` ENGINE
Filed Feb. 2o, 1940
e sheets-sheet 2
9ct. 8, 1946.
A. J. MEYER
2, 8,800
ENGINE
Filed Feb. 20, 1940
6 Sheets-Sheet ‘3
A. lm M Evm
2,408,800
ENGINE
Filed Feb. 20, 1940
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
¿co
TOR
BY
ATTORNEY
Ud. s, i946. `
A. -J. MEYER
~ 2,408,800
ENGINE
FiledFeb. 20, 1940
2%
200
Ji
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
um» @a E945
i
A.VJ. MEYER
,
2,408,800
ENGINE
_Filed Feb. 20, 1940
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
Pateniea oci. s, 194e
2,463,800
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,800
ENGINE
André J. Meyer, Lexington, Ky., assigner to
Mawen Motor Corporation, New York, N. Y., a
corporation of Delaware
l
Application February 20, 1940, Serial No. 319,851
39 Claims. (Cl. 12S-44)
This application is a continuation-in-part with
respect to my copending application Serial No.
194,020, ñled March 5, 1938.
The present invention relates to engines and
has particular reference to slide Valve engines of
the kind in which the flow of cylinder gases is
controlled by relative rotary motion between one
2
with the accompanying drawing forming a part
hereof, in which there is described and illus
trated diiîerent suitable forms of construction :for
applying the principles of the invention to dif
ferent kinds of engines.
In the drawings:
Fig. l is a more or less diagrammatic section,
or more cylinders of a cylinder bank and a ported
partly in elevation, taken on the central trans
valve member with which ports at the outer ends
verse plane of the cylinder bank of a radial en
of the cylinder register. Still more particularly, 1o gine embodying the principles of the invention;
the invention relates to internal combustion enFig. 1a is 4a section taken on the line I a--ia
gines of the kind in which there is relative roof Fig. 1;
tary motion between a cylinder bank having
Fig. 1b is a section showing a different form of
cylinders arranged in radial or star arrangement
part of the structure shown in Fig. l;
and a circular ported valve member. Still more l5
Fig. 2 iS a longitudinal SeCtiOn On enlarged
particularly, the invention relates to the last
scale of the structure shown in Fig. 1, taken along
mentioned type of engine in which the valve memn
the line 2-2 of Fig. 1I
ber is in the form of an annulus encircling the
Fig. 3 is a View on still larger scale of a part of
outer ends of the cylinder.
In engines of the kinds noted above, one of 20
the structure shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a section taken on the line 4-4 of
the major problems in the production of a com~
Fig- 3;
mercially satisfactory engine is that of obtaining
Fig» 5 iS a SGCÈÍOH taken 0n the 1111€ 5_5 OÍ
and maintaining a satisfactory seal between the
Fig. 3;
valve and the cylinder, which seal will operate
Fig. 6 is a section showing a diiîerent embodi
to eiîectively prevent leakage of gas between these 25 ment 0f Sealing means applicable t0 an engin
parts and which will also permit adequate lubrication to be maintained at all times between the
of the kind showninFig. 1;
Fig. '7 is a plane view taken along the line '1_-'l
parts which move relative to each other in slidof Fig. 6;
ing relation.
Fig. 8 is a diagram illustrative of variations in
Heretofore it has been proposed to eiTect the 30 sealing ñlm pressure obtained in accordance with
desired seal between cylinders and valve through
the invention;
the medium of annular sealing elements of cuffFig. 9 is a diagram illustrating the variations in
like form carried by the cylinders so as to be
sealing film pressures obtainable with sealing ele
movable relative thereto and having sealing faces
ments having different pl‘OpOrtiOnS;
adapted to slide relative to a circular valve truck, 3„
Fig. 10 îS'a Central l0ngitudinal Section 0f a bar
the surface of which is shaped to mate in sealrel type engine embOdyîng the principles 0f the
ing contact with the sealing faces of the sealing
invention;
elements. In such arrangements means is also
Fig. 11 is a Section taken 0n the line ll-ii 0f
provided for closing the valve ports when they are
Fig. 10;
not in registry with the cylinder ports, such means 4o
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary SeCtiOn 0n enlarged
being carried by the cylinder bank to have relative
scale showing part of the structure illustrated in
rotary movement with respect to the valve memFig. 10;
ber and to be in sliding sealing contact with the
Fig. 13 is a View taken on the line I3-l3 of
valve track.
It is the general object of the present invention 4o
to improve upon prior constructions for engines
Fig. 12;
Fig. 14 iS a View taken 0n the line Í4---|4 0f
Fig. 10;
of the kind under consideration, by the provision
Fig. 15 is a section on enlarged scale taken on
of improved sealing means~` as will hereinafter
the line |5--l5 of Fig. 11; and
more fully be pointed out.
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary plan view of the de
For an understanding of the more detailed na- 50 tails shown in Fig. l5.
ture and objects of the invention, the manner
Referring nOW more lDaI‘iÍCUlariY t0 Figs. 1 and
of its application to dii-ferent speciñc forms of
2, the general type of engine construction therein
engine and the advantages to be derived from its
illustrated is known and comprises a bank of
use, reference may best be had to the ensuing porradially arranged cylinders IB, ñve being shown
tion of this speciñcation, taken in conjunction 55 in this particular embodiment. It will be under
2,408,800
3
stood that the number oí cylinders employed in
the bank may be varied and also that the engine
4
ing elements, in order to seal the valve ports when
the cylinder ports are not in registry therewith,
an annular shoe 58 is provided, the outer surface
60 of which is also spherically curved to match
the inner sealing surface of the valve. As will be
cerned the novel structure would be essentially
observed from Fig, l, the shoe 58 is integral
the same for different banks, in the case of a
around the entire periphery of the engine and this
multi-bank engine, it is suñicient to describe but
shoe is advantageously of one piece constructionl
one.
It is provided at suitably spaced intervals with
Cylinders l0 are provided with pistons l2 which
are connected to the crank pin le of crankshaft lo circular openings 52 through which the ilange
portions of the sealing elements project to come
I6 by means of a master connecting rod I8 con
into sealing contact with the inner surface of the
necting one of the pistons with the crank pin
valve. As will be observed from Fig. 3, the sealing
and a series of rods 2E) connecting the remain
elements have a close sliding ñt in openings 62
ing pistons with the big end of the master rod i8'.
and a seal is advantageously provided between
The cylinder bank is encircled by an annular
the shoe and each of the sealing elements by a
valve member 22, the details of which will be more
ring te. A seal is also provided between each
fully described later and the engine is so con
may comprise one or more banks of cylinders.
Since in so far as the present invention is con
struct-ed that there is relative rotary movement
cylinder structure and its cooperating sealing ele
between the cylinder bank and this valve mem
ber. This rotary movement may be with the
valve member rotating or stationary. In the
ment by means of a series of rings EG carried by
the barrel portion of the sealing element and it is
to be noted that substantially greater clearance
is provided between the cylinder and the barrel
portion of the sealing4 element, as shown some
present instance the valve member is stationary
and the cylinder bank and crankshaft are caused
to rotate in opposite directions in properly timed
what exaggeratedly at e3, than is provided be
relation through suitable gearing. In the em
bodiment illustrated the valve memberV 22 is car
shaft 2S on which a propeller may advantageously
be mounted. Shaft 26 carries a gear 28 meshing with gear 3B splined to the crankshaft and also
carries gear 32 which meshes with an idler vgear 3'4
tween the flange of the sealing element and the
walls oi the opening 62.
The shoe 58 is carried with the cylinder bank
and in the embodiment illustrated the connection
between
cylinder bank and the shoe is estab
lished between the shoe and the radially outer
part of one of the cylinders, indicated at I 0a.
In the embodiment illustrated, a ring 'l0 encircles
(Fig. l) mounted in the ñxed» housing structure.
Gear 3d meshes with gear 36 which is attached to
the neck of the cylinder and is held in place by
a light snap ring 12. Ring l0 is provided with
the rotatably mounted crankcase structure 38 --
lugs lll for a pivot ‘I6 on which is pivotally
mounted a threaded pin lâ. Pin '18 is connected
to a second threaded pin Si) by means of a
ried by the stationary structure indicated gener
ally at 2d, which also carries the power output
carrying the cylinders l0; Due to the employ
ment of the idler gear 34 the cylinder bank and
the crankshaft will be caused to rotate ín opposite
directions and the proper timing is secured by se
lection of suitable gear ratios between gears 28
and 3B on the one hand and gears 32 and 36 on
the other hand.
