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Патент USA US2408817

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Oct. 8, 1946.
2,408,817
D. L. SNOW
ELECTRON DISCHARGE APPARATUS
Filed Nov. 29, 1943
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Patented Oct. 8, 1946
»
2,408,817
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE’
2,408,817
ELECTRON DISCHARGE APPARATUS
Donald L. Snow, Hempstead, N. Y., assignor to
Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., a corpora
tion of New York
Application November 29, 1943, Serial No. 512,222
9 Claims. (Cl. 250--27.5)
2
1
sembly including a somewhat different resonator
This invention relates to electron discharge ap
arrangement than that of Figs. 1-3; and
paratus and is particularly concerned with im
Fig. 5 is a substantially perspective View illus—
provements in electron discharge apparatus of
trating details of the cathode, resonator, re?ector
the hollow resonator type and methods of mak
ing the same.
U! sub-assembly unit of Fig. ‘l, and manner of mak
ing the same.
Hollow resonator devices wherein an electron
Referring ?rst to Figs. 1—3, the assembled high
beam is passed in energy exchanging relation
frequency device of the invention comprises a
with the resonator ?eld are known in various
cylindrical metal envelope l I and a base assembly
structural embodiments. The present invention
represents mainly improvements in structure and 10 [2. Base l2 has a bottom wall l3 made of some
moldable insulation material such as a phenolic
assembly over such earlier devices, for providing
condensation product, and an upstanding metal
an efficiently organized and operating combina
collar 14 is secured to wall l3.
tion of correlated parts.
Envelope H and collar l4 are formed with in
It is, therefore, a major object of the invention
tegral radial ?anges I5 and I6 which extend in
to provide electron discharge apparatus of the
coextensive contact with opposite sides of a rela
hollow resonator type having novel construction
tively rigid metal plate I1. Preferably ?anges
and compact efficient arrangement of its com
l5 and 16 are permanently secured, as by weld
ing or soldering, to plate IT. The seal between
?ange l5 and plate I‘! is preferably vacuum tight
ponent parts.
A further object of the invention is to provide
electron discharge apparatus of the hollow
resonator type wherein the parts producing and
so as to maintain a vacuum within envelope H.
The seal between ?ange l6 and plate I‘! is prefer
ably at least air tight to keep out dust and mois
acting on the electron-stream are aligned in a
novel manner.
'
A further object of the invention is to provide
ture.
‘
A suitable thick sti?ening plate “3 is secured
a novel unitary sub-assembly for a hollow res 25
as by welding to the upper surface of plate I1
onator electron discharge device, wherein a cath
so as to be disposed within envelope II. If de
ode, a hollow resonator and an electronic re?ector
sired, plate l8 may be integral with plate l1.
Any desired number of sealed conductor mounts,
are novelly mounted in predetermined relation;
and to provide a novel method of assembling the
30 for the device of Fig. 1, preferably ?ve, are car
same.
ried by plate l8. Some of these conductor mounts
A further object of the invention is to provide
a novel compact sub-assembly wherein the parts
of a hollow resonator device eifective upon the
electron stream are permanently associated in a
unitary mounting.
-
'
are indicated at l9 and 2l—2ll.
Mount l9 comprises a short thin metal tube
25 extending through suitable apertures in plates
35
I1 and IS with its upper end ?anged over the top
surface of plate l8 as at 28. Tube 25 is suitably
A further object of the invention is to provide
welded or similarly secured to plate l8 so as to
hollow resonator apparatus arranged within an
provide a vacuum tight connection therewith. A
envelope and embodying novel thermally respon;
short rigid conductor rod 21 imbedded in a glass
sive frequency control structure associated with
the resonator.
