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0a. 8, 1946.‘
2,408,824 v
A. A. VARELA
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IMPULSE GENERATOR
Filed Mar-ch 27, 1942
HLAMLWT
VOLTAGK
2 Sheets-‘Sheet 1
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Arthur A. Varela
Oct. 8, 19467
A, A, VARELA
2,408,824
IMPULSE GENERATOR
Filed March 27, 1942
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Arthur A’. Varela
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Patented Oct. 8, 1946
2,408,824
. UNITED I ‘1 STATES
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PATENT , OFFICEJ _@
2,408,824
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IMPULSE GENERATOR "
Arthur A. Varela, Washington, D. C.
Application March 27, 1942,’ Serial No. 436,483
26 Claims.
(01. 171-97)
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(Granted under the act of March-3,, 1,883, as ' f‘
amended April 30, 1928; 370 (_).'G.l757)
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This invention relates to electrical impulse
generators and more particularly to electricalap
paratuses for generating rectangular or ?at
topped wave forms.
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vention, reference‘ being had to the appended
claims for the latter'purpose.
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In the drawings, wherein similar reference
characters denote similar parts throughoutthe
.
There has been a long need in the art for rela
severalviews:
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tively simple, highly e?icient novel means capa
ble of generating'high voltage electrical impulses
electrical impulse generator embodying the prin
of rectangular wave forms that may be utilized
ciples of the present invention;
for controlling operation of Various high frequen
cy electrical apparatuses, such as high frequency 10
oscillators for example.
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The principal object of the present invention'is
to provide such means.
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Another object is to provide an electrical im
pulse generator capableof producing high volt
age electrical impulses of rectangular wave form
from a relatively lower voltage source.
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Another object is to provide‘an impulse ‘gen
erator having the foregoing characteristics which
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration. of an
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Fig. 2v is a diagrammatic showing of another
embodiment ofthe invention;
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. Fig. ,3 is 'ar-diagrammatic showing of stillan
otherembo'diment ‘of the invention, and
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Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic illustration, partly-in
section, of 'a-novel device employed inlthe pres
ent invention.
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:With reference more particularly to Fig. '1 of
the drawings, an electrical impulse generator
embodying the principlesof the present inven-'
tion is'disclo‘sed therein includin'ga pluralityof
arti?cial lines such as multi-section, low pass
?lter networks [0, H and I2. Networks I0, II
and ‘I2 may,v be of conventional construction and
includes novel means for periodically generating
such electrical impulses.
Another object is to provide an electrical im
pulse generator of the above type capable of pro
are disclosed herein ‘including a plurality of seri
ducing electrical‘ impulses at a rate controlled
ally: connected inductances l3,‘ with a'plurality
by a predetermined synchronizing source.
25 'of ‘capacitances' l4- connected in parallel relation
Still another object of the invention is to pro
therewith, thus forming ?lter‘ networks of the
vide an electrical impulse generator having a
constant 70 type. Each of the ?lter networks
further includes high and low potential input
plurality of arti?cial electrical lines with poten
tial storing characteristics, with an arrangement
and output terminals; the high and low input
for continually charging the linesywith a source
potential terminals of the'networks are respec
of potential in parallel relation and for auto
tively designated at A'and B, while the high and
matically periodically serially discharging the
low potential output terminals are respectively
lines through an impedance whereby the dis
designated at C and D, with the designations rep‘
charge current remains substantially constant
resenting the terminals ‘of network ll being
primed numerals while the numerals represent
for a time interval determined by the electrical
lengths of the lines.
ing the terminals of network l2 have double
Still another object is to provide an impulse
primes. Capacitances l4, ‘of network ‘ID, are
generator of the foregoing type wherein the arti
charged with potential through a decoupling im
?cial lines comp-rise low pass constant k ?lter
pedance,_ such as resistance l5, from a source of
networks, the capacitances of which are charged 40 potential applied to input terminals l5 and I1.
with potential in parallel relation and serially
Output terminals ;C and D, of ?lter network 10,
discharged.
are connected through suitable impedanc'es, such
Still another object is to provide novel means
as-resistances l8, [8, to the input terminals A’,
in serially connecting the ?lter networks of an
B’ of network ll, while ‘outputterminals C’ and
impulse generator of the above character, which 45 D’ of the latter network are connected to input
is capable to synchronously serially connect a
terminals A" and B" of ?lter network I2 by
plurality of ?lter networks.
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means of resistances l9, l9.‘ With the foregoing
Other objects and features of the invention will
arrangement, capacitances I4 of‘?lter networks
‘appear more'iully from the following detailed
Hi, I! and I2 are charged in parallelrelation
description when considered in connection with
from the source of potential applied to terminals
the accompanying drawings which disclose sev
16 and II. It is to be expressly understood that
eral embodiments of the invention. It is to be
:any desired number of ?lter networks may be
expressly understood, however, that the drawings
are designed for purposes of illustration only,
‘and rnotas a de?nition of the‘ limits of the in
connected in the above manner.
