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Патент USA US2408808

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Oct. 8, 1946.
Filed Sept. 16, 1944
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George Norman,
Oct. 8, 1946.~
Filed Sept. 16, 1944
15 Sheets-Sheet l4
Georye Norman,
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Filed ‘Sept’. 16, 1944
15 Sheets-Sheet 15
George jiTormazz,
1”’ MW ;
Patented Get. 8, 1946
George Norman, Gril?n, Ga., assignor to Spalding
Knitting Mills, Grif?n, Ga., a corporation of
Application September 16, 1944, Serial No. 554,350
26 Claims. (Cl. 6.6-1)
This invention relates to knitting methods
and machines. More speci?cally, it is concerned
with the knitting of seamless hosiery and with
circular machines for producing such hosiery.
With pre-existent methods and machines, the
legs and instep portions of the stockings are or
dinarily formed by round and round knitting
ultimately closed. Thereupon another course is
knit on one group of needles as the fabric is cast
from the other group, said course forming the
removable connection between a pair of adjacent
blanks of the string product at the region of toe
closure of one of such blanks.
Other objects and advantages of my invention
will appear from the following detailed descrip
tion of the attached drawings, wherein
pockets fashioned by reciprocatory knitting, with
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary view in side elevation
incidental widening and narrowing usually upon 10
of a knitting machine conveniently embodying
half the circle of needles while the remaining
the present improvements and suitable for carry
needles temporarily hold their loops, the stock
ing out my novel method of continuously produc
ings being discharged from the machine with the
ing seamless stocking blanks with closed toe pock
toe pocket open. To close the toe pockets, it is
ets in string form.
necessary to unite the raw edges of the fabric at
Fig. 2 is a similar View of the rear of the ma
the pockets by a separate looping operation
chine, i. e., showing it as it appears when ob
which entails employment of skilled help and ac
served from the left of Fig. 1.
cordingly adds considerably to the cost of the
Fig. 3 is a plansection taken as indicated by
My invention is directed in the main toward 20 the angled arrows III-411 in Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is an axial section of the machine taken
overcoming the above drawbacks. In other
as indicated by the angled arrows IV—IV in Figs.
words I aim to make it possible to effect toe clo
2 and 3.
sure automatically incident to production of the
Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 8 are horizontal section views
stockings in the machine so that the necessity
taken as indicated respectively by the angled ar
for subsequent looping is entirely obviated.
rows V—V, VI—VI, VII—VII and VIII-VIII in
Another object of my invention is to enable
Figs. 1, 2 and 4.
toe closure to be accomplished with attendant
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary detail sectional view
joinder of one stocking to the next after the
upon a circle of needles and the heel and toe
taken as indicated by the angled arrows IX—IX
cutting and drawing out a portion of the knitting 30 in Fig. 3.
Fig. 10 is a linear development of the control
yarn constituting a course of loops in the region
ling or timing cam drum of the machine.
of the'juncture of contiguous stocking blanks of
Fig. 11 is a linear development of the needle ac
the string, separation of the blanks is effected di
tuating cams looking from the outside of the two
rectly at the toe closing courses.
For the purpose of carrying out my improved 35 needle cylinders and showing how one half of a
course of fabric of the leg or instep portion of a
method of knitting, I have devised a novel auto
stocking is knitted by the upper cylinder needles
matic machine which, as hereinafter more fully
during rotative movement of said cylinders in one
disclosed, has two coaxial superposed cylinders
each with a series of needles extending approx
Figs. 12-19 are views similar to Fig. 11 showing
imately half way around it, the needles of one 40
"the action of the needles and their cams during
group alternating with those of the other group
manner of string work, in such a way that upon
di?erent succeeding phases of the knitting in the
production of a stocking blank in accordance
with my improved method.
mation of the leg and instep portions of a stock 45 Figs. 20 and 21 are fragmentary vertical detail
sectional views on a larger scale corresponding
ing, one group of the needles knits as the cylin
to Fig. 4 but taken at different points circumfer
ders turn in one direction, and the other group
entially of the two superposed needle cylinders.