40 or like insulating seal 28 axially within tube 25
has its upper end disposed within envelope II
Further objects of the invention will presently
and its lower end suitably fastened to a hollow
appear as the description proceeds in connection
metal prong 29 rigidly supported on insulation
with the appended claims and the annexed draw
wall l3 of the base.
ing, wherein:
Each of mounts 2l-24 are of substantially
Fig. l is an elevation, partly in section along 45
identical structure with mount l9. As for those
line l-l of Fig. 3, of a hollow resonator type
speci?cally illustrated, mount 2| supports a con
electron discharge device according to a pre
ductor rod 3| fastened to prong 32, mount 23 sup
ferred embodiment of the invention;
ports a conductor rod 33 fastened to prong 34,
Fig. 2 is an elevation, partly in section, of the
and mount 24 supports a conductor rod 35 fas
device of Fig. 1 but as viewed at an angle of about
tened to prong 36. Thus all the conductors nec
ninety degrees from the direction viewed in Fig. 1;
essary for introducing required electrical energy
Fig. 3 is a section along line 3—3 of Fig. 1 pro
for operation of the elements within envelope l i
viding a top view of the cathode, resonator, re
enter the envelope through vacuum tight insula
?ector unit in the assembly;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary elevation of a sub-as 55 tiOl'l seals.
2,408,817
4
Plates i‘! and iii are centrally apertured for
mounting a thin malleable exhaust tube 31 which
has its upper end sealed vacuum tight to plate
l8 and is pinched off and closed at its lower end
at 38 to complete sealing of envelope ll after
formed at their lower ends with threaded exten
sions 62 inter?tting with suitable tapped holes in
plate IS. The upper end of each post 6| is
formed with a reduced threaded extension 63
which extends freely through an aperture 64 in
platform 45 within a tapped central bore 65 in
exhaust. Wall I3 is formed with a suitable molded
depression 39 for accommodating exhaust tube 31.
All of the elements for producing and directly
the lower end of an elongated post 66. Any suit
able number of posts 6| and 66 may be thus pro
acting upon an electron beam within envelope l I
vided although only two are illustrated. Posts
are preferably preassembled, prior to mounting in 10 6| may ?rst be mounted rigid with plate l8.
the device, in a permanent sub-assembly in which
proper alignment is obtained and maintained as
will later be explained.
The sub-assembly comprises a cathode or elec
Platform 45 is then seated upon the tops of posts
6|, with extensions 63 projecting therethrough,
and posts 66 are then mounted nut-like on ex
tensions 63 to securely clamp platform 45 be
tron emitter unit 4| for producing an electron 15 tween the posts.
The upper ends of posts 66 are formed with
stream, an electron stream focusing or modulat
reduced threaded extensions 61 which project
freely upward through suitable apertures in a
rigid bridge 68 generally parallel to platform 45.
electron stream is passed, and a re?ector unit 44
for repelling and returning electrons of the stream 20 Bridge 68 is securely fastened to posts 66 as by
nuts 69.
into resonator unit 43.
Plate l8, platform 45, bridge 68 and posts 6!
Resonator 43 has its bottom wall ?xedly mount
and 66 thereby provide a strong rigid frame for
ed as by soldering within a suitable aperture in
supporting the elements of the device within en
a rigid metal platform 45 extending parallel to
plate l8. As shown in Fig. 1, resonator 43 is 25 velope II, and for withstanding strains incident
to operation of the frequency control mechanism
formed with a ?exible annular top wall portion
to be described.
46 surrounding a relatively rigid central region
Bridge 68 is formed with a large aperture ‘ll
41 which is centrally apertured at 48. Aperture
axially of the device. A plate 12 of electrical in
48 is aligned with a similar apeiture 49 at the
upper end of a reentrant conical hollow pole 5| 30 sulating material is securely mounted over aper
ture ‘H by a sheet metal rim strip 13 which is
integral with the resonator bottom wall. Wall
welded or similarly fastened to bridge 68.
portion 46 of the resonator is preferably an an
nularly crimped metal member which may be
Plate 12 is also centrally apertured for mount
secured to or integral with the resonator side
ing thereupon a shouldered metal terminal block
14‘ formed with a central bore into which extends
walls.
the upper end of a relatively rigid electrically
The circumference of platform 45 is formed
ing electrode 42 surrounding the stream, a cylin
drical hollow resonator unit 43 through which the
with three equally spaced edge notches or re
cesses 52 permitting free passage of three paral
conductive strut or rod 15 of Duralumin or some
other metal or alloy having a high coefficient of
lel equally circumferentially spaced longitudi
thermal expanison. Strut 15 is secured against
nal support rods 53. Rods 53 are parallel to the 40 axial movement within block 14, as by screw ‘I6.