Aside from the speciñc gear arrangement in
volving the use of a geared-down power output
shaft, which per se forms no part of the present
invention, the general type of engine construction
is known and is not believed to require further
detailed explanation herein for an understand
threaded sleeve 82 held in adjusted position by
a suitable lock nut S4. Fin 80 is pivoted by means
of a suitable Divot pin 8S to the shoe 53. In the
embodiment illustrated the shoe 58 is of one piece
construction and advantageously may be of rela
tively light metal. For ease of manufacture and
like reasons, this shoe is advantageously turned
- symmetrically and in order to provide the desired
connection, an insert 88 is advantageously ñxed
to the shoe, the insert carrying suitable lugs 9D
for mounting the pivot pin 8S.
ingof the present invention
The threads on the two pins 18 and 80 are
The valve 22 is provided at suitably spaced in 50 formed with different pitch so that by turning
sleeve 32 the length of the connection between
tei-vals with inlet ports 4D and exhaust ports 42
with which the cylinders are adapted to succes
the cylinder and the shoe may be varied and the
latter adjusted peripherally with respect to the
sively register in their movement relative to the
cylinders.
valve. The valve is further provided with an in
ner sealing surface or track 64 which in the pres 55 The sealing elements 5G are held in contact
with the valve by means of a series of coil springs
ent embodiment, as will be seen from Figs. 1 and
92, the inner ends of which are advantageously
2, is spherically curved. In so far as the prin
held in spring retaining cups 94 seated in bored
ciples of the invention are concerned, the surface
out recesses in the cooling iins 98. At their outer
of the valve track may be of other conñguration,
such as cylindrical or conical with respect to the 60 ends, the springs 92 bear on the inner face of
the flange portion of the sealing element.
axis of relative rotation between the valve and
As will be observed from Figs. 3 and 4, the bore
the cylinders, as is known in the type of engine
under consideration. In other forms of engines,
as will hereinafter more fully appear, the >valve
track may be a plane disc.
Each of cylinders i3 is formed to provide a port
:l5 at its outer end for ilow of gases to and from
the cylinder, the walls of the port forming a cylin
drie-al bore 48 for the reception of a sealing ele’
ment 5D.
Sealing element 50 is of cuff-like form
and comprises a barrel portion 52 and an outer
flange portion 54, the outer surface 55 of which
is spherically ground to match the inner surface
of the valve.
.
For bridging the space between adjacent seal
98 through each sealing element is eccentric with
respect to the outer surface Iûí! of thebarrel
, portion of the element and the sealing elements
are advantageously provided with notches ‘D2
for the reception of locating pins 104 mounted
in the shoe 58. Notches |02 are wider periph
erally than the locating pins so as to permit the
sealing elements to have a limited amount of ro
tational movement relative to the parts with
which they are in contact.
The general operation of the engine is well
known and need not be described in great detail.
In the engine shown, which is of the four-stroke
5
2,408,800,
cycle type, the cylinders, revolving within the
element to tilt in undesired direction. Further,
the centering of the barrel portion of the sealing
stationary valve ring, draw charges into the com
bustion chambers through the inlet ports di),
compress the charges and ñre them either
through heat of compression or by any suitable
element with respect to the bore in the neck of
the cylinder and the provision of substantial
clearance between these parts permits the fullest
possible freedom of action of the sealing rings
at this point and minimizes the possibility of
ignition means such as a spark, and exhaust the
gases through the ports 42.
During operation of the engine the pressure
of the working gases is maintained in the cylin
sticking. This of course all contributes to» the
desired freedom of movement of the sealing ele
ders primarily through the medium of the seal la s. ment toward and away from the valve track
which is a highly important factor in the main-`
ing elements 5û and in order for such sealing
tenance of an effective seal.
to be most effective, these elements must seat
By means of the adjustment provided by the
properly against the inner face of the valve 22.
Obviously, in view of the sliding contact rela
connection between the cylinder bank and the
tion between the parts, the spherically curved sur
shoe 53, it will be evident that the sealing ele
ments 55 can readily be centered accurately with
faces must be lubricated and for the best results
respect .to the cylinders.
to be obtained the sealingrelements should, when
the engine is in operation, tilt very slightly so
As previously noted, it is desirable to have the
that a wedge-shaped oil film is formed between
sealing elements tilt slightly during normal op
the outer face 56 of the element and the inner 20 eration to provide a wedge-shaped oil film space
face All of the valve, this ñlm being wedge-shaped
in the plane of rotation‘ of the cylinder bank and
thicker at the forward or leading edge of the
sealing element than at the rearward or trailing
edge thereof. It will be understood of course
between the sealing surfaces, with this wedge
shaped space opening forwardly in the direction
of relative rotation of the sealing element with
respect to the valve. In accordance with another
phase of the present invention, this tilting action
in the desired direction is positively provided for
by producing a positive force couple acting coun
ter to the force couple produced by friction be
film is thicker at the leading than at the trailing
tween the relative sliding surfaces.
edge of the sealing element. If the opposite 'were 30
The force couple positively provided is secured
true, the leading edge of the sealing element
by establishing a relation between the resultant
that the variation in thickness of the oil film is
in practice very minute but any variation o1"
this character should always be such that the oil
would operate as a scraper tending to cut through
pressure acting on the element and the contact
area of the sealing face ofthe element such that
the center of the resultant pressure tending to
the oil film and produce substantially dry metal
to metal contact between the relatively sliding
parts.
In prior forms of construction where sealing
elements of the kind hereinbefore described have
been employed, this latter and undesirable con»
dition has occurred primarily, it is believed, be
cause of the fact that the sealing elements have
been carried by the cylinders in such manner
that friction between each sealing element and
the valve face or track has produced a force cou-ple tending to tilt the sealing element in a direc
tion such that the leading edge is radially fur
ther out than the trailing edge. The reason for
this it is believed will be evident from a consider
ation of Fig. 3, assuming for the moment that
there is substantial clearance between the seal
ing element and the shoe 58. In such case, fric
tion between the sealing element and the valve
tends to move the outer'end of the sealing ele
ment to the right as viewed in Fig. 3, assuming
the direction of rotation of the sealing element
relative to the valve to be as shown by arrow I 06.
At the same time, tangential force is transmitted
to the barrel portion of the sealing element from
the neck of the cylinder in a direction opposing
the frictional force, but since these two forces
are offset, the resulting tendency under such con
ditions is for the sealing element to tilt in a
manner which in eñ'ect makes an oil scraper of
the leading edge of the-element.
In accordance with one phase of the present
invention, this condition is eliminated through
the provision of the connection between the cyl
inder bank and shoes 58 and the contact between
the shoe and the flange of the sealing element
which operates to center the sealing element
35
forcethe element against the valve member is be
hind the center of gravity of the contact area of
the element, when considered in the direction '
of relative sliding movement of the sealing ele
ment.
It will be apparent from a consideration of
Fig. 3 that during the compression and working
strokes of the cycle, the 'sealing elements are sub
jected to substantial values of unbalanced gas
pressure due to such pressure acting on the eX
'- posed inner ends of the barrel portions of the
elements, which pressure tends to force the ele
ments radially outwardly again-st the i valve
member.
This pressure may advantageously be employed
to cause the center of pressure acting on each
element to be located at a place diiferent from
the center of gravity of the contact surface of the
element, and in the present embodiment this is
accomplished by making the bore of the element
eccentric.
As will be apparent from Fig. 4, the center of
pressure acting on the element due to gas pres
sure will, due to the eccentric bore, lie behind the
central axis of the element, because of the greater
area of end surface exposed to gas pressure be
hind the transverse plane passing through the
axis, as compared with the area ahead of such
transverse plane. Since the unit pressure acting
on the inner end surface of the element due to
gas pressure is uniform, the center of pressure
resulting from gas pressure 'will coincide with
the center of gravity of this area.