of needles knits as the cylinders turn in the op
Figs. 22-28 are smaller scale fragmentary sec
posite direction with resultant production of tu
bular work. The heel and toe pockets are formed 50 tional views similar to Figs. 20 and 21 but more
diagrammatically illustrated showing successive
by narrowing and widening incident to oscillatory
stages of the stocking web formation in the ma
knitting upon one group of the needles while the
other group is idled. At starting of each toe
Fig. 29 is a perspective view of the string work
pocket, both groups of needles are simultaneously
actuated to form a course by which the pocket is 55 as it comes from the machine.
Throughout the knitting, the cylinders are re
ciprocated or oscillated in unison. During for
Fig. 30 is a longitudinal sectional view of the
string taken as indicated by the angled arrows
XXX-XXX in Fig. 29.
Fig. 31 is a fragmentary diagrammatic View
showing the knitted fabric at the region of con
nection between two adjacent stocking blanks;
Fig. 32 shows one of the stockings after de
tachment from the string.
With more speci?c reference now to these il
lustrations, it will be noted that my improved
knitting machine has two axially superposed
cylinders i and 2 which are respectively provided
substantially half way around them with longi
tudinal grooves. As shown in Figs. 5 and 8 al
ternate grooves of the lower and upper cylinders
l and 2 are occupied by latch needles 3 and 4
all having butts of the same length, the needle
grooves of the upper cylinder being in line with
the intermediate grooves of the lower cylinder
which latter grooves contain slide jacks 5 opera
tive for a purpose later on explained, see Figs.
4, 5 and 8.
As shown in Figs. 20 and 21, the hooks
of the lower needles 3 are offset so as to be out
ward of the hooks of the upper needles 4. With
in the circumferential range of the needles, the
two cylinders 'l and 2 are spaced by a relatively
plate 38 on a supporting bar 39 extending lat
erally from the machine frame 42. Referring to
Figs. 2 and 10, the lower end of the thrust bar 31
is in the path of segmental cam rises 4| and Mo
on a control or timing drum 42 by which the func
tioning of the needle clearing cam, as well as
other instrumentalities of the machine yet to be
described, is governed, said drum being rotated
through a single revolution during each operative
10 or stocking-producing cycle of the machine by
mechanism (not shown) which also may be like
that disclosed in the Scott patent supra. The
special depressing cam 23 for the lower cylinder
needles is shiftable radially in and out like the
clearing cam I8, being for this purpose secured
to a slide 65 (Fig. 8) which has guidance in a
?xed bracket 46. The slide 45 is biased outward
ly by a spring 41 for maintenance yieldingly in
contact with a crank projection 48 at one end of
another diagonally disposed horizontal shaft 49
which is rockable in ?xed bearings 50 and 5|.
An adjustable abutment screw 52 in an arm 53
at the opposite end of the rock shaft 49 is en
gaged from beneath by another vertical thrust
rod 55 (Fig. 2) whereof the lower end is in the
path of a segmental cam 56 on the control drum
42. As ordinarily, the lifting pickers 20 and 2!
narrow knitting gap as at G in Figs. 4, 20 and 21.
are pivoted for up and down movement to ver
The lower cylinder l is suitably secured as by a
tical axis swivel supports 60 and 61 which are
key-and-slot connection 6 to an upward tubular 30 oscillatable in stationary bearing brackets 62 and
prolongation T on a bevel gear wheel 8 (Fig. 4)
G3 on the ?xed plate II, and which are connected
which is rotatively supported within an annular
at the rear by a transverse horizontal link 65.
depression 9 of the bed I 0 of the machine and
held in position by a removably ?xed cover plate
II. In the operation of the machine, the lower
cylinder I is constantly reciprocated, each time
through substantially 360°, by suitable drive
mechanism (not illustrated) connected with the
bevel gear 8. This drive mechanism may for ex
ample be of the construction shown and de
scribed in U. S. Patent 1,148,055, granted to Rob—
ert’W. Scott on July 27, 1915. The knitting cams
for the lower cylinder are likewise generally of
the character disclosed in the said Scott patent
except as later particularly pointed out, that is
to say, they comprise main and auxiliary stitch
cams I5 and it which are disposed at opposite
sides of ‘a top center cam l'l, clearing cams l8 and
I9, elevating pickers 20, 2| and a drop picker 22.