Block 14 in turn is secured against displacement
longitudinal axis of the device and are made of
insulating material. Preferably, rods 53 are
relative to plate 12, as by its illustrated inter?t
ting engagement with the aperture in plate 12,
bodies of glass or some other hardenable thermo
and by peening or otherwise ?anging its lower
plastic substance as will appear.
Glass rods 53 are rigidly and permanently . end at ‘I1 over the adjacent lower surface of plate
12.
mounted in parallel relation by means of three
The lower end of strut 15 extends through the
equally spaced stiff radial wires 54 which have
base of an inverted U-shaped bracket 18, and a
their bent inner ends ?xed by welding or solder
suitable fastening element 19 anchors strut 15
ing to platform 45 and have their outer ends im
to bracket 18. The opposite downwardly ex
bedded. within associated rods 53.
tending legs of bracket 18 are formed with shoul
Cathode unit 4| is rigidly and permanently
dered terminals 8| inter-?tting with the upper
mounted in alignment with apertures 48, 49 by
ends of the corresponding upstanding legs of
means of three equally spaced stiff radial wires
second U-shaped bracket 82. The base of
55 which have their inner ends ?xed by welding
or soldering to a ?ange 56 on the cathode unit in .v1 bracket 82 is apertured and formed with an in
tegral downwardly extending hollow boss 83
and have their outer ends imbedded within asso
which is rigidly secured, as by soldering, to the
ciated glass rods 53.
resonator wall region 41 about exit aperture 48.
Focusing electrode 42 is rigidly and- perma~
Strut l5is coaxial with resonator 43 and lo
nently mounted in alignment with cathode 4| by
means of three equally spaced stiff radial wires 60 cated on the longitudinal centerline of the device.
The purpose of the above described shape of
51 which have their inner ends ?xed by welding
or soldering to electrode 42 and have their outer
ends imbedded within associated glass rods 53.
Reflector unit 44 comprises a metal block hav
brackets 78 and 62 is to obtain a solid connection
between the lower end of strut 15 and the reso
nator wall region 41 without disturbing re?ector
unit 44 which is also located axially on that cen
terline. Re?ector unit 44 extends within boss 83
for proper location relative to resonator aperture
48, but the parts are so dimensioned as to pre
surface 58 with the electron stream by means of
vent contact between reflector 44 and bracket 82
three equally spaced stiff radial wires 59 which
have their inner ends ?xed by soldering or weld Tiv during all conditions of operation.
Strut T5 is energized by current passing there
ing to re?ector block 44 and have their outer ends
through. Conductor rod 33 is welded or soldered
imbedded within associated glass rods 53.
Fig. 2 illustrates the manner in which platform
to the lower end of a relatively stiff conductor
45 is rigidly supported upon plate IS. A plural
84 which has its radially bent upper end soldered
ity of circumferentially spaced short posts 6! are
or welded to block 14. A loose glass or like insu
ing its lower reflecting surface 58 aligned with
resonator aperture 48, and re?ector unit 44 is
rigidly and permanently mounted to so align
2,408,817
5
6
lating sleeve 85 supported by conductor 84 in
sulates it electrically against the electrically
grounded frame parts such as platform 45. The
strut 15. Since strut 15 is anchored at its upper
end to the rigid .element supporting frame and
connected at its lower end to the flexible resonator
lower end of strut l5 completes an electric cir
upper wall portion, elongation or contraction of
strut 15 in response to temperature changes
caused by variation of the electric current passed
therealong results in displacement of aperture 48
respectively toward or away from aperture 49,
thereby respectively proportionately decreasing or
cuit by grounding on the frame.
‘
Cathode unit 4| is energized chie?y by a lead
86 from conductor rod 21, and a lead 81 support
ing a glass insulating sleeve 88 is welded or sol
dered at opposite ends to conductor rod 3| and a
conductor 89 rigid with re?ector block 44. Other 10 increasing the frequency of resonator 43. , Control
elements within envelope l I are similarly suitably
of the current passing along strut ‘I5 is of course
energized.
obtained by adjustment of a suitable external
Ultra high frequency energy, in the neighbor
variable power source (not shown).