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.As mentioned heretofore, one of the objects of
the present invention is to provide an electrical
2,408,824
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impulse generator for producing high voltage
than one-half the potential value applied to ter
minals I8 and IT equal to the number of ?lter
electrical impulses of rectangular or ?at top wave
forms from a relatively low electrical source. it
is contemplated by the present invention to pro
vide means for serially discharging the potential
stored in ?lter networks In, H and I2, through
a suitable impedance, for maintaining a constant
potential, greater than the potential applied to
terminals l6 and I1, across the impedance for a
networks. To avoid an excessive voltage peak
at the start of discharge, it is desirable to employ
mid-series termination of the ?lter networks.
This is accomplished by including inductance 24
in the discharge circuit.
In order to obtain rectangular or flat top volt~
age forms of still greater amplitude, with respect
period of time determined by the electrical 110 to the potential applied to terminal IE or 11, re
lengths of the ?lter networks. Such means, as
sistance 23 may be increased to a value greater
shown in Fig. 1, comprises a plurality of suitable
than the characteristic impedance of the ?lter
discharge devices, such as spark gaps 20, “2| and
networks. Under these conditions, the voltage
22, which function to automatically periodically
across resistance 23, upon discharge of the ?lter
discharge the ?lter networks in series with an im 15 networks, will be substantially constant for a
pedance, such as resistance 23. One electrode of
time interval equal to n/LC/3, and of an am
spark gap 20 is connected to high potential ter
minal C of network |0 while the other electrode
thereof is connected to low potential input ter
plitude equal to
momentary differential between the potentials
at the electrodes of spark gap 2| to thus initiate
discharge‘thereof. ‘Filter networks IO, N and H
manner noted heretofore‘, capacitances 14 in
R
minal B’ of network | |. The electrodes of spark 20
.gap 2| are respectively connected to terminal C’
where ‘Ec isthe potential charge of condensers It,
of network II and terminal B" of network 12,
It is the value of discharge resistance 23, and Z
while one electrode .of spark gap ‘22 is connected
the characteristic impedance of ?lter sections
to high potential output terminal C", through
H)‘, H and I2. After lapse of the discharge time
inductance 24, the purpose of which ‘will appear
interval
the voltage across resistance 23 abruptly
more fully hereinafter. The other electrode of
drops from the value given by the above formula
spark gap 22 is connectedto one end of resistance
and then varies to zero potential. It is to be ex
23, while the other end of the‘latter is electrically
pressly understood, however, that the voltage
connected to low ‘potential output terminal D of
forms generated in the foregoing manner are
network l0.
30 substantially constant for the discharge interval
When the potentials across capacitances l4
of the ?lter networks, with an abrupt decrease in
reach a su?lcient value, a difference in ‘potential
amplitude to a value less than the constant am
appeal-sat the electrodes of spark gap 2|) to cause
plitude value, after lapse of such time interval.
the latter to discharge, and thus to increase the
potential at terminal B’ to a value substantially : As will appear more fully hereinafter, an oscil
lator load, or the load of any electrical device,
equal to the potential at terminal C. Such an
may be made to cease functioning upon such
increase in potential propagates through net
abrupt decrease in amplitude.
work 'II to apply a proportional increase in po
In operation of the electrical impulse generator
tential at terminals C’ and B”. The increase in
disclosed in Fig. l, a constant source of potential
potential at terminal B” will lag a similar in- .
is continually applied to input terminals It and
crease in potential at terminal C" since resist
I1. Since the input and output terminals of ?lter
ance I9 is positioned between terminals D’ and
networks H), l! and I2 are interconnected in a
B". Such a lag in potential increase causes a
are thus connected in such a manner to cause
the capacitances included therein to serially dis
charge through spark gaps 20 and 2|. The total
potential of the ?lter network ‘is ‘thus applied to .
one electrode of spark gap 22, from terminal C", "
to cause discharge at the latter spark gap and
to thus serially discharge the total energy of the
?lter networks through resistance 23.
It has been found that when an arti?cial elec- .
trical line, ‘such as a'low pass ?lter network of the
type disclosed, is charged with a considerable
potential and then discharged through an im
pedance equal to the characteristic-impedance of
the line, that the discharged current remains _
substantially constant for an interval of time it"
determined by the electrical length of the line,
and then abruptly decreases to zero. During
such time the voltage across the impedance is
substantially constant, of a magnitude approxi
mately equal to one-half the ‘potential at which '
the line was charged. When ?lter networks IO,
M and H are serially discharged through resist
once 23, the discharge current remains substan
tially constant for a- period of time approximate
ly equal to n/LC/B, where ‘L and C are the unit
inductance and capacitance values of the net
works.
During such time interval the voltage
across resistance 23 remains substantially con
stant, at an amplitude a number of times greater
E°<Z~TR>
cluded in each of the networks are charged in
parallel relation ,from the applied potential.