These several pickers are employed in the fash
ioning of heel and toe pockets, which, in accord~
ance with my invention, are knitted by the lower
cylinder needles only, while the upper cylinder
During the knitting of the leg and instep por
tions of the stockings, the picker 20 is held up
out of the way of the butts of the lower cylinder
needles by a curved underreaching ?nger 86 at
the top of another vertical thrust rod 61 arranged
for actuation by circumferentially spaced seg
mental cams B8 and 68a on the control drum 42.
The drop picker 22 is supported for universal
movement as usual by an upstanding post 89, it
being biased upwardly by a torsion spring 10 sur
rounding its horizontal pivot ‘ll so as to be yield
ingly urged toward its invert V-notched guide
cam 12 which, together with the guard cam 73, is
?xedly secured to said post.
For the purpose of controlling the drop picker
22, I have provided means including a ?nger 14
which overreaches a radial projection 75 on the
horizontal pivot ll (Fig. 8), said ?nger being se
cured to the top of a vertical slide rod 15 passing
down through a guide opening in the bed l0.
At its lower end, the rod 15 is connected to a lever
needles are idled in a manner also more fully ex
11 which is pivoted on a stud 78 projecting lat
plained later.
described, I have provided a special depressing
erally from the machine frame 48 with its free
end disposed in the path of circumferentially
cam 23 for the lower cylinder needles which will
again be referred to. In accordance with my
invention the clearing cam I8 is movable radially
aligned cam rises 19, 19a on the control drum 42.
A special means is also provided according to my
In addition to the usual cams just
invention for positively actuating the drop picker
of the cylinder l by virtue of being secured to 60 22 during its operative periods. This special
the inner end of a slide 25 (Fig. 8) with guidance
in a'bracket 25 a?ixed to the plate I l. The slide
25 is biased outwardly by a spring 2‘! and at its
rear protruding end carries an adjustable abut
ment 28 which ‘bears against a crank 29 on the
contiguous end of a diagonally-arranged horizon
tal rock shaft 36. As shown, the shaft 30 is jou1-_
naled in bearings 3| and 32 respectively on the
bed I 0 and on an extension plate 33 affixed there
to at the rear of the machine. At its opposite
end, the rock shaft 30 has an arm 35 with an ad
justable abutment 36 engaged from beneath by a
vertical thrust bar 3‘! which, see Figs. 1 and 2, is
guided adjacent its top. end in the extension plate
33 and adjacent its bottom end in a ?xed guide
means comprises an arm 83 (Fig. 4), which, at its
lower end, is fulcrumed at 8| to one side of the
post 69, and which, at an intermediate point, is
connected by a link 82 with a crank projection
83 ‘on the horizontal pivot ll of said picker. At
the top, the arm 80 has a lateral extension 89a
which engages the outer end of a pin 85 slidable
endwise in a guide opening in the post 69, with
its inner end lying<in the path of a segmental
cam '86v (Fig. 6) on the edge of a ring 3‘! a?‘ixed
to the lower needle cylinder I at the top thereof.
The spring shown at 88 in Figs. 4 and 3 serves
to yieldingly urge the pin 85 toward the periphery
of the ring 81.