The eccentric bore will also shift the center of
gravity of the annular contact surface 55 as corn
with respect to the cylinder and which applies
70 pared with the center of gravity of the contact
force to the sealing element opposing the. fric
surface of a like sealing element having a concen
tional force at the same radius as that at which
tric bore. This shift of the center of gravity of
the frictional force is applied. Consequently,
the contact surface will also be to a point behind
there is no unbalanced force couple produced
the transverse plane passing through the central
by the frictional force and tending. to cause the 75 axis of the element. In other word-s, the eccen
2,408,800
7
8
tric bore will operate to shift the center of pres
suredue to gas pressure rearwardly, and willfalso
operate to shift the center of gravity of the con
tact surface rearwardly from the positions these
the trailing side ofthe element than on the lead
centers would have for a concentric bore. “How
ever,l due to the fact that vthe eccentricity of the
bore operates to shift a'larger proportion of the
ing side.
Because this unequal distribution of the fric
tion contact surface tends to cause the sealing
element to maintain the correct position when
the engine is in operation, the locating pin |04
is not essential, but the use of such pins is ad»
vantageous in order to prevent improper assem
bly of the sealing elements in incorrect posi
total area of the contact surface, the shift of
position of the center of pressure resulting from 10 tions of rotation from which they would have to
be turned to their correct positions under the
making the bore eccentric is greater than the
influence of forces due to friction generated only
shift of the center of gravity of the contact sur
after the engine is put into operation.
face resulting from such eccentricity. Conse
As previously noted, the positive force couple
quently, with the bore made eccentric in the man
for producing the desired tilted condition which
ner indicated, the center of pressure due to gas
results in the formation of a forwardly opening
pressure lies behind the center of gravity of the
wedge-shaped space for the oil film is secured
contact area.
by locating the center of pressure acting to force
The eccentricity of the‘bore also results in ec
the sealing element into contact With the valve
centric loading of the element due to centrifugal
force, and this eccentricity of the loading due to 20 surface behind the center of gravity of the area
of sealing surface in contact with the valve sur
centrifugal force operates to produce a condition
face.
such that the center of pressure of the centrifugal
If the above general condition is met, the de
force acting on the sealing element is also behind
sired positive force couple will be produced and
the center of gravity of the contact surface.
a further effect will also be produced which is
The resultant force acting to maintain the seal
highly advantageous, as will be explained more
ing element in contact with the valve track is pro
in detail later, in the maintenance of a proper
duced by three factors in the construction shown,
seal at all times in engines wherein ignition de
these being the forces due to gas pressure, cen
vices, fuel injection devices, or any other aux
trifugal force, and the force exerted by the
springs. Of these the force due to gas pressure 30 iliaries are located in recesses or pockets in the
valve member in positions to be passed by the
is much greater than the others, particularly dur
total area of the pressure surface than of the
ing the compression and working strokes when
sealing pressure is desired.
The eccentric loading due to centrifugal force
is useful in aiding to maintain the desired con
dition in which the center of pressure lies behind
the center of gravity of the contact area during
the suction stroke of a four-cycle engine, which
if not supercharged, produces some degree of sub
sealing elements.
In the embodiment previously described, the
condition of the center of pressure being offset
35 with respect to the center of gravity of the seal
ing surface is accomplished by the use of an es
centric bore through the sealing element. This
condition may, however, ber obtained in a variety
of different ways and in Figs. 6 and 7, another
atmospheric pressure in the cylinder during this 40 embodiment of sealing element structure is illus
trated by means of which the desired offsetting
of the center of pressure with respect to the center
inner end surface of the sealing element. The
of gravity of the sealing area is advantageously
centrifugal force, however, varies with the square
obtained.
of the speed of rotary movement> of the cylinder
Referring,r now more particularly to these'íig
bank and at low or idling engine speedsfis not a 45
ures, the sealing element lli! is provided with a
material factor. Also, as will hereinafter appear,
bore H2 which is concentric with the bore H4 in
centrifugal force is not a factor productive of
the cylinder. The flange portion H6 of the ele
sealing pressure in certain forms of application
ment is, however, made eccentric with respect to
of the invention.
In order, therefore, to take care of idling speed 50 the axis of the barrel portion of the element and
the eccentricity is such that the center of grav
conditions or other conditions which eliminate
ity of the sealing surface H8 is located ahead of
centrifugal force as a factor productive of seal
the axis of the barrel portion of the element.
ing-pressure and also to take care Vof conditions
Since the flange is eccentric with respect to the
productive of negative force due to gas pressure,
the springs tending to produce a sealing pressure 55 axis about which the sealing element can turn
in the cylinder, the sealing element will be held
are employed. The spring load, however, is ad
against turning from its proper position by the
vantageously relatively very small as compared
correspondingly eccentric opening in the sealingr
'with the load due to gas pressure and for practi
shoe I2!! through which the element projects.
cal reasons it is usually most desirablertohave
the springs of uniform strength-in order to elim 60 In order to avoid any possibility of improper as
sembly due to improper positioning of the seal
inate any possibility of having the spring -load
ing shoe circumferentially `with respect to the
improperly applied due to mistakes in assembling.
cylinder bank, a locating pin |22 may be ein
From Figs. 3 and 4 it >will be observed that
the eccentric bore in the sealing elementresults 65 ployed, as in the embodiment previously de
scribed.
in unequal areas of friction contact between seal
‘From Figs. 6 and 7 it will be apparent that in
ing element and valve on the two sides of a plane
the present embodiment the sealing element is
coinciding with‘the transverse diameter of the
concentrically loaded in so far as gas pressure
outer circumference of the sealing surface of the
is concerned, which is the major pressure pro
element. Obviously, this unequal distribution of
ducing factor to be taken into consideration, and
the friction contacting surface will tend to cause
if it is assumed that the spring load is uniform,
the sealing element of its own accord ,to main
as is most desirable, the center of the resultant
tain the position indicated in these. figures in
pressure coincides with the axis of the barrel por
which the eccentric loading is-such-thatboth
tion of the element. Due to the eccentricity of
`centrifugal force and gas-pressure are greater'on 75 the flange, however, the center of gravity of the
stroke,-with resultant negative pressureon the
2,408,800
9
sealing surface is ahead of the axis of the barrel
portion, which gives the desired condition of the
center of pressure lying behind the center of grav
ity of the sealing area. In the present form of
sealing element, a substantial offsetting of these
two factors with respect to each other is in many
instances more readily obtainable than by the
sure is generated in the cylinder, the high pres
sure gases try to force their way past the sealing
element around the entire periphery of the bore
H2. To escape at this point, however, the gases
must force the oil ñlm away from the bore H2
for a considerable distance before blow-through
can occur and the area exposed to gas pressure
When an eccentric bore
is extremely small, being merely the edge of the
is employed, both the center of pressure and the
` use of an eccentric bore.
tors as compared with a concentric element. In
oil film at the circumference of the bore. The
time element in normal engine operation is ex
tremely short and it has been found from ex
perience that a seal which will prevent blow
through from the circumference of the bore in
the sealing element can successfully be main
the present instance, the eccentricity of the flange
tained with a nlm pressure which is very ma
affects the position of the center of gravity of
the sealing surface without affecting the position
of the center of pressure resulting from gas pres
terially lower than the gas pressure developed
in the cylinder. From the standpoint of the
friction developed in the engine it is, of course,
desirable to maintain the lowest practical pres
center of gravity are moved as compared with a
concentric element and the amount of oiïset is
determined by the difference between the respec
tive amounts of displacement of these tvo fac
sure, as compared with a concentric element, and
the flange will in the present embodiment result
sure loading on the element and the relatively
low pressure which will eifect a seal around the
in a greater displacement of the center of grav
perimeter of the bore of the element is, of course,
consequently, a given amount of eccentricity of f
ity of the sealing area relative to the center of
pressure than is the case when the bore is made
eccentric.
Regardless of the speciñc manner in which the
center of gravity of the sealing area is located
ahead of the center of pressure, the effect, as
will be understood from well established laws of
mechanics, is toy produce a uniformly variable
pressure between the sealing surface of the ele
ment and the valve surface, such uniformly vari
able pressure increasing in value from a mini
mum pressure at the leading edge of the element
to a maximum pressure at the trailing edge. This
advantageous.
An entirely different condition, however, is
presented when. an ignition or other pocket ñlled
with gas at cylinder pressure passes to a position
over a part of the sealing surface of the element.