When the charge on capacitances M reach a suf
?cient value, spark gaps 20, 2| and 22 auto‘
matically progressively discharge to serially con
nect ?lter networks [0, II and I2 with resistance
23. For the reasons mentioned heretofore sub
stantially constant current flows through resist
ance123 for a period of time determined by the
electrical ‘lengths of the ?lter networks, during
which time substantially constant voltage is
maintained across the resistance. When the dis~
charged time of the generator lapses, capacitances
M are again charged in parallel relation from
the potential source applied to terminals l6 and
H until a sufficient charge is obtained to cause
spark gaps 20, 2| and 22 to again discharge. It
is to be expressly understood, therefore, that with
the foregoing construction electrical impulses of
rectangular or flat top wave forms are periodi
cally generated across resistance 23 at a prede
termined rate determined by the values of the
circuit elements. Such wave forms, by the proper
selection of the value of resistance 23, may com
prise voltage amplitudes a number of times
greater than the value of the potential applied
at terminal l6 and IT.
Another embodiment of the invention is shown
in Fig. 2. In this embodiment choke coils 24::
are employed to connect the input and output ter
minals of ?lter networks H), II and I2 instead of
resistances l8 and. | 9 utilized in the generator
2,408,824
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disclosed in 'Fig. 1. Also, choke coil 251s utilized
as the decoupling impedance between terminal l6
and input terminal A of ?lter network H1. The
use of choke coils 24a .andy25 is shown in order
torillustr-ate the variety of coupling impedances
6
ment the ?lter networks H], H and ‘I2 are em;
ployed and are interconnected in a manner sim
ilar to the arrangement disclosed in Fig. 2.
However, rotary spark gaps 4'4, 45 and 46 vare
provided for connecting filter networks l0, H
and I2 in series relation during discharge'there
of. More particularly, stationary electrodes 4‘!
and 48, ofspark gap 44, are connectedgt‘o ter
minals C and 13'; electrodes 49 and 50', of spark
that may be employed to thus obtain various op
erating. frequencies. In the instant case, the time
constant of choke coils 24a and the ?lter section
capacities are to be relatively large with respect
to the discharged time of the ?lter networks in 10 gap 45, are respectively connected to terminals
order to maintain the discharged current through
C’ and B", while electrode 5|, of spark gap 46,
the choke coils at a relatively small value.‘
is connected through inductance 24 to terminal
As stated heretofore, means are provided by
C” and electrode 52 of the latter spark gap is
the present invention for ‘generating electrical
connected to resistance 23. Each of the spark
impulses of rectangular wave form in accordance 15 gaps 44, 45 and 46 have a rotary electrode 53,
with a suitable synchronizing source whereby.
54 and 55 respectively associated therewith. The
pulses may be‘obtained at a very high rate. As,
rotary electrodes are mounted on shaft 56, which
shown in Fig. 2, such means comprises. gaseous
is rotated at a suitable speed by means of motor
discharge tubes 26 and 21 which are adapted to
51, to cause the spark gaps to discharge at a
connect ?lter networks III, II and 12 in such a 20 predetermined rate. When the spark gaps are
manner to ‘serially discharge the ?lter networks
simultaneously discharged, the ‘electrical energy
in accordance with a suitable synchronizing
stored in ?lter networks H), II and I2 is serially
source. Plate 28, of .tube 26, is connected to high
discharged through resistance 23, and substan-'
potential output terminal C of ?lter l6, while ?la
tially rectangular voltage wave forms are gener
, ment 29 thereof. is connected to low potential 25 ated across the resistance in a manner similar
input terminal B’ of network ll. vPlate 30 and
?lament 3 I, of tube 21, are respectively connected
to the high and low output and input terminals
to operation of the impulse generators described
heretofore. Condensers 58 and 59, respectively
connected across the stationary electrodes of‘
spark gaps 44 and 45, are employed for a purpose
tube 26 is rendered conducting, the potential 30 similar to- the purpose of condensers 58 and 59
C’ and B" of ?lter networks H and [2. When
charge of ‘filter network I 6 ?ows through tube
26 .to terminal B’ of network ll, while the com
bined potentials of networks [0 and I I are applied
to terminal B" of network I2, when tube 21 is
rendered conducting. Filaments 29 and 3|‘ are 35
previously described with reference to Fig. '2,
formers 32 and 33, while choke ‘coils 34 and 35
are associated with each of‘ the ?lament circuits
the rotary electrodes of the spark gaps are con
nected to ground potential through a suitable
supplied with suitable potential through trans
to provide proper synchronization of the system.
in order to produce a high surge of current at
the instant the spark gaps discharge to thus
synchronize discharge of the spark gaps.