Immediately beneath the knitting cams for the
lower cylinder I are ?xed elevating and depress
from the annulus 96 by hangers I32 and I33
ing cams 89 and 90 for the jacks 5 of which the
The upper cylinder 2 is devoid of sinkers, the
fabric loops formed by its needles 4 being drawn
over verges I 35 resulting from the radial slot
dles to hold them in open position at certain times
ting of a laterally projecting circumferential seg
during the knitting. Arranged to cooperate in
mental ?ange I36a of an annulus I36 at the
the usual way with the lower cylinder needles 3
bottom of said cylinder, said ?ange lying in a
in the knitting are web holders III which are slid
plane separated by a small interval from the
ably guided to move in and out between adja
cent needles in radial grooves of the ring 81 and 10 tops of the web holders III as clearly shown in
Fig. 4. Surrounding the lower end of the upper
which are actuated by suitable cams 92a (Fig.
upper ends are offset as at 511. for capacity to
engage over the latches of the upper cylinder nee
'7) on a superimposed cap ring 92. During the
cylinder 2 is a latch guard ring I31 which, see
reciprocations of the cylinder I the cap ring 92
is allowed a certain amount of free rotative play
as ordinarily limited by alternate contact of cir
Figs. 2 and 6, is supported by lbrackets I38 and
I39 from the standards 91 and 98. To opposite
sides of the point of feeding where a yarn Y
cumferentially-spaced adjustable stops 93 there
is delivered to the needles from an eye I400.
at the inner end of a horizontal ?nger I40, the
on with the drop picker post 69.
The solid (unslotted) segmental portion of the
upper needle cylinder 2 rests directly upon the
corresponding solid portion of the lower cylinder I and has rabbeted interconnection therewith as
shown at 95 in Figs. 4 and '1. As a consequence,
the upper cylinder 2 is de?nitely positioned both
vertically and circurnferentially relative to the
lower cylinder I and driven in unison therewith.
At its top, the upper cylinder 2 is rotatively
engaged in a bearing annulus 96 rigidly sup—
ported by diametrically disposed standards 91,
98 from the stationary cover plate I I hereinbefore
mentioned Lifting of the upper cylinder 2 is
prevented by an overlapping hold-down washer
99 secured as shown in Fig. 3 to the top of the
bearing annulus 96 by a screw.
The actuating means for the needles 4 of the
upper cylinder 2 include a stitch cam I00 which
is in direct vertical alignment with the stitch
cam I 6 for the lower needles 3, an auxiliary
lifting cam 10!, a clearing cam I02 and a guard
cam I03. The stitch cam I00 is secured by screws
I 03 to a slide I01 with vertical guidance in a
block I08 ?xed to the underside of the annulus
96. A stem I09 extends upward from the slide
I01 and protrudes through the annulus 96, as
shown in Figs. 1 and 9, and has a head IIO be
tween which and the top of said annulus is dis
posed a helical compression spring III whereby
lower edge of the latch guard ring I31 is recessed
upwardly and beveled off as at MI and I42, I43
in Figs. 11-19. The reason for these provisions
will also become apparent from further descrip
tion, it being important however to observe that
the feed point of eye I40a is located circumferen
tially of the latch guard ring I31 centrally be
tween :the cams I5, I6, and that the recesses
MI and I42 are in direct vertical alignment with
In order to open the latches of the needles
of the cylinder 2 immediately previous to their
approach to the point of yarn feeding at cer
tain stages of the knitting cycle, I have further
provided the machine with a latch opener I44,
see Figs. 2 and 6. As shown in Fig. 6, this latch
opener I44 has the form of a tapered pin which
is arranged tangentially of the cylinder 2, at the
upward recession I43 of the latch guard ring
I31, and which is guided for retractability axially
in a pendent lug I38a on the bracket I38. A
?nger spring I45 secured to the post 91 has its
hooked outer end 145a engaged with the up
turned rear end I44!» of the latch opener I44
so as to tend to keep the latter in its forward
or active position. Also engaging the upturned
rear end I44a of the latch opener I44 is a lat
eral ?nger projection I46 at the lower end of a
shaft I41 which is rockable in the vertically
spaced apertured lugs of a bearing piece I48
a lateral lug II2 on said slide is kept in yielding
secured to the post 91 at one side thereof, as best
engagement with an adjustable stop screw II3
shown in Figs. 2 and 6. At its upper end, the
that determines the normal or operative position
of the stitch cam I00. A lever H4 medially ful 50 rock shaft I41 has a small crank arm I49 (Fig. 5)
coupled by a link I50 with a screw I5I on the
crumed on an upstanding bearing II5 on the
carrier slide I20 ‘for the upper needle cam I02,
annulus 9'3 has an adjustable abutment screw
said screw constituting one of the anchorages for
lit at one end thereof designed to engage the
the spring I22. As a consequence of the ar
upstanding stem I09 of the cam slide I01. The
rangement just described, it will be apparent that
opposite end of the lever H4 is connected to a
the latch opener I44 will be retracted concur
vertical thrust rod I I1 which is con?ned to axial
rently with each withdrawal of the cam I02.