In this case a substantial area is exposed to gas
pressure and the tendency of the high pressure
pocketed gas is to mushroom out across the seal
ing surface in a way which tends to force the
element away from the valve track. Actual test
experience has> demonstrated that when the load
ing pressure and the resultant film pressure is too
low on the trailing side of the element, the pres
sure of pocketed gases in an ignition pocket will
force the element away from the valve track.
Experience has further shown that in order to
maintain the sealing element in constant contact
with the valve surface and to maintain the de
sired seal under all conditions, the loading on
pressure is made use of in accordance with still
the element must be such as to produce a film
another phase of the invention to overcome cer
pressure at the place passed by any gas filled
tain conditions tending to displace the nlm of
pocket which is at least substantially equal to
lubricant which provides the' actual seal.
the maximum gas pressure developed in the cyl
In Figs. 6 and 1b, structures have been shown
inder and consequently in such pocket. From
for spark ignition engines in which a high ten
the standpoint of avoiding scraping action by the
sion spark plug |25 of conventional form is shown
leading edge of the element it is desirable, on the
mounted in the valve member to be passed by
other hand, to have the minimum practical load
the cylinder ports in order to effect ignition. In
mounting such a plug or any other form of igni 50 ing pressure upon the element at this edge.
It will therefore be seen that by placing the
tion or other auxiliary device (such as an injec
center of gravity of the sealing area ahead of the
tion nozzle in the case of an injection engine)
uniformly variable pressure is rellected in a like
`uniformly variable pressure of the ñlm of lubri
cant between the relatively sliding surfaces and
in order to maintain this ñlm unbroken under all
conditions of operation, the variation in the ñlm 40
it is substantially impossible in a practical con
center of pressure, so that the ñlm pressure in
struction to construct and locate the auxiliary
creases from the leading toward the trailing edge
device in the valve member so that the valve =.=
surface is entirely flush and a pocket such as is
of the element, two highly important conditions
are met, the ñrst being the production of the
force couple tending to tilt the element in the
proper direction, and the second being the pro
duction of the variable nlmy pressure which pro
cated at £26 produces a condition tending to force
the sealing element away from the valve, when SO duces relatively high film pressure at the trail
ing side ofthe element Where it is essential to
the sealing element is in a position relative to the
indicated at IES is avoided.
The presence of any pocket such as that indi
pocket such as that shown in Fig. 6. With the
have it in any case where an ignition or other
sealing element moving relative to the valve in a
pocket exists, while at the same time a desirable
direction indicated by arrow |28, the cylinder
port has just passed the ignition point and the
charge in the cylinder has been fired to produce
high combustion gas pressure. Subsequent to ig
relatively low film pressure is produced at the
leading side of the element.
The ideal theoretical condition, in so far as the
leading edge is concerned, is zero nlm pressure
nition and before the cylinder moves out of com
£26 has become ñlled with gas at combustion
chamber pressure and is filled with gas at this
pressure as the relative movement causes it to
at this point. but for various reasons this con
dition difficult if not impossible to attain with
a sealing element proportioned to meet other
practical conditions.
Experience has shown that satisfactory oper
move to a position over the trailing portion of
the sealing surface of the element.
is so constructed that the average ñlm pressure
munication with the ignition device, the pocket
When combustion takes place and high pres- ..
ation can be secured when the sealing element
at the leading portion of the sealing surface is
2,408,800
12
l1
of the order of one-half or somewhat less of the
As previously noted, a satisfactory condition
gas pressure developed in the cylinder while the
for ñlm pressure has been found to be one where
in the pressure across the trailing portion of the
element passed by a gas iilled pocket in the valve
member is 100% of gas pressure and by reference
to Fig. 9 it will be seen that if the ratio ci
average iìlm pressure at the trailing portion of
the sealing surface which is crossed by any gas
ñlled pocket is ci the order of the cylinder gas
pressure.
This condition may be produced by an almost
Q
infinite variety of different speciñc designs of
sealing element depending upon the relation be
7‘1
1.47, the ñlin pressure at the trailing edge pz is
04% of cylinder gas pressure and at p4 it is 98%
tween the inside and outside diameters of the
barrel portion, the diameter of the flange por
tion and the extent to which these various diam
eters are made eccentric with respect to each
i such pressure, the average across the surface
íroin pi to p2 being slightly over 100% of gas
pressure. With this ratio of
other.
Within practical limits, substantially any de
sired condition and any desired rate of increase
of nlm pressure from leading to trailing edge of
the element may, however, be secured by properly
n
the film pressure at the leading edge pi is only
of
pressure and at point p3 it is 50% of
relating these variables. While to secure any
desired values of nlm pressure and any desired
pressure, the average ñlm pressure across the
leading ~portion of the surface thus being 421/295.
Thus, for the above described type of eccentric
variations thereof from leading to trailing edge
of a sealing element may be calculated mathe
ñange cuff, a ratio for
matically, such calculation is relatively intricate
in nature and in order to provide the reader with
T2
71
a ready means of determining the relations nec
essary to secure the desired character of film
of 1.47 provides a degree of slope for the variably
increasing film pressure from the leading to the
trailing edge which produces Values of nlm pres
sure that have been found to be satisfactory for
maintenance of the sealing iilm in engines hav
pressure, the relationships required to secure
desired film pressure characteristics for a cuff of
the eccentric iiange type shown in Fig. 6 are
shown by way of example in Figs. 8 and 9.V
Referring to Fig. 8, ,-1 is the radius of the bore
of the sealing element, rz is the radius of the
eccentric scaling surface, and r3 is the radius of
the cylinder bore in which the sealing element
is mounted. Since in the form illustrated the
ing pockets in the valve member which are pe
riodically íllled with high pressure gases and
which tend to force the sealing element away
from the valve surface. Diiferent speciñc en
gine designs may, for best practical results, re
element is concentrically loaded by gas pressure,
quire different relations between film pressures _
the axis of the center of pressure is located at :c
which is the center of radii r1 and r3. The cen-
at the leading and trailing edges of the sealing
surface, but as will be apparent from the dia
ter of gravity of the sealing surface is located at
gram of Fig. 9, substantially any relation be
yl, the offset between the center of pressure and 40
tween these pressures may readily be attained
the center of gravity being represented by dis
by properly proportioning the radius rz to the
tance c. In the design shown, the radius ri of
radius r1 for any basic proportion of radius ri
the bore of the element is three times the wall
to radius r3. For example, if the ratio
thickness of the barrel portion of the element
represented by (r3-ri). This represents a good 43
practical relation between port diameter and wall
thickness of the element. Also, for practical rea
sons, the design is based on an offset of the cen
ter oi the radius r2 from the center of the radius
r3 such that the circumference of the sealing sur
face at the trailing edge of the element is tangent
to the outer circumference of the barrel portion
which for any reason does not require a film
pressure equal to gas pressure on the trailing side
of the element, the nlm pressure at the leading
side may be made very materially less than half
the gas pressure. By reference to the chart of
Fig. 9, it will be seen that if at the trailing side
of the element an average ñlm pressure equal to
only 92% of the gas pressure is adequate, an
average nlm pressure at the leading side of the
element of as little as 25% of gas pressure may be
obtained through use of a design in which the
ratio
of the element.
The line a represents graphically the slope of
the variable iilm pressure from zero Value at point
n at the neutral axis, and the Vectors pi, pz, pi,
and pz represent the nlm pressures at the edges
of the sealing surface to which they are respec
tively tangent.
Fig. 9 illustrates graphically the film pressures
obtainable for diiîerent ratios of radii
in terms of cylinder gas pressure. In this di
agram the abscissae represent the ratio
Ti
E
is made 1.353 (with the assumed basic design in
which r1 equals three times (Ti-r3), the element
becomes concentric and the film pressure at the
leading and trailing portions of the element is
he same.
t the other extreme, for an engine
65
T2
Ti
is 1.6.
It is believed it will be evident that in so far
as the loading of the sealing elements and the
provision of the variable film pressure of desired
character are concerned, it is immaterial whether
and the ordinates represent film pressure in
terms of percentage of cylinder gas pressure. The
curves p1, p2, p3 and ir4 represent the pressures
obtained at the points on the sealing surface to
which the correspondingly numbered vectors are
plane normal to the axis of relative rotation and
consequently in so far as these features are con
tangent in Fig. 8.
cerned, the relatively sliding surfaces may be
the sealing surfaces are straight or curved in a
2,408,800
13
14
spherical, cylindrical or conical, as may be dic
tated by other considerations.