In order to further improve the ‘synchroniza
tion of discharge of spark gaps 44, 45 and 46
capacitance. As shown, rotary electrodes 53, 54
Choke coils 34 and 35 are to have a time constant 40 and 55 are respectively connected to ground po.
substantially equal to the time constant of choke V
tential through capacitances 60. 6t ' and 62.
coils 24a. Control grids 36 and 3I,'of tubes 26
When spark gap 44‘ discharges, the‘ stationary
and 26 respectively, are connected to, the output
electrodes of‘v spark gaps 45 and 46 will abruptly
of transformer 38 and to a suitable bias supply
increase in potentiaL'while the rotary electrodes
39. A synchronizer voltage is applied to the input 45 54 and 55 thereof will receive ‘an increase in ‘po
of transformer 38 in order to render tubes 26 and
tential determined by the values of capacitances
21 conducting at a predetermined rate. Grids 36
SI and 62. If capacitances 6| and 62 are of sub
and 31 are connected together through impedance
stantially large value, the increase in potential
40 which functions to produce a time delay be
at rotary electrodes 54 and 55 will be‘ less than
tween .the application of similar voltages thereto, 50 the potential increase at the stationary elec
thus insuring the discharge through tube 26 prior
trodes by an amount proportional to the capaci
to a similar operation of tube 21. Condensers 58
tances values. With the foregoing arrangement,
and 59, respectively connected across the plate
a relatively large 'diiference in potential at the
and ?lament of tubes 26 and 21, function .to pro..
stationary and rotary electrodes ‘of spark gaps
duce a high surge of current at the instant tubes 65 4-5 and 46 appears at the instant spark ‘gap 44
26 and.21 are rendered conducting to thus de
’ crease the time for serially connecting the ?lter
networks while maintaining the proper synchro
nization. With this arrangment, ?lter networks
In, H and I2 are caused to serially discharge at
a periodic rate controlled by the synchronizing
voltage applied to transformer 38.
The impulse generator disclosed in Fig. 2 is
shown interconnected with a high frequency oscil
lator 4| in such a manner that intermittent flow 65
of constant current is applied thereto at a rate
controlled by the synchronizing voltage. More
particularly, the high potential output terminal
C" of network I2 is connected through induct
ance 24 to the plates of tubes 42 and 43 of the
oscillator. The series discharge circuit is com~
pleted through tubes 42 and 43 to the low poten
tial terminal of network Hi.
'In Fig. 3 a still'further embodiment of the
present invention is disclosed. In this embodi
discharges. Such potential diiferential causes
spark gaps 45 and 46 to progressively discharge
immediately following the discharge of spark
gap 44,
.
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In Fig. 4 of the drawings a rotor including
the rotary electrodes of spark gaps 44, 45 and
46 'is disclosed including means providing the
potential differentials mentioned heretofore. .. As
shown, the rotor comprises a metallic shaft 63
A cylindrical
sleeve 64, of insulating material having circum
ferential corrugations on the periphery thereof,
which is rotated by motor 51.
is mounted on shaft 63 and is adapted to rotate
therewith. Rotary electrodes 53. 54‘ and 55 are
secured to the outer periphery of metallic bands
65 which are mounted on sleeve 64.
With this
construction, a'certain capacity "exists. between
metallic bands 65 and metallic shaft 63 and thus
provides the advantageous results obtained from
2,408,824
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use of "capacitances 60, SI and 62 as shown in
Fig. 3.
There is thus provided by the present invention
a ‘novel electrical ‘impulse generator for producing
high voltage impulses of rectangular or fiat top
wave forms from a relatively lower voltage source.
The impulse generators utilize a plurality of ar_
ti?cial lines, such as low pass, constant k ?lter
ing said capacitancemeans in ‘parallel relation,
a discharge circuit including an impedance, and
means serially discharging said lines through said
discharge circuit for applying a constant poten
tial across said impedance for a period of ‘time
determined by the electrical lengths of said lines.
5. A periodic wave repeater for producing out
put pulses comprising a plurality of arti?cial
networks having potential storing characteristics,
lines, capacitance means included ‘in each of said
which are adapted to be charged with a source 110 lines, means applying a source of potential to
or potential in parallel relation and discharged
in series through an ‘impedance. Several ar
rangements are disclosed and described herein
for serially connecting the outputs of certain of
the ?lter networks to the inputs'of certain other
of the networks for serially discharging the net
works through the impedance, with novel means
associated with such discharge devices for in
suring synchronous operation thereof. The imi
pulse generators disclosed by the present inven
tion are of such character that the same may be
utilized for applying impulses of the proper wave
forms and of sufficient amplitude to adequately
control operation of various high frequency elec
trical apparatuses, such as high frequency oscil~
lators for example.
said lines for ‘charging said capacitance means
in parallel relation, a discharge circuit including
an impedance, ‘and means periodically discharg~
ing said lines ‘in series relation through said dis
charge circuit for periodically applying a con
stant potential across said impedance .for a period
of time determined by the electrical lengths of
said lines.