movement in the plate 33 and in the guide 38
The yarn guide ?nger I40 is formed from stout
at the back of the machine and arranged for
wire with an upright supporting portion I401) and
actuation by another pair of circumferentially
spaced segmental cam rises H8 and “811 on the 60 a base loop I40§c through which the shank of a
headed securing screw I55 passes into the station
control drum 42. The clearing cam I02 is at
ary plate 33. The yarn Y is drawn from a suit
tached to the inner end of a radially retract
able source of supply (not illustrated), and en
able slide I20 (Figs. 1, 2 and 5) which is con
route to the feed ?nger I40, ?rst traverses a disk
?ned in a guide block‘ I2I at the underside
of the annulus 96 and which is urged inwardly 65 tension I55 (Fig. 3), on a horizontal angular
bracket arm I51 secured to a ?xed post I58, then
by a spring I22. The outer upturned end I20a
directly downward through a guide eye I59 at the
of the slide I20 is engaged ‘by a crank I23 at
vertex end of said bracket, then beneath a guide
one end of a horizontal rock shaft I25 supported
member I63 pendent from said bracket, then
in bearings I26 and I21 on the top of the an
nulus 96. An adjustable abutment screw I28 70 through the pigtail loop IE1 at the end of a take
up arm I62 pivoted at I63 on said bracket, and
in an arm I29 on the opposite end of the rock
to a guide eye IE5 at the outer end of said
shaft I25 engages a vertical thrust bar I30 in the
?nger. As shown in Fig. 3, the take-up arm I62
path of actuating segmental cams I3I and I3Ia
is subject to a torsion spring I50 which tends to
on the control drum 42. The supplemental cam
vI0I and the guard cam‘ I03 are ?xedly suspended 7.5 yieldingly urge it outwardly of the machine as
considered in Fig. 1, thereby to cause the slack in
Fig. 12, the butts of the lower needles 3 pass over
the stitch cam I6, then beneath the center cam
I1, and ?nally under the stitch cam I 5 whereby
said needles, as they pass the feed I4lla, are caused
the yarn Y to be taken up as it occurs and to keep
the yarn properly tensioned at all times.
For the purpose of continually ejecting the
string work as it is formed in the machine, I have
to draw fabric loops from the yarn Y over the
additionally provided mechanism including a
stitch-drawing ledges of the web holders 9| (the
level of which is at the horizontal line 10-20) , the
plunger rod I10 which extends axially down
through the cylinders I and 2 and into a tube III
stitch formation taking place at the recess I42
of smaller diameter internally of the lower cylin
in the latch guard ring I3‘I. In the meantime,
der I, see Fig. 4. The tube III is suitably sup 10 the upper cylinder needles 4, with their latches
ported from the top of the lower cylinder I and
closed, remain at the high level to which they
reaches well down into the fabric receptacle I'I2
of the machine. To the lower end of the rod H0
is attached a collar I73 with circumferentially
being thereafter depressed by the cam I02 with
arranged outwardly and downwardly sloped
15 incidental opening of their latches at the recess
points I15 for engaging the string work and de
pressing it. An annular series of inwardly pro
jecting barbs I16 within the tube III near the
bottom engages the string work at a lower level
to keep it from rising with the plunger rod I'IB
as the latter is occasionally elevated. The rod I13
is slidably guided adjacent its top in the end of
an arm ITI (Figs. 1 and 3) a?ixed to the post I58,
I43 in the latch guard ring I31 as they move
down through the previously formed loops on
were previously moved by the stitch cam I00 so as
to avoid the yarn Y as they pass the feed I40a,
them at the verge line 0-1). Repetitions of com
plete reciprocations of the machine in the man
ner just described results in the production of
plain tubular fabric for a stocking leg L.