Furthermore, the invention is not limited in its
application to engines of the kind just described,
in which the valve and sealing element surfaces
l233 to the cylinder block and, in effect, forming
a part of the cylinder bank.
The valve member 224 provides a ñat circular
sealing surface or valve track 223 through which
a series of inlet and exhaust ports open, one of
which ports is shown at 242. It will be under
stood that these ports are arranged in a circle
and are peripherally spaced from each other to
are curved, 4and its application to an engine of
different character is illustrated in Figs. 10 to 16,
l to which reference will now be had.
Referring now more particularly to Fig. 10,
the invention is shown applied to a bi-rotary en
bring them into communication with the cylin
der ports at properly timed intervals in accord
ance with the cycle of operation of the engine.
Such port spacing will be readily understood from
gine of the kind in which one or more cylinder
banks are arranged with the cylinders of each
bank arranged in a circle and with their axes
a description oi the previous embodiment and
therefore need not be further treated in detail.
parallel to each other. This type of engine is
ordinarily referred to as a barrel type.
In this
Each of the cylinders, as in the previously de
form the reciprocating motion of the pistons is
usually transmitted to a central shaft parallel
to the cylinder axes and having relative rotary
movement with respect to the cylinders, through
scribed embodiment, is open'at its outer end and
carries a sealing element 244 having a flat outer
sealing surface 226 in sliding contact with the
valve track 229. As-in the embodiment shown
in Fig. 8, the bore 248 through the sealing element
the medium of a cam or swash plate forming a
part of the shaft, or equivalent mechanism,
Since the shaft in such an engine is functionally
equivalent to a crankshaft of conventional form,
in so far as the present invention is concerned, it
will be understood that the term crankshaft as
is concentric, as will be seen more clearly from
Fig. 12, and the flange providing the sealing sur
face is eccentric as is shown more clearly in Fig.
11. The sealing elements are forced outwardly
~
against the valve track by means' of springs 253
located between the underside of the flanges on
the elements and a part of the cylinder structure.
The sealing shoe 252 is in the form of a iiat
disc held in contact with the valve track by means
30 of suitable springs 25E- carried by a disc-like por
employed herein is intended to include all forms
of shaft performing the oiiice of an engine main
shaft to which the forces from the pistons are
transmitted.
The engine shown in the present embodiment
comprises two opposed cylinder banks. The con
struction of these banks is the same and for the
purpose of understanding the use of the present
invention in this kind of engine it will be suin
cient to describe in detail only one of these banks I
and its associated Valve structure.
The cylinder bank 200 comprises a cylinder
block which advantageously may be an integral
casting providing a plurality of cylinders 222.
In the present instance, seven such cylinders are
shown. In the embodiment illustrated, the
cylinders are cooled by means of fins 2i!!! which
tion 255 of the cylinder block. The sealing shoe
252 is provided with suitably spaced circular aper
tures 258 through which the sealingelements pro
ject into sliding contact with the valve track.
Advantageously, the sealing elements are located
against improper assembly by means of suitable
locating pins 26B engaging the sealing shoe and
the flange portions of the sealing elements.
As >in the previously described embodiments, the
sealing elements are davantageously relieved of
any lateral thrust due to friction between the .
sealing shoe and the valve track by the provision
also serve as means for connecting the several
of an adjustable connection for transmitting the
cylinder barrels. The cylinder bank is mounted
to rotate about a central crankshaft 22S having
thrust due to such friction directly from the shoe
to the cylinder block. This connection is shown
in Figs. 15 and 16 in the embodiment illustrated
a swash plate or cam 29S thereon which coacts
comprises a disc 262 carrying an eccentric pin
with rollers 2|@ mounted on pins 2|2 in pistons
254 which projects into a slot 265 formed in the
2M which reciprocate in the several cylinders.
face of the sealing shoe 252. Disc 262 is secured
In the engine shown, a second cylinder bank 2|6
is provided and the pistons 258 for the cylinders 50 by means of bolt 258 to a worm-wheel member 2l!!
mounted to rotate in a suitable aperture in the
22S] of the second bank lare advantageously made
part 256 of the cylinder block and is positively
in one piece with pistons 2M. and carry rollers
prevented from turning relative to the member
222 cooperating with a cam surface on the side
219 by means of a tongue and groove or slot con
of the cam plate or crank 20B opposite that which
cooperates with the rollers 2 lil.
H5 nection 212. The worm-wheel 27B is engaged by a
worm 214 mounted in suitable brackets 216 at
The housing or mounting structure for the en
tached to the exposed face of the part 256, the
gine includes a valve member for each cylinder
pitch of the threads being such that the worm is
bank, the one cooperating with the cylinder bank
irreversible and the worm being adjustable by
20€) being indicated generally at 22d and the two
valve members being axially held together by
means of a series of axially extending tie rods or
means of a slotted end 278 for the reception of a
screw driver or other adjusting tool.
bolts, indicated at 226.
As in the engine previously described, the
crankshaft, the cylinder bank, and the housing
As will be apparent from the drawings, the
thrust due to friction will be transmitted from
the shoe through the eccentric pin and associated
« structure directly to the cylinder block. It will
structure are interconnected by gearing to pro
further be apparent that by means of the worm
vide for relative rotation between these several
components, and in the present arrangement this
and the slotted connection, i’ine adjustment of
gearing comprises a planetary system including a
the position of the sealing shoe in peripheral
sun gear 226 fixed to shaft 222, a series of planet
direction relative to the cylinders and sealing ele
pinions 228 meshing therewith and mounted to i: ments may readily be obtained, in orderd to
rotate about pins 2.3!] carried in an end plate'232
properly center the apertures 252 in the shoe with
iixed to an annular extension 2240, forming a part
respect to the bores in the cylinders which receive
of the valve member structure. Pinions 223
the sealing elements.
mesh with an internal gear 234 formed on an
In operation, this type of engine, in so far as
annular member 236 secured by means of bolts
the present invention is concerned, is essentially
2,408,800
15
the same as that which has previously been de
scribed. The gearingv between the cylinder' bank
and the crankshaft causes these components to
rotate in opposite directions, with the cylinder
bank rotating at lower speed than‘that of the
shaft, so that the cylinder ports formed by the
sealing elements pass the valve ports at properly
timed intervals.
The sealing elements are ar
ranged with the centers of their eccentric flanges
ahead 0f the respective cylinder axes in the direc
tion of relative rotation of the sealing elements
with respect to the valve track, as indicated in
Figs. 11 and 13, wherein the direction of such
relative movement of the sealing elements is indi
cated by the arrow 236.
With the relative rotation in this direction, the
resultant center of pressure tending to force the
sealing elements into contact with the valve track
lies behind the center of gravity of the Contact
surface, and the desired force couple for tilting
the sealing elements to provide a forwardly open
wedge-shaped oil space will be produced.
As in the previously described embodiment, it is
immaterial in so far as the present invention is
concerned, whether the relative rotation is be
tween a moving cylinder bank and a stationary
>valve member or between a cylinder bank and a
valve member both of which rotate but at dif
ferent absolute speeds. Because of practical con
siderations, however, such as the attachment of
intake and exhaust manifolds and other auxil
iaries, it is preferable to make the valve member
a part of the stationary component on the engine.
While in the embodiment just described, the
valve track surface has been shown as a plane
radial surface, it will be apparent that in so far
as the present invention is concerned, this specific
form of surface need not necessarily be used. The
surface may be conical or may be curved in trans
verse cross-section so as to present a toroidal sur
face, but because of its relative simplicity and
ease of manufacture, a plane radial valve track
surface is to be preferred.
In the embodiments illustrated, both the valve
track and the sealing shoe have been shown as
of one piece construction. rI‘his construction is to
be preferred not only because of the symmetry
obtainable and the resultant relatively more even
16
What is claimed is:
l. In combination, a ported valve member and
a structure providing a ported working chamber,
said valve member and said structure being
mounted for relative movement with respect to
each other, a hollow sealing element carried by
said structure and having an end sealing surface
in sliding contact with said valve member to pro
vide a seal for fiuid flowing through said ports,
said sealing element being subjected to force tend~
ing to move it outwardly relative to said struc
ture into pressure Contact with said valve mem
ber, and said end sealing surface being shaped
and located to have its center of gravity ahead
of the center of pressure of the force tending to
move the element into Contact with the valve
member, when considered in the direction of rela
tive movement of said structure with respect to
the valve member.