6. An electrical ‘impulse generator comprising
20 a plurality of arti?cial lines having potential
storing characteristics, a source of potential,
means charging said lines in parallel relation
from said source, a discharge circuit including an
impedance, means serially discharging said lines
through said discharge circuit for applying a
constant potential across said impedance for a
Although several embodiments of the invention
period of time determined by the electrical length
have been disclosed and described in detail herein,
of said lines, and last-named means including
it is ‘to be expressly understood that various
means positioned between certain of said lines for
changes and submitutions may be made therein 30 automatically connecting 'said lines in series re
without departing from the spirit of the inver
lation with said discharge circuit when the po
tion as well understood by those skilled in the
tential stored in said lines reaches a predeter
art. Reference therefore will be had to the ap
mined value.
_
pended claims as a de?nition of the limits of the
7/ An electrical impulse generator comprising
invention.
so L1 a plurality of arti?cial lines having potential
The invention described herein may be manus
storing characteristics, each of said lines having
factured and used by or for the Government of
high and low input and output terminals, means
the United States of America, for governmental
connecting the output terminals of certain of said
purposes without the payment of any royalties
lines to the input terminals of other of said lines,
thereon or therefor.
40 means'applying a source of potential to the input
I claim:
terminals of one of said lines for charging said
1. An electrical impulse generator comprising
lines in parallel relation, a discharge circuit hav
a plurality of arti?cial lines having potential
ing an impedance connected between the high
storing characteristics, means charging said lines
potential output terminal of another of said lines
in parallel relation from a source of potential, a -‘ '; and the low potential output terminal of said
discharge circuit having an impedance, and
one line, and means serially discharging said lines
means serially discharging said lines through said
through said discharge circuit for applying a con
discharge circuit for applying a constant voltage
‘stant potential across said impedance for a pe
across said impedance for a period of time de
riod of time determined by the electrical length
termined by the electrical length of said lines.
of said lines.
2. An electrical impulse generator comprising
8. An electrical impulse generator comprising
a. plurality of arti?cial lines having potential
a plurality of arti?cial lines having potential
storing characteristics, means charging said lines
storing characteristics, each of said lines having
in parallel relation from a source of potential, a
high and low input and output terminals, means
discharge circuit having an impedance, and
interconnecting certain of said input and output
means serially discharging said lines through said
terminals for connecting said lines in parallel
impedance for applying a constant voltage, great
relation, means applying a source of potential to
or than the potential of said source, across said
the input terminals of the ?rst line of said par
impedance for a period of time determined by
allel connected lines for charging said lines in
the electrical length of said lines.
parallel relation, ‘a discharge circuit having an
3. A periodical wave repeater for producing
impedance connected between the high potential
output pulses comprising a plurality of arti?cial
output terminal of the last line of said parallel
electrical lines having potential storing charac
connected
lines and the low potential output ter
teristics, a source of potential for charging said
lines in parallel relation, a discharge circuit hav- I ' minal of said ?rst line, and means connecting
the high potential output terminal of certain of
ing an impedance, and means periodically dis
said lines to the low potential input terminal of
charging said lines in series relation through said
the next line of said parallel connected lines
discharge circuit for periodically applying a con
when the potentials at said output terminals
stant potential, greater than said source, across
said impedance for a period of time determined 70 reach a predetermined value for serially dis
by the electrical lengths of said lines.
charging said lines through said discharge cir
4. An electrical impulse generator comprising
cuit whereby a substantially constant potential is
applied across said impedance for a period of
a plurality of arti?cial lines, capacitance means
time determined by the electrical length of said
included in each of ‘said lines, means applying a
source of potential to each of said lines for charg 75 lines.
2,408,824
9. An electrical impulse generator comprising
a plurality of arti?cial lines having potential
storing characteristics, each of said lines having
high and low input and output terminals, means
interconnecting certain of said input and output
terminals for connecting said lines in parallel
relation, means applying a source of potential to
10
parallel relation, means applying a source of po
tential to the input'terminals of the ?rst line of
said parallel connected lines for charging the ca
pacitance means included in said lines in parallel
: relation, a discharging circuit having an imped
ance connected between the output of the last
line or said parallel connected lines and said ?rst
the input terminals of the ?rst line of said par,
line, and a spark gap connected between. the high
allel connected lines ‘for charging said lines in
potential output terminals of certain of said lines
parallel relation, a discharge circuit having an 10 and between the low input potential terminals of
impedance connected between the high potential
the next lines of . said parallel connected lines,‘
output terminal of the last line of said parallel
said spark gap adapted to discharge when the PO
connected lines and the low potential output ter
tential at said high output terminals reach a pre
minal of said ?rst line, a spark gap connected
determined value for serially discharging said ca
between the high potential output terminal of
pacitance means through said discharge circuit
certain of said lines and the low potential input
whereby a substantially constant potential is ap
terminal of the next line of said parallel con
plied across said impedance for a period of time
nected lines, said spark gaps adapted to discharge
determined by the ‘electrical lengths of said lines.
when the potentials at said high potential output
13. An electrical impulse generator comprising‘
terminals reach a predetermined value for se 20 a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plu
rially discharging said lines through said dis
rality of serially connected inductance means
charge circuit whereby a substantially constant
with ya plurality of capacitance means con-l
potential is applied across the said impedance for
nected in parallel relation therewith, each of
said lines having high and low potential input
a period of time determined by the electrical
lengths of said lines.