When a su?icient length of leg fabric L has been
knitted, and at the completion of a half course
and at an intermediate point in a cross piece I18
on the lower needles 3 as the cylinders turn in
bridged across the top of the upper needle cylin 25 the direction of the arrow in Fig. 13, the cam 23
der 2. Depression of the work is effected by a
is moved inward to active position, being there
weight I19 secured to the rod I19 at a point be
fore now shown in full lines. During this stage,
low the guide arm I77; and the elevation of said
the upper needles 4 are prevented from drawing
rod is periodically accomplished through the me
loops from the yarn Y in the same manner as de
dium of a lifting lever I80 which is pivoted at ISI 30 scribed in connection with Fig. 12. In the suc
on a collar I82 affixed to the post I53 with its
ceeding reverse turn of the cylinders I and 2 in
free end underreaching said weight. In turn piv
the direction of the arrow in Fig. 14, another par
otally connected to the lift lever I83 at I83 is a
tial course is knitted on the upper needles while
vertical'thrust rod I85 having guidance with the
the lower needles again pass idly beneath their
other thrust rods previously mentioned in the 35 stitch cams I5 and I 6 holding their loops. During
plates 33 and 38, and having its lower end in the
the succeeding turn of the cylinders I and 2 in
path of segmental actuating cams I36 and I86a
the direction of the arrow in Fig. 15, the lower
on the control-drum 42, see Fig. 2.
The operation of the machine is as follows:
During the formation of the tubular leg por
tion L of a stocldng blank, which stage of the
needles are depressed by the cam 23 with the re
sult that they cast the previously formed loops
on them and fail to take yarn while the upper
needles 4 continue to hold theirs, with attendant
formation of a ?oat 1‘ (Figs 2-9, 30, and 31), this
stage of the knitting being shown in Fig. 23. At
knitting is diagrammatically depicted in Fig. 22,
the knitting cams are arranged as shown in Figs.
11 and 12, i. e., with the cams I8 and 23 for the
the initiation of the last described turn of the
lower cylinder needles 3 retracted and the pickers
cylinders, the stitch cam I00 f or the upper needles
4 was lowered and the cam I8 (now indicated in
20-22 out of the range of the needle butts, with
the stitch cam IIl? for the upper cylinder needles
full lines) was moved into action in readiness to
re-elevate the lower needles 3 in preparation to
4 in elevated ‘position and with the latch opener
take the yarn Y. Immediately after the needles
I44 in active position. As the two cylinders con
currently swing in the direction indicated by the 50 Sand 4 have cleared their cams in Fig. 15, the
depressing cam-23 for the lower needles .4 is with
arrow in Fig. 11, the upper needles 4 will follow
drawn or retracted, being accordingly indicated
the path shown, with their latches held open
only in broken lines in Fig. 16. As the cylinders
by the jacks 5, the upper ends of which trace a
next turn in the direction of the arrow in Fig. 16,
path y'—7', while passing the recesses I43 and I42
in the latch guard ring I31. As the needles 4 55 the butts of the ‘lower needles 3 pass over the top
of stitch cam I5, then beneath center cam I1
pass beyond the recess M2 and approach the feed,
and ?nally beneath stitch cam IS with the result
the jacks 5 are depressed by cam 90 and thus
allowed to draw loops of the yarn Y over the
verges I35 (the level of which is at the line v-v)
as said needles are elevated by the stitch cam
that they are caused to take the yarn Y con
currently with the upper needles 4 so that loops
are drawn by both sets of needles at the edge
recession I 4| of the latch guard ring I31, the loops
IIIILI, the loop drawing occurring at the region of
formed at this time being substantially of normal
thebeveled recess I4I of the latch guard ring I31.