A very important feature of my invention is the
hood of 3x109 cycles per second and higher, is
extracted from resonator 43 by means of a con 15 sub-assembly of parts which produce or act
directly on the electron stream. This is of par
centric transmission line section having a hollow
ticular importance where the resonator is small
outer conductor 9! and a coaxial inner conductor
and has small electron permeable regions or aper
92 supported and sealed therein by insulating
tures, as where ultra high frequencies are con
beads of glass or polystyrene in a known manner.
Outer conductor 9| passes through suitable aper
tures in plates ll, 18 and base wall l3. A short
metal collar 93 upstanding from plate l8 sur
rounds outer conductor 9! and this joint is
vacuum sealed to maintain the interior of enve
lope ll vacuum tight.
,
As illustrated in Fig. 1, a conductive loop 94
interconnects the line conductors at their inner
ends and projects through a suitable aperture in
the bottom wall of resonator 43 for coupling with
the ultra high frequency ?eld within the resona
tor. The projecting lower end of the transmission
line is externally available for connection to any
utilization apparatus.
templated. Di?iculty has been experienced dur
ing assembly of such devices in obtaining proper
‘and reliable alignment of the cathode, resonator
and re?ector.
I
The present invention overcomes the above
difficulties. As illustrated, the various elements
of the sub-assembly comprising cathode unit 4|,
focusing electrode 42, platform 45 with the res
onator (43 or 95) secured thereupon and re
?ector unit 44 are all mounted in desired align
ment and related position by suitable jigs or ?x
tures designated at I82. Preferably bracket 82
is ?xed to the resonator upper wall prior to this
operation, which is of course performed only after
the various sets of stiff radial wires above de
Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate an embodiment of the
invention wherein a different type of resonator is 35 scribed have been soldered or welded to the ele
ments.
mounted on platform 45. Here a relatively small
Jigs or ?xtures I02 are so designed that the free
diameter cylindrical resonator 95 has its bottom
wall ?xed as by soldering in a suitable central
ends of the stiff radial wires are free, so that glass
rods 53, heated until suitably plastic, may be
aperture in platform 45. The bottom wall of
resonator 95 is formed with a hollow reentrant 40 forced onto the wires to imbed the ends of the
pole 96 having an aperture 91 aligned with a
latter therein. Rods 53 are allowed to remain
impaled on the wire ends until cooled. When
similar aperture 98 in the upper resonator wall 99.
cooled, rods 53 become hard and rigid permanent
A bracket 82 is secured, as in Fig. 1, to the upper
insulation support and spacer members which
resonator wall about the exit aperture.
maintain the elements in exactly the relation
As illustrated in Fig. 4, the upper and side
they were preset by jigs I02. No further align
walls of resonator 95 are radially extended for an
ment or adjustment operations are needed, and
appreciable distance, and circumferentially
the whole assembly may be incorporated into the
joined. The purpose of this construction is to
device by mounting platform 45 on posts GI and
provide an upper resonator wall of su?icient area
to safely provide adequate ?exibility when the
making the necessary electrical connections.
If desired, apertures 48, 49 or 91, 98 may be pro
spacing between apertures 91 and 98 is varied dur- '
vided with suitable wire mesh or like grids, al
ing resonator tuning. Since this speci?c reso-.
though such are not essential where the apertures
nator structure is not part of the present inven
tion, further description is unnecessary.
are small.
The above described construction provides a
In the embodiment of Figs. 4 and 5, platform
sturdy, compact hollow resonator device wherein
45 is secured to glass rods 53 by three equally
spaced stiff radial wires l8! which have their
the resonator and control elements are all mount
ed upon a strong rigid frame within the envelope,
outer ends imbedded in rods 53 and are soldered
or welded along the bottom surface of platform
and which is assembled with a minimum of effort.