25 and output terminals, means interconnecting said
10. An electrical impulse generator comprising
input and output terminals, means continually
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plural~
ity of serially connected inductance means with
a plurality of capacitance means connected in
parallel relation therewith, each of said lines hav 30
applying a source of potential to the input ter
minals of the ?rst line of said connected lines for
charging said capacitance means included in said.
lines in ‘parallel relation, a discharge circuit hav
ing high and low potential input and output ter
ing an impedance connected between the output
of the last line of said connected lines and said
minals, means interconnecting said lines in par~
?rst line, and means periodically discharging said
allel relation, means applying a source of poten
capacitance means of eachof said lines in series
tial to the input terminals of the ?rst line of said
parallel ccnnected lines for charging the capaci 35 relation through said discharge circuit for pe
riodically applying a substantially constant po
tance means included in said lines in parallel re
tential across said impedance for a period or time
lation, a discharging circuit having an impedance
determined by the electrical lengths of said lines.
connected between the output of the last line of
14. An electrical impulse generator comprising
said parallel connected lines and said ?rst line,
and means serially discharging said capacitance 40 a plurality of low pass ?lter networks, means con
' means through said discharge circuit for apply
necting said networks in parallel relation, means
applying a source. of potential to the ?rst net
ing a substantially constant potential across said
impedance for a period of time determined by the
work of said parallel connected networks for
electrical lengths of said lines.
,
charging said networks in parallel relation, a dis
11. An electrical impulse generator comprising
charge circuit having an impedance connected
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plural
between the output of the last network of said
ity of serially connected inductance means with a
parallel ‘connected networks and said ?rst net
work, and means serially discharging the poten
plurality of capacitance means connected in par
tial stored in said networks through said dis
allel‘ relation therewith, each of said lines having
high and low potential input and output termi 50 charge circuit for applying a substantially con
stant potential across said impedance for a period
nals, means interconnecting said lines in parallel
relation, means applying a source of potential to
of time determined by the characteristics of said
networks.
,
the input terminals of the ?rst line of said par
15. An electrical impulse generator comprising
allel connected lines for charging the capacitance
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plu
means included in said lines in parallel relation, a
discharging circuit having an impedance con
rality of serially connected inductance means
with a plurality of capacitance means connected
nected between the output of the last line of said
parallel connected lines and said ?rst line, and
in parallel relation therewith, each of said lines
means connecting the high potential output ter
having high and low potential input and output
minal of certain of said lines to the low potential 60 terminals, means interconnecting said lines in
input terminals of the next lines of said parallel
parallel relation, means applying a source of po
connecting lines when the potentials at said out
tential to the input terminals of the ?rst line of
put terminals reach a predetermined value for
said parallel connected lines for charging the ca.-v
serially discharging said lines through said dis
pacitance means included in said lines in parallel
charge circuit whereby a substantially constant
relation, a discharging circuit having an imped
potential is applied across said impedance for
ance connected between the output of the last line
a period of time determined by the electrical
‘ of said parallel connected lines and said ?rst line,
lengths of said lines.
a discharge device connected between the high '
12. An electrical impulse generator comprising
potential output terminals of certain of said lines
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plu
and between the low potential output terminals
rality of serially connected inductance means
of the next line of said parallel connected lines,
with a plurality of capacitance means connected
means periodically discharging said devices for
in parallel relation therewith, each of said lines
serially discharging the capacitance means in
having high and low potential input and output
cluded in each of said lines through said dis
terminals, means interconnecting said lines in 75 charge circuit whereby a substantially constant
2,408,824
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11
for periodically rendering said devices conduct
ingfor serially discharging the total capacitance
potential, greater than the potential of said
source, is periodically applied across said imped
ance for a period of time determined by the 6160'?
trical lengths of said lines.