size due to the changed (lowered) position of the
Incidentally, the lower cylinder needles 3 remain
stitch cam I90. As will be seen later the course
at the depressed level with their butts underpass
ing the stitch cams I5 and I6 until they are well 65 just completed constitutes the closing course for
beyond the stitch forming region of the upper
the toe pocket'of a new stocking which is about to
needles 4. whereupon they are elevated by the
be knitted. Upon completion of the last men
cam I9. By reason of having their hooks out
tioned turn of the cylinders I and 2 in Fig. 16,
wardly offset as hereinbefore pointed out in con
the cams ‘23, I02 and the latch opener I44 are
nection with Figs. 20 and 21, it will be seen that 70 withdrawn with attendant release to activity of
the lower cylinder needles 3 will not foul the
the lift pickers 20 and .21 for operation beginning
loops ‘on the upper cylinder needles 4 when they
with-the succeeding swing of the cylinders in the
are elevated by the cam I9 as just explained.
direction of the arrow in ‘Fig. 17. Due to retrac
During the suceeding reverse turn of the cylin
tion ofcam I02, the upper needles 4 will be main
ders in the direction indicated by the arrow in
tained at the raised or idling level while a toe
pocket T is fashioned by narrowing and widen
pickers 29, 2| are also returned to their normal
pickers 2B and 2! function to raise individual
needles at. opposite ends of the series 3 as the
inactive positions, the upper stitch cam I0 per
mitted to resume its raised position and the cam
I02 reinstated so that the machine is restored
to the condition shown in Fig. 11 in readiness to
produce the tubular foot portion F of the new
stocking blank with both sets of needles in oper
as indicated by the arrow, the left needles 3a of
the series 3 having been raised to the idling level
length of tubular fabric for the foot F of the new
stocking blank is knit, the upper set of needles
ing on the lower needles 3 only incident to re
peated turns of the cylinders l and ,2 for a time
successively in opposite directions as will now be
In the narrowing phase, the drop
ation in the same manner as hereinbefore ex
cylinders l and 2 successively turn in opposite
plained in connection with the knitting of the leg
directions. The start of the narrowing phase is
shown in Fig. 18 with the cylinders l and 2 turning 1O portion of the ?rst blank. When a sufficient
by the picker 2!). During the succeeding turn of
the cylinders in the opposite direction the right
4 is rendered inactive but holding their loops
while a heel pocket H is fashioned on the lower
needles 3 in precisely the same way as described
above for the toe pocket T, whereupon the ma
hand end needle 3b of the series 3 will be raised
to the idling level by the picker 2|. The narrow
ing phase will thus be carried out in the usual
manner well understood by those familiar with
the operation of seamless hosiery machines.
chine is again placed in condition to produce the
tubular leg portion L of the new blank. Through
out the knitting, the yarn Y is maintained under
which it is shown in Figs. 17 and 18 so as to be
-I , 2 required for cam clearance as they turn alter
Throughout the narrowing phase, the drop picker 20 constant tension, the yarn drawn out as a conse
quence of the excess movement of the cylinders
22 is de?nitely held in the depressed position in
out of the path of the butts of the needles of the
series 3 raised by the pickers 2i), 2!, the ?nger
71 having at the initiation of this phase dropped
off the end of the cam rise '59 on the drum 42
(Fig. 10) with resultant lowering of the ?nger
14 (Figs. 4 and 8) and engagement thereof with
the projection 15 extending from the pivot ‘H to
effect the downward displacement of said picker.