2. In combination, a valve member having a
valve track and a valve port opening through said
track, a structure providing a ported working
chamber, said valve member and said structure
being mounted for relative movement with re
spect to each other, a hollow sealing element car
ried telescopically by said structure to provide a
seal 'for fluid passing through said ports, said
element being movable toward and away from
said valve member and having an end sealing
surface in sliding contact with said valve track,
said sealing element being subjected to force
tending to move it outwardly relative t0 said
structure into pressure contact with said valve
track and said end sealing surface being shaped
and located to have its center of gravtiy ahead of
the center of pressure of the force tending to
move the element outwardly into contact with
the valve track when considered in the direction
of relative movement of the sealing element with
respect to the valve track.
3. In combination, a ported valve member hav
ing a valve track and a port opening through
said track, structure providing a ported working
chamber, said valve member and said structure
being mounted for relative movement with re
spect to each other, a hollow sealing element car
ried by said structure, said element having an
end sealing surface in sliding contact with said
valve track and a barrel portion telescopically
mounted in the port opening of said structure
whereby to have its inner end exposed to the
pressure within said working chamber, the cen
ter of gravity of the area of said end sealing sur
face being ahead of the center of pressure ex
erted by the fluid in said chamber and tending
to force the element into pressure contact with
the valve track, when considered in the direction
of the relative movement of the sealing element
with respect to the valve track.
cular form. Calculations show that for the ma 60
4. In combination, a valve member having a
terials ordinarily employed in engine construc
valve track and a port opening through said
tion, this can be accomplished without stressing
track, structure providing a ported working
the parts beyond permissible values but if in any
chamber, said'valve member and said structure
particular instance either one or both of these
being mounted for relative movement with re
parts are unusually stiff, one side of the inner
spect to each other, and a holl w sealing ele
surface of the valve may be relieved as indicated
ment carried by said structure to provide a seal
at IDB in Fig. 1 to permit the shoe to be inserted.
for fluid flowing through said ports, said sealing
From the foregoing it will be evident that the
element having movement relative to said struc
principles of the invention may be applied to a
expansion and contraction characteristics of the
parts, but also because the resulting continuous
sealing surfaces aid materially in preventing leak
age into the valve ports when they are not in
communication with cylinder ports. If, as shown
in the embodiment of Fig. l., the sealing surfaces
are of the annular spherically curved form. the
parts may be assembled by inserting the shoe into
the valve with the planes of the two parts at right
angles to each other and forcing the shoe in by
distorting it and the valve slightly from their cir
wide variety of specific forms of engine structure
and accordingly the invention is ont to be con
sidered as limited to the embodiments hereinbe
fore described by way of example, but is to be
deemed to include all forms of construction fall
ing Within the scope of the appended claims.
ture and an end sealing surface in sliding con
tact with said valve track, and means including
said end sealing surface and a portion of said
element exposed to the fluid pressure within said
working chamber for establishing a force couple
75 tending to tilt said element to form a wedge
2,408,800
»
‘
18
17
shaped space for lubricant between said sealing
-8. In an engine, a ported valve and an open
surface and said valve track, said space opening
forwardly When considered in the direction of
relative movement of the sealing element with
respect to the valve track.
5. In combination, a valve member having a
valve track and a port opening through said
track, structure providing -a ported working
chamber, said valve member and said structure
«being mounted for relative movement with re
ended cylinder mounted for relative rotational
movement with respect to each other, a hollow
sealing element carried at the open end of said
cylinder and having an end sealing surface in
sliding contact with said valve, said sealing ele
ment being subjected to force tending to move it
outwardly relative to the cylinder into pressure
contact with said valve, and said end sealing sur
face being shaped and located to have its center
spect to each other and a. hollow sealing element
carried by said structure to provide a seal for
of gravity ahead of the center of pressure of the
force tending to move the element outwardly With
respect to the cylinder, when considered in the
direction of relative rotational movement of the
fluid flowing through said ports, said sealing ele
ment being mounted to have movement relative
to said structure toward and away from said
valve track, an end sealing surface in sliding
sealing element.
9. In an engine, a ported valve and an open
contact with the valve track and a surface ex
ended cylinder mounted for relative rotational
movement with respect to each other, a hollow
posed to the pressure of fluid in said chamber
tending to force the sealing surface into pres
sure contact with the valve track, said surfaces
sealing element carried telescopically by the open
end of said cylinder, said element having an end
sealing surface in sliding contact with said valve
and a barrel portion having its inner end ex
posed to the pressure of cylinder gases, the center
of gravity of the area of said sealing surface be
ing ahead of the center of pressure exerted by
the cylinder gases and tending to force the ele
having areas relative to each other and being
located relative to each other to establish con
tact pressure between said end sealing surface
and said valve track of uniformly increasing value
from the leading to the trailing portion of said
end sealing surface due to pressure exerted on
the element by fluid in said working chamber.
ment outwardly with respect to the cylinder,
6. In combination, a valve member having a
said valve member and said structure being
mounted for relative movement with respect to
each other, and a hollow sealing element carried
by said structure to provide a seal for fluid flow
when considered in the direction of the relative
rotational movement of the sealing element.
10. An annular sealing element for engines
providing a surface for telescopic sliding mount
ing with respect to a cooperating cylinder surface
and two opposed end surfaces, one of said end
surfaces constituting a sealing surface for sliding
ing through said ports, said sealing element being
_ contact with a valve track, the center of gravity
mounted for movement toward and away from
said valve track and having an end sealing surface
in sliding contact with the valve track and a sur
face exposed to fluid pressure in said chamber
tending to force said end sealing surface into
pressure contact with said valve track, the area
of the last mentioned surface being proportioned
and located relative to the area of said end seal
ing surface to produce a unit contact pressure be
tween the valve track and at least a portion of
of the area of said sealing surface being oñîset
with respect to the center of gravity of the area of
the opposed end surface, and the offset between
said centers of gravity being such that the center
of gravity of the sealing surface lies ahead of the
center of gravity of the opposed end surface when
considered in the direction of intended movement
of the element with respect to the valve track
with which it is to operate in sliding contact.
11. An annular sealing element for engines
comprising a hollow barrel portion for telescopic
sliding mounting with respect to a cylindrical
cylinder pari; and a flange portion at one end
of said barrel portion providing an end sealing
50 surface for sliding contact with a valve, the cen
valve track and a port opening through said track,
structure providing a ported working chamber, L
said end sealing surface of at least approximately
the unit pressure of the fluid in said working
chamber.
7. In combination, a valve member having a
valve track and a port opening through said
track, structure providing a ported working
chamber, said valve member and said structure
being mounted for relative movement with re
spect to each other, and a hollow sealing element
carried by said structure to provide a seal for
fluid flowing through said ports, said sealing ele
ter of gravity of said sealing surface being offset
with respect to the center of gravity of the end
surface of said barrel portion at the end of the ele
ment opposite said sealing surface, and the offset
being such that the center of gravity of the seal
ing surface lies ahead of the center of gravity of
the opposite end surface when considered in the
direction of the intended movement of the ele
ment with respect to the valve with which it is to
ment being mounted for movement toward and
away from said valve track and having an end
sealing surface in sliding contact with the valve
track and a surface exposed to pressure of fluid 60 operate in sliding contact.
.
in said working chamber tending to force the ele
12. An annular sealing element for engines
ment into pressure contact with the valve track,
comprising a hollow barrel portion for telescopic
said surfaces having areas relative to each other
sliding mounting with respect to a cooperating
and being located relative to each other to pro
cylinder part, and a flange portion at one end of
duce pressure contact between said end sealing 65 .said barrel portion providing an end sealing
surface and the valve track of substantially uni
surface for sliding contact with a valve track,
formly increasing value from the leading portion
to the trailing portion of said end sealing surface,
the flange portion and the center of gravity of
the sealing surface provided thereby being eccen
the value of the unit contact pressure at the lead
trically located with respect to the central longi
ing portion being of the order of one-half the 70 tudinal axis of said barrel portion.
unit pressure in the working chamber and the
value of the unit contact pressure at the trail
ing portion of said end sealing surface being of
the same order as that of the unit pressure in said
chamber.