means, included in each of said lines through said
discharge circuit whereby a substantially con
stant potential,» for a period of time determined
by the electrical lengths of said lines, is periodi
cally applied across said impedance, and means
‘
16. An electrical impulse generator comprising
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plu
rality of serially connected inductance means with
synchronizing the discharge of said devices
a plurality of capacitance means connected in
whereby the devices progressively discharge for
parallel relation therewith, each of said lines
having high and low potential input and output 10 progressively connecting said lines in series rela
terminals, means interconnecting said lines in
tion,
19. An electrical impulse generator comprising
parallel relation, means applying a source of po
a plurality of arti?cial lines having a plurality of
serially connected inductance means with a plu
rality or capacitance means connected in parallel
tential to the input terminals of the ?rst line of
said parallel connected lines for charging the
capacitance means included in said lines in paral
lel relation, a discharge circuit having an im
pedance connected between the output of the last
relation therewith, each of said lines, having high
and low, potential input and output terminals,
means interconnecting said lines in parallel rela
tion, means applying a source of potential to the
input terminals of; the‘ ?rst line of said parallel
line of said parallel connected lines, and said
?rst line, an electron discharge device connected
between the high potential output terminals of
certain of‘ said lines and between the. low poten
tial, input terminals of the. next line of said paral
connected lines, for charging the capacitance
means included in said lines in parallel relation,
a‘ discharging; circuit having an impedance con
nected between the output of the last line of said
lel connected lines, and. means periodically ren
dering said devices conducting for serially dis~
charging the capacitance, means include-:1 in each
_ parallel connected lines and saidr?rlst line, a pin
of said lines through said discharge circuit where
rality of discharge devices having a rotary elec
trode and a pair of stationary electrodes asso
ciated.v with, said rotary electrode, means connect
ing one of the stationary electrodes of each of
bya substantially constant potential, greater than
the potential of said source, is periodically ap
plied across said impedance for a period of time
determined by the electrical lengths of said lines.
said devices to the high potential output terminal
of, certain of said lines and the other stationary
17,. An electrical impulse generator comprising
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a pinrality. of serially connected inductance. means
electrode of each of said devices to the low poten
tial input terminal of the next line of said paral
lel connected lines, and means rotating said rotary
witha plurality of capacitancemeans connected
a predetermined rate of speed for
in parallel relation, therewith, each. of said lines 35 electrodes
periodically progressively discharging said de
having high and low potential, input and output
vices whereby said lines are periodically serially
terminals, means interconnectingsaid lines in.
discharged through said discharge circuit for
parallelv relation, means, applying a source. of po
periodically producing a substantially constant
tential tQtheinput terminals of the. ?rst line of
said, parallel connected lines for charging the 40 potential across said impedance for a period of
capacitance means included in said; lines in.paral~
time determinedby the electrical lengths of said
lel. relation, 2., discharging circuit having an im
pedance. connected, between‘ the. output of the
last line of. said parallel connected lines and said.
lines.
20. An electrical impulse generator comprising
first line, an electron discharge.deviceconnected
between the. high. potential output terminals of
certain. of said. lines and. between thelow poten
tial, input terminals. of theinext llnerof. said.paral-.
rality of serially connected, inductance means
with a, plurality of capacitance means connected
in parallel relation, therewith, each of said linea
lelconnected lines, and a source. of synchronizing.
terminals, means interconnecting said lines in
voltage for. periodically rendering said. devices
conducting, for serially discharging the‘ capaci
a plurality of arti?cial lineseach having a plu
having high and low potential, input and output
50 parallel relation, means applying a source of po
tance means included ineach ofsaidtlineslthrough
said discharge circuit whereby a substantially
constant potential, for. a period of. time. deter
mined by the electrical lengths of said lines, is
periodically applied across. said impedance.
18. An electrical‘ impulsegenerator comprising
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plu
rality of, serially, connected inductancei means
with a plurality of‘capacitance means connected 60
in. parallel relation therewith, each of- said lines
having. high and low potential input and. output terminals, means interconnecting said lines in
parallel relation, means applying a. source of po
tential to the» input terminals of‘the?rst, line of
said parallel connected lines,- for charging the
capacitancemeans included in said linesin paral-
tential, to the-input terminals of_ the, first, line of,
said parallel connected lines; for charging the
capacitance means included inlsaid lines in paral
lel relation, a, discharge. circuit having an im
pedance connected, between the‘ output of the
last line of- said parallelconnected linesland said
first-line, a, plurality of, discharge devices having
a rotary electrode and a pair of stationary elec
trodes associated with said rotary electrode,
means connecting one of the stationary electrodes
of each of said devices to the high potential out,
put terminal of‘ certain of said lines and theother
stationary electrode of each of, said’ devices to,
the low potential input terminal of they next line
of said parallel connected‘ lines, means rotating
said rotary electrodes at apredetermined rate; of
speed for periodically progressively discharging
- lel relation, av discharge circuit having an im~
said devices whereby said lines are periodically
pedance connected between the Qutputofthe last
serially discharged throughsaid discharge; circuit
line ofsaid parallel connected‘ lines andsaid ?rst,
line, an electron discharge device connected be
tween the high potential output terminals of cer~
tain of, said lines and between the low potential
input terminals of the next linev of said parallel
connected lines, asource of synchronizingveltage.
for periodically producing a substantially con
stant potential across said- impedance for a period,
of time determined by the electrical lengths of
said'lines, and a condenser connected, between
each of said rotary electrodes and ground poten
tial for synchronizing discharge ofsaid devices.