When the picker 22 is so depressed, it cannot be
in?uenced by the segmental cam 86 (Fig. 4) and
the intervening elements 85 and 8!, and remains
quiescent instead of being constantly raised and
lowered as ordinarily during each reciprocation
of the cylinders. Just before initiation of the toe
pocket widening phase which now follows and
nately in opposite directions is temporarily laid
over the plain portion I351) of the annulus I36
(Fig. 4) and subsequently absorbed each time by
the take-up I62. At the initiation of each toe
and heel fashioning phase, the rod ill! with its
spike head H3 is lifted through the medium of
the cam rises I85 and l86a on the drum 42 and.
so held to prevent strain on the fabric at these
times. At all other times the rod I18 with its
spike head is left free and subject to the weight
"9 to maintain the fabric under tension so that
it is gently drawn downward and away from the
needles 3 and 4. It is of course to be understood
that the cam projections on the control drum 42
are so arranged to time the various changes re
quired for successive repetitions of the knitting
which is illustrated in Fig. 19, the drum 42 (Fig.
cycle which I have just described, to the end that
10) is shifted slightly to bring the cam rise ‘I9
beneath the ?nger 11. As a consequence of this 40 the product of the machine takes the form of a
string of stocking blanks, such as shown in Figs.
action the ?nger ‘M is elevated to release the drop
29 and 30 in which the top edge of the leg portion
picker 22, which, under the in?uence of the tor
L of one is attached through half its circumfer
sion spring '10. is urged upward against the guard
cam 13 as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 19 and
thereby again placed under the control of the
segmental cam 86. As the cylinders turn in the
direction of the arrow in Fig. 19, the cam 86
operates to keep the picker 22 depressed until the
?rst elevated needle 3b at the right hand end of
the series has reached a position immediately
above it. During continued movement of the
cylinders in the same direction, the butts of the
raised needles 3b override the picker 22 and keep
it depressed. Finally, however. after being cleared
by the butt of the innermost of the raised needles
3?), the picker 22 is elevated by the torsion spring
ence to the next across the toe T of the next at a
juncture course C, while the remaining half of
the edge is free as at E, and in which a ?oat f
of the yarn used in the knitting extends from the
ends of the line of juncture.
Separation of a stocking blank from the next
on the string is effected by severing an end loop I
in Fig. 31 of the connecting juncture course C (of
which the loops have been elongated for conven
ience of illustration) at the point p and pulling
upon the ?oat J‘ from the left of the ?gure to
draw out the yarn of said course. After separa
tion of the blank as just explained, the yarn of
the ?oat f is severed close at the point p’ where
it is still attached to the separated blank. If de
sired or found more convenient in practice, the
cuts at p and p’ may be made at the same time.
10 and during movement of the cylinders in the
opposite direction it eventually engages the two
innermost needles 3b of said raised group and
carries them down to the knitting level, one of (3'.
It will thus be seen that through my invention it
the needles, lowered as just explained, being re
is possible to produce seamless stockings in which
elevated to the idling level before it reaches the
toe closing is automatically accomplished during
center cam I‘! as is ordinarily done in seamless
hosiery knitting. Widening continues in this way
the knitting. This is advantageous not only in
that it does away with the costly looping opera
as the cylinders are oscillated through alterna 65
tion which is ordinarily required, but in that the
tive lowering of raised needles at opposite ends of
appearance of the stockings is improved by ab
the series 3 as said cylinders turn in opposite
sence of objectional looping lines across the toe
directions until all of the raised needles are again
tops. , The raw top edges of the individual stock
restored to action. At the completion of the toe
widening the drum 42 is given another shift until
the high portion of the cam rise ‘i9 is brought be
neath the lever 11, whereby the drop picker 22 is
returned to the idle position which it normally
occupies during the knitting of the tubular por
tions of the fabric. At the same time, the lift .
ings may be secured against ravelling by resort
ing to a subsequent overedge stitching operation,
or the stockings finished by application of sepa
rately knitted ribbed tops.
It is to be undertsood that my improved knit
ting machine is not to be considered as limited to
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