The arrangements for precisely and permanently
45 as illustrated. The cathode, focusing electrode
and re?ector are secured in the sub-assembly ex (50 aligning the various elements producing or di
actly as in Figs. 1-3.
rectly acting on the electron beam is especially
In operation, in both embodiments of the in
important for hollow resonator devices embody
vention, a stream of electrons is projected by
ing resonators of small volume and electron per
cathode 4| through resonator 43 (or 95) and is
meable areas of small size.
returned into the resonator by re?ector 44 which
As many changes could be made in the above
is maintained at a suitable potential. The elec
construction and many apparently widely differ
tron stream excites and maintains a high fre
ent embodiments of this invention could be made
quency ?eld within resonator 43. Accepted
without departing from the scope thereof, it is
theories of electron velocity modulation of the
intended that all matter contained in the above
stream by interaction with the ?eld to obtain this
description or shown in the accompanying draw
operation in such devices are explained in United
ing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not
States Letters Patent No. 2,250,511 to which ref
in a limiting sense.
erence is made for further detail.
What is claimed is:
Also in both embodiments, frequency control is
1. High frequency electron discharge apparatus
accomplished by regulation of the temperature of
comprising a support, a platform carried by said
2,408,817
7
support,‘a hollow resonator mountedon said plat
8
support on said frame, and means carried by said‘
support substantially permanently mounting a
form, a rigid body of electrical insulating material
cathode assembly, a hollow resonator assembly
secured to said platform and electron emitter and
and a reflector assembly in alignment.
de?ecting electrode assemblies secured to said
'7. High frequency apparatus comprising a sup
body and disposed on opposite sides of said Cl
port, a hollow resonator having a portion movable
resonator in alignment therewith.
for varying the frequency of said resonator
2. The apparatus de?ned in claim 1, including
mounted on said support, a cathode structure
an electron stream control electrode adjacent
mounted on said support in alignment with said
said emitter assembly also secured to said body.
3. High frequency apparatus comprising a plat
resonator, a frame structure secured to said sup
port, and a thermally responsive frequency con
form, a hollow resonator mounted on said plat
trol member having a rigid electrically insulated
form and having electron permeable regions, a
connection to said frame at one end and a rigid
plurality of laterally extending supports secured
connection to said movable portion at its other
to said platform, a cathode mounted at one side
of said resonator for supplying a stream of elec 15 end.
trons for passage through said regions, a plurality
of laterally extending supports secured to said
8. High frequency apparatus comprising a base,
an envelope rigid with said base, a plurality of
posts upstanding from said base within said en
cathode, an electrode mounted at the other side
velope, a support mounted on said posts, a hollow
of said resonator for reflecting said electron
stream into said resonator, a plurality of later 20 resonator mounted on said support, a cathode
structure mounted on said support in alignment
ally extending supports secured to said re?ector
with said resonator, a bridge extending across
electrode, and a plurality of rigid electrical in
the ends of said posts remote from said base, an
sulating bodies peripherally spaced about said
electrical insulating member ?xed to said bridge,
platform and secured to said lateral supports and
?xedly maintaining said cathode, resonator and 25 and an electrically conductive frequency con
trol member secured at opposite ends to said in
re?ector electrode in desired alignment.
sulating member and said resonator.
4. The apparatus de?ned in claim 3, including
9. High frequency apparatus comprising a base,
a. focusing electrode adjacent said cathode for
an envelope enclosing a space adjacent said base,
controlling said electron stream, and a plural
a plurality of post members projecting from said
ity of laterally ‘extending supports secured to said
base into said space, a support mounted on said
focusing electrode and to said rigid bodies.
5. High frequency apparatus comprising an
post members, a hollow resonator having electron
permeable regions mounted on said support,
electron emitter assembly, a hollow resonator
means fixed to said support for producing an elec
assembly and an electron repelling electrode as
tron stream for passage through said regions, a
sembly all mounted in predetermined alignment,
bridge extending across the ends of said post
a plurality of circumferentially spaced bodies of
members remote from said base, an electrical in
rigid electrical insulating material, and lateral
sulating member ?xed to said bridge, and an elec
supports projecting from said assemblies and se
trically conductive frequency control rod secured
cured to said bodies and individually attaching
said assemblies to said bodies.
4-0 at opposite ends to said insulating member and
6. High frequency electron discharge apparatus
said resonator.
DONALD L. SNOW.
comprising a base, a frame rigid with said base, a
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