2,408,824
14
13
21. An electrical impulse generator comprising
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plu
rality of serially connected inductance means
with a plurality of capacitance means connected
in parallel relation therewith, each of said lines
having high and low potential input and output
terminals,
is interconnecting said lines in
parallel relation, means applying a source of po
tential to the input terminals of ‘the ?rst line of
said parallel connected lines for charging the
capacitance means included in said lines in par
allel relation, a discharge circuit having an im
pedance connected between the output of the last
line of said parallel connected lines and said ?rst
line, a plurality of discharge devices having a
terminals, means interconnecting said lines in
parallel relation, means applying a source of
potential to the input terminals of the ?rst line
of said parallel connected lines for charging the
capacitance means included in said- lines in par
allel relation, a discharging circuit having an im
pedance connected between the output of the last
line of said parallel connected lines and said ?rst
line, discharge means connecting the high poten
tial output terminal of certain of said lines to the
low potential input terminals of the next lines of
said parallel connected lines when the potentials
said output terminals reach a predetermined
value for serially discharging said lines through
discharge circuit whereby a substantially
constant potential is applied across said. imped
rotary electrode and a‘ pair of stationary elec
ance for a period of time determined by the elec
trodes associated with said rotary electrode,
trical lengths of said lines, and a condenser con
means connecting One of the stationary electrodes
nected across each of said discharge means for
of each of said devices to the high potential out
synchronizing discharge of said devices.
put terminal of certain of said lines and the other
24. An electrical impulse generator comprising
stationary electrode of each of said devices to the
a
plurality
of low pass ?lter networks, means con
low potential input terminal of the next line of
necting said networks in parallel relation, means
said parallel connected lines~ an electrical
applying a source of potential to the ?rst network
grounded rotating shaft for simultaneously ro
tating said rotary electrodes at a predetermined 25 of said parallel connected networks for charging
said networks in parallel relation, a discharge
speed for progressively discharging said devices
circuit having an impedance connected between
whereby said lines are periodically serially dis
the output of the last network of said parallel
charged through said discharge circuit for peri
connected networks and said ?rst network, means
odically producing a substantially constant po
tential across said impedance for a period of time 30 serially discharging the potential stored in said
networks through said discharge circuit for ap
determined by the electrical lengths of said lines,
plying a substantially constant potential across
and capacitance means positioned between said
said impedance for a period of time determined
shaft and said rotary electrodes for synchroniz
by the electrical characteristics of said networks,
ing discharge of said devices.
and means included in said discharge circuit for
35
22. An electrical impulse generator comprising
producing mid-series termination of said net
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plu
works whereby excessive voltage ?ow is prevented
rality of serially connected inductance means
at instant said networks are discharged
with a plurality of capacitance means connected
25. An apparatus for synchronously discharg
in parallel relation therewith, each of said lines
ing a plurality of electrical systems comprising a
having high and low potential input and output
plurality of discharge devices, each of said devices
terminals, means interconnecting said lines in
comprising a pair of ?xed electrodes and third
parallel relation, means applying a source of po
electrode means rotatably mounted to periodi
tential to the input terminals of the ?rst line
caily establish a discharge circuit between the as
of said parallel connected lines for charging the
sociated pair of fixed electrodes and means for
45
capacitance means included in said lines in par
simultaneously rotating the third electrode
allel relation, a discharging circuit having an im
means and periodically discharging the electrical
pedance connected between the output of the
systems including an electrically grounded shaft
last line of said parallel connected lines and said
rotatable at a predetermined rate of speed, a
?rst line, an electron discharge device connected
sleeve of insulating material positioned on said
between the high potential output terminals of 50 shaft, and metallic collars mounted on said sleeve
certain of said lines and between the low poten
for carrying the third electrode means, the shaft,
tial input terminals of the next line of said paral
insulating sleeve and collars constituting a sta
lel connected lines, means periodically rendering
bilizing capacity for maintaining the rotary elec
said devices conducting for serially discharging
trode means at ground potential for establishing
the total capacitance means included in each of 55 a discharge between the fixed electrodes by dis
said lines through said discharge circuit whereby
charge to the rotary electrodes across the poten
a substantially constant potential, greater than
tial of the ?xed electrodes to ground.
the potential of said source, is periodically ap
26. A periodical wave repeater for producing
plied across said impedance for a period of time
output
pulses comprising potential storing elec
determined by the electrical lengths of said lines, 60 trical circuit means, potential supply means for
and a condenser connected between the input
and output of each of said devices for accelerat
ing and synchronizing the serial discharge of said
charging the storing circuit means, and a dis
charge circuit including a load impedance con
nected across the storing circuit means through
capacitance means.
'
synchronous discharge means comprising a pair
65
23. An electrical impulse generator comprising
of ?xed electrodes and third electrode means ro
a plurality of arti?cial lines each having a plu
tatably mounted on a shaft for periodically estab
lishing a circuit between the ?xed electrodes to
railty of serially connected inductance means
discharge the storing circuit means through the
with a plurality of capacitance means connected
load impedance,
in parallel relation therewith, each of said lines
having high and low potential input and output 70
ARTHUR A. VARELA.
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