‘
13. An annular sealing element for engines
comprising a barrel portion for telescopic sliding
mounting with respect to a cooperating cylinder
part, said barrel portion having a circular outer
75 surface and a circular inner surface and a flange
2,408,800
20
19
portion at one end of said barrel portion, said
flange portion providing an end sealing surface
for sliding contact with a valve track and having
a circular circumferential surface, the centers of
at least two of said circular surfaces being offset
with respect to each other.
14. An annular sealing element for engines
comprising a barrel portion~ for telescopic sliding
mounting with respect to a cooperating cylinder
part, said barrel portion having a circular outer 10
ber having an inner sealing surface, a cylinder
«bank mounted within the valve member for rela
tive rotation with respect thereto, said bank in
cluding a cylinder having an open outer end
radially spaced from said sealing surface, an
annular sealing member telescopically mounted
with respect to said cylinder and extending be
yond its outer end into sliding contact with said
sealing surface, a sealing member in sliding con
tact with said sealing surface for sealing the valve
ports when they are not in registry with a cylin
der port, said sealing member being in tangential
with said outer surface, and a flange portion at
force transmitting relation with said sealing ele
one end of said barrel portion providing an annu
ment closely adjacent to said sliding surfaces
lar circular end sealing surface for sliding con
and being spaced from said cylinder to be out of
tact with a valve track, the center of said circu
tangential force transmitting contact therewith,
lar sealing surface Ábeing offset with respect to
and a connection between said cylinder bank and
the center of the outer surface of said barrel por
said sealing member for locating the sealing
tion.
member rotationally with respect to the cylinder
15. An annular sealing element for engines
comprising a, barrel portion for telescopic sliding 20 bank and for transmitting to the cylinder bank
the tangential force resulting from friction be
mounting with respect to a .cooperating cylinder
tween the sealing element and the sealing mem
part and a flange portion at one end of said barrel
ber on the one hand and the valve member on
portion providing an annular circular end seali
the other hand.
ing surface for sliding contact with a valve track,
surface and a circular inner surface concentric
said barrel portion having a circular outer sur
25
20. In an engine, an annular ported valve mem
ber, a cylinder bank mounted within said valve
member for relative rotational movement with
respect thereto, said bank including cylinders
having open outer ends, annular sealing elements
portion.
30 carried by said cylinders at their outer ends, said
sealing elements being movable axially of their
16; An annular sealing element for engines
respectively associated cylinders and having end
comprising a barrel portion for telescopic sliding
surfaces in sliding contact with the valve mem
mounting with respect to a cooperating cylinder
ber to provide a seal, a peripherally continuous
part and a flange portion at one end of said bar
shoe for sealing the valve ports when the cylin
rel portion providing an annular end sealing sur
der ports provided by said annular sealing ele
face for sliding contact with a valve track, said
ments are not in registry with the valve ports,
barrel portion having a circular outer surface and
said. shoe having openings therein through which
said end sealing surface having a diameter sub
said sealing elements extend into contact with
stantially larger than the diameter of said outer
surface and a circular perimeter eccentric with 40 the valve member and the edges of said open
ings being spaced from the outer ends of the
respect'to and tangent to said outer circular sur
respective cylinders, the outer portions of said
face.
sealing elements being in tangential force trans
1:7. An annular sealing element for engines
comprising a :barrel portion for telescopic sliding
mitting relation with said shoe, and a connection
between said shoe and said cylinder bank for
mounting with respect to a cooperating cylinder
locating the shoe peripherally with respect to the
part and a flange portion at one end of said bar
rel portion providing an end sealing surface for
bank and for transmitting to the cylinder bank
tangential thrust developed by friction between
sliding Contact with a valve track, said barrel
portion having a, circular outer surface and said
the shoeand sealing elements on the one hand
end> sealing surface having a diameter substan- »
andthe valve member on the other hand.
tially larger than the diameter of said outer sur
2l. In anengine, an-annular ported valve mem
face and a circular perimeter eccentric with re
ber having an inner sealing surface, a cylinder
spect to and tangent to said outer circular sur
bank mounted within the valve member for rela
face, said element having a circular bore extend
tive rotation with respect thereto, said bank in
face concentric with the perimeter of said seal
ing surface and a circular bore extending through
said- sealing element, said bore being eccentric
with respect to the outer surface of said barrel
ing therethrough lconcentric with said outer sur- l
cluding a cylinder having an open outer end radi
face.
ally spaced from said sealing surface, a sealing
element telescopically mounted at the outer end
of said cylinder, said sealing element having a
sealing element having a barrel portion telescopi
flange at its outer end providing an end sealing
cally mounted in said bore and a ñange portion 60 surface in'contact with the sealing surface of the
at the outer end of said barrel portion, said flange
valve member, a sealing member having an open
portion providing an end sealing surface for co
ing? therein through which said sealing element
operating with a valve track and having a circu~
projects, the flange portion of said sealing ele
lar perimeter eccentric with respect to the outer
ment being shouldered to provide an abutment
surface of said barrel portion, and a sealing shoe
with which the wall of said opening contacts to
having a circular opening therein through which
transmit tangential thrust from the sealing ele
the flange portion of said sealing element projects
ment> to said sealing member, said flange portion
intol cooperating contact with the Valve track
further providing an annular flange portion lo
said opening having substantially the same di
cated between the cylinder and said sealing mem
ameter as that ofsaid flange portion and being 70 ber, a> plurality of helical springs located between
located eccentrically with respect to the axis of
said abutment and the cylinder for forcing the
18. In an engine of the character described, an
open ended cylinder having a cylindrical bore, a
said-bore, said eccentrically disposed flange por
tion and opening cooperating toprevent rotation
of the sealing element insaid bore.
19. In4 an engine., anannular ported valvemem--
sealing element radially outwardly into contact
with the sealing surface of the valve member,
andra» connection between the cylinder bank and
said sealing member for locating the connected-
2,408,800
2l
parts peripherally with respect to each other and
for transmitting to the cylinder bank thev tangen
tial thrust developed by friction between the seal
22
ment substantially in said given position of rota
tion and to prevent its being operatively assem
bled in any other position of rotation.
ing member and the sealing element on the one
hand and the sealing surface of the valve member
' 25. In an engine, a ported valve and a ported
23. In an engine, an annular ported valve mem
ber having an inner face providing a circular
mitting thrust produced by friction between the
valve track, a cylinder bank mounted within said
valve member for relative rotation with respect
thereto, said bank including a cylinder open at
its outer end, an annular sealing element hav
pendently of said sealing elements.4
cylinder mounted to have relative movement with
respect to each other, a sealing element movably
on the other hand.
carried by said cylinder and in sliding contact
22. In an engine, an annular ported valve mem
with the valve, a shoe in sliding contact with the
ber having an inner face providing a spherically
valve, said shoe having an opening therein
curved valve track, a cylinder bank mounted
within said valve member for relative rotation 10 through which said sealing element passes, and
an adjustable connection between said shoe and
with respect thereto, said bank including a, cyl
said cylinder for locating said opening relative
inder open at its outer end, an annular sealing
to the axis of the cylinder, said shoe providing
element having a cylindrical portion telescopically
an abutment for absorbing thrust produced by
mounted with respect to a cylindrical part of
friction between said element and said Valve.
the cylinder to permit movement of the sealing
26. In an engine of the type in which a bank
element axially of the cylinder, said sealing ele
. of cylinders and an encircling ported valve are
ment projecting radially beyond the end of the
mounted to have relative rotational movement, a
cylinder and having a spherically curved end sur
peripherally continuous annular shoe in sliding
face in sliding contact with said valve track, said
contact with said valve, sealing elements project
spherically curved surfaces and said cylindrical
ing from said cylinders through openings in said
surfaces permitting turning movement of the
shoe into sliding contact with said valve, and an
sealing element about its axis, and means engag
adjustable connection between said shoe and the
ing said sealing element to prevent the rotation
cylinder bank for locating the shoe peripherally
thereof permitted by said cylindrical and spheri
with respect to the cylinder bank and for trans
cally curved surfaces.
ing a portion telescopically mounted with respect
to a cooperating part of the cylinder to permit
movement of the sealing element axially of the
cylinder, said sealing element projecting radially
beyond said cylinder and having a curved end
surface in sliding contact with said valve track,
the end surface of the sealing element being
shaped and distributed so that the center -of
gravity of said surface lies ahead of the center
of pressure between the relatively sliding sur
faces, considered in the direction of relative move
ment of the element with respect to the valve
member, when the sealing element is in its proper
operative position of rotation with respect to its
own axis, and means engaging the sealing ele
ment to prevent its being operatively assembled
in any other position of rotation.
2li. In an engine, an annular ported valve mem
shoe and the valve to said cylinder bank inde
27. In an engine, an annular ported valve and
an open ended cylinder mounted to have rota
tional movement relative to each other, an annu
lar sealing element having a barrel portion tele
scoping the open end of the cylinder and an end
sealing surface in sliding contact with the valve,
there being substantial annular clearance space
between said- barrel portion and the cylinder,
rings for sealing said space, and means for main
taining said clearance against the thrust devel
oped by friction between the sealing element and
the valve comprising a part providing an abut
ment laterally contacting the portion of the seal
ing element projecting past the cylinder and a
connection for adjustably iixing said part with
respect to the axis of the cylinder.
28. In an engine, an annular ported valve and
an open ended cylinder mounted to have rota
tional movement relative to each other, an annu
lar sealing element having a barrel portion tele
scoping the open end of the cylinder and an end
sealing surface in sliding Contact with the valve,
ber having an inner face providing a spherically
there being substantial annular clearance space
curved valve track, a cylinder bank mounted with
between said barrel portion and the cylinder,
in said valve member for relative rotation with re
rings for sealing said space, and means for main
spect thereto, said bank including a cylinder open
taining said clearance against the thrust devel
at its outer end, an annular sealing element having
a cylindrical portion telescopically mounted with 55 oped by friction between the sealing element and
the valve comprising a shoe in sliding contact
respect to a cylindrical part of the cylinder to
with said valve and having an opening through
permit movement of the sealing element axially
which the portion of the- sealing element pro
of the cylinder, said sealing element project
jecting from the cylinder passes, and a connec
ing radially beyond the end of the cylinder
and having a spherically curved end surface in 60' tion for adjustably _locating said shoe and the
sliding contact with said valve track, said spheri
cally curved surfaces and said cylindrical sur
faces permitting turning movement of the seal
opening therein with respect to the axis of the
cylinder, and to thereby provide laterally yabut
ting thrust absorbing contact between the last
mentioned portion of the sealing element and
sealing element being shaped and distributed with 65 said shoe.
29. In an engine, an annular ported valve and
respect to the axis of the sealing element and
an open ended cylinder mounted to have rota
with respect to the center of pressure between
ing element about its axis, the end surface of the
tional movement relative to each other, an annu
said end surface and the valve track to tend to
cause the sealing element to assume a given posi
lar sealing element having a barrel portion tele
tion of rotation about its own axis due to fric 70 scoping the open end of the cylinder and a cir
cular flange portion providing an end sealing sur
tion between the sealing element and the valve
face in sliding contact with said valve, a shoe in
track when the engine is in operation, and means
sliding contact with said Valve and having a cir
engaging said sealing element to prevent rotation
cular opening in which said flange portion is
thereof about its own axis, said means being
constructed to positively locate the sealing ele
75 located, there being greater clearance between
2,408,800
23
24
the barrel portion of said element and the part
telescoped thereby than between said flange por
tion and said shoe, and means for adjustably
locating the shoe and the opening therein with
respect to the axis of the cylinder.
sealing element carried by the open end of said
cylinder and having an end sealing surface in
sliding contact with said valve, said sealing sur
face being shaped to provide a greater area in
30. In an engine, an annular ported valve and
an open ended cylinder mounted to have relative
passing through the central longitudinal axis of
the sealing element than on the other side of
contact with said valve on one side of a plane
said plane, and means for maintaining the seal
ing element in a position of rotation with respect
to the cylinder so, that said plane is transverse
with respect to the plane of said relative rota
tional movement and the greater contact area
is on the trailing side of the transverse plane,
considered in the direction of movement of the
cylinder relative to the valve member.
36. An annular sealing element for engines
comprising an annular barrel portion for tele
31. In an engine, an annular' ported valve and
scopic sliding mounting with respect to a cylin
an open ended cylinder mounted to have relative
drical cylinder part and a spherically curved end
rotational movement with respect to each other,
and an annular sealing element telescopically 20 sealing surface for sliding contact with a valve
mounted at the ported end of the cylinder and
of complementary curvature, the center of grav
having an end sealing face in sliding contact with
ity of said end sealing surface coinciding with
the longitudinal axis of said annular barrel por
the valve, the center of gravity of said element
being located on the trailing side, considered in
tion and the center of gravity of said element
the direction of rotation of the cylinder relative 25 being offset with respect to the longitudinal axis
of the element.
to the valve, of a plane passing through the cen
tral longitudinal axis of the sealing element and
37. An annular sealing element for engines
comprising a barrel portion for telescopic sliding
at right angles Ito the plane of said relative rota
mounting with respect to a cylindrical cylinder
tional movement.
32. In an engine, a ported valve and a cylinder 30 part and a flange portion having a spherically
mounted for relative rotational movement with
curved end sealing surface for sliding contact
respect to each other, said cylinder having a cylin
with a valve of complementary curvature and
drical bore at one end providing a port, and an
said element further having a bore therethrough
annular sealing element telescopically mounted
located eccentrically with respect to the longi
in said port for movement axially of the cylinder 35 tudinal axis 0f the element.
rotational movement with respect to each other,
and an annular sealing element telescopically
mounted at the ported end of the cylinder and
having an end sealing face in sliding contact
with the valve, the center of gravity of said ele
ment being located to one side of a plane passing
through the central longitudinal axis of the ele
ment and at right angles to the plane of said
relative rotational movement.
and having an end sealing surface in sliding con
tact with the valve and said sealing element fur
ther having an eccentrically located bore there
through whereby to cause the element to be
eccentrically loaded by fluid pressure within the 40
cylinder.
38. In an engine, a circular ported valve hav
ing a concave spherically curved inner face, a
bank of cylinders mounted within said valve for
relative rotation with respect to the valve, sealing
element associated with the cylinders and in slid
ing engagement with said valve face, and a cir
33. In an engine, a ported valve and a cylinder
mounted for relative rotation with respect to each
other, said cylinder having a cylindrical bore pro
cumferentially continuous one-pieceshoe in slid
ingl engagement with said valve, the wall of said
shoe being of substantially uniform thickness
viding a port at one end of the cylinder and an 45 peripherally around its entire circumference and
annular sealing element having a barrel por
having a convex spherically curved outer face
tion telescopically mounted in said bore and a
matching said valve face and a series of circum
flange portion in sliding contact with said valve
ferentially spaced openings therein for said seal
ing elements.
and said sealing element further having an ec
centrically located bore passing therethrough to 50
39. In an engine, a circular one-piece valve
having ports therein and a concave spherically
plane passing through the axis of the element
curved inner face, a bank of cylinders mounted
than to the other side of said plane and to provide
within said valve for relative rotation with re
a larger area expo-sed to gas pressure in the cylin
spect to the valve, sealing elements associated
der at the opposite end of said element and to 55 with the cylinders and in sliding engagement with
one side of said plane than to the other side of
said valve face, a circumferentially continuous
said plane.
circular annular one-piece shoe in sliding en
34. In an engine, a ported valve and an open
gagement> with said valve, said shoe having a
ended cylinder mounted for relative rotational
convex spherically curved outer face matching
movement with respect to each other, an annular 6,0 said valve face and having a cross-section in
sealing element carried by the open end of said
radial direction substantially uniform peripher
cylinder and having an end sealing surface in
ally around the entire circumference of the shoe
sliding contact with said valve, the center of
and suiìciently thin in radial section to permit
gravity of the area of said sealing surface being
elastic distortion of the shoe from its normal
offset in the plane of relative rotation with re
circular form to an elliptical form, whereby to
spect to the axis of said element, and means
permit insertion- of the shoe into operative posi
for limiting rotational movement of said sealing
tion withiny the valve by elastic distortion of the
element about its own axis.
parts, and a series of circumferentially spaced
35. In an engine, a ported valve and an open
openings in the shoe for said sealing elements.
ended cylinder mounted for relative rotational 70
movement with respect to each other, an annular
ANDRÉ J. MEYER.
provide greater contact surface on one side of a
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