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Oct- 8, 1946-’
-
c. c. WHITTAKER
'
‘
SWITCHING
2,403,837 ,
MEANS
Filed March ‘18, 1944
I
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
29
43
45
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4! ,
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WITNESSES:
'
‘ ‘
f8
INVENTOR
Char/es dlf’?/fl‘aie/f
BY
.
.
00M (9, Wu
ATTORNEY
Oct. 8, 1946.
2,408,837
c. c. WHlT'TAKER
‘
SWITCHING MEANS
Filed March 18, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
7-79. 3.
| |||||||||-o
WITNESSES:
wit/64,414,.“
4/8
67
‘
INVENTOR
I Char/es 6T W?/ffdker
BY
Pdfl
.
ATTORNEY
Patented Oct. 8, 1946
2,408,837
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,837
SWITCHING MEANS
Charles C. Whittaker, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts
burgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application March 18, 1944, Serial-No. 527,050
‘
'7 Claims.
(c1. 200-—s5)
2
1
in longitudinal section, of a pneumatically op
My invention relates to control apparatus, and
more particularly to a pneumatically operable
erable switch;
Fig. 2 is a front view of certain upper parts,
looking in the direction indicated by the arrows
at the ends of line II—II of the showing in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the showing of Fig. 1;
time delay switch.
The Government of the United States has been
granted a certain royalty-free license for gov
ernmental purposes with respect to the invention
herein described.
The present war has brought into use the elec
and
Fig. 4 is a schematic showing of one applica
tion of my time delay switch, the one application
trically driven torpedo but in such torpedoes for
certain operations gas ?asks are still necessary 10 being in connection with a propulsion control for
for the operation of certain devices. While it is
an electrically operated torpedo.
ordinarily not important to provide for certain
To better understand my contribution to the
art reference may first be had to Fig. 4 showing
one illustrative application of my pneumatically
speci?c operations, as the disconnection of an
electric motor from the propulsion means, on the
?nal run, it does become rather important how
the system of control is utilized fora torpedo dur
ing practice runs.
In the electric torpedo now in use the pro
pulsion motor is connected to the battery, when
the torpedo is ?red, as soon as a trigger on the
torpedo is actuated by a dog in the ?ring tube.
The torpedo propulsion propellers thus often are
rotating before the torpedohad cleared the tube,
that is, the ‘propulsion propellers are up to full
speed or at least a relatively high speed by the
time the propellers pass the torpedo tube shut
ters.
‘
The connection of the propulsion motor is ef
fected by a pneumatically operated switch.
operated time limit switch.
In Fig. 4, the torpedo ?ring tube I is shown as
having a dog 2 for actuating the trigger 3 for
operating the starting valve 4 when the torpedo
5 is ?red from the tube I. For the operation of
the pneumatic devices, a gas ?ask ‘l, which may
contain air under high pressure as 3000 to 4000
pounds per square inch, is utilized. This ?ask is
connected to the valve 4 actuated by the starting
trigger 3 and, when opened, supplies air under
. pressure through ‘pipe, 8 to a four-way valve Brand
thence to the pneumatic switch It during one
stage of operation and for another stage of op
eration to the four-way valve 9, and thence
through the tube II to the interior of the prac
Since the few air ?asks or gas ?asks still used on 30 tice head 6.
v
A battery I 2 is utilized for supplying the energy
torpedoes carry gas at about 3000 pounds per
square inch, it is apparent that the pneumatic
switch has an extremely small time constant.
The instant the trigger on the torpedo is ac
to the propulsion motor [3,. This propulsion mo
tor I3 is of the series type having no commutat
ing poles but is controlled for operation at con
stant speed by the governor mechanism It for
tuated, the switch interconnecting the propulsion
shifting the brush ring I5 so that constant motor
motor and battery is actuated. Since the pro
speed is maintained.
peller blades are not loaded, not being in the
The four-way valve is also designed to be op
water, while still in the tube the propulsion mo.
erated by the governor mechanism to shift the
tor comes up to speed almost instantly.
One object of my invention is the provision of 40 four-way valve from the connection shown to
such a connection that the ?ask ‘l is connected
a delay in the starting of a torpedo motor after
to the chamber of the practice head and the con
?ring of a torpedo.
duit l6, for supplying the pneumatic switch with
A broad object of my invention is the pro
gas pressure, is connected to the pressure relief
vision of a time delay for a pneumatically actu
ated switch.
45 valve IT.
A better understanding of some of the details
It is also an object of my invention to prevent
of my invention can probably behad from a
rotation of the propellers of a torpedo while mov
study of typical sequence of operation during a
ing out of the ?ring tube while the torpedo is
practice run. This operation is as follows: The
being ?red.
The objects hereinbefore recited are merely i1 50 instant the torpedo is ?red, the trigger arm 3 is
actuated by the dog 2 and the starting valve 4 is
lustrative, because many other objects and ad
opened, whereupon gas from the ?ask ‘I is ad
vantages will become apparent from a study of
mitted under high pressure to the conduits 8 and
the following speci?cation and the accompany
8'. The conduit 8' leads to various devices on the
ing drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a side view, with some parts shown 55 torpedo not constituting part of the invention
0
2,408,837
3
. herein described.
4
The conduit 8 leads to the -
same clamping bolts, as shown, I dispose the
four-way valve 9 and as shown in the dotted lines
sleeves 25.
provides gas pressure to the pneumatically op
To the upper ends of the four sleeves 25, I
erated switch III which is thereupon, after a rela
connect the horizontal plate 26 for mounting the
tively short time interval, explained hereinafter, 01 bearings 21, 28 and 29. Bearing 21 supports the
operated to close the contacts I8 to thus establish
shaft for the pinion 3D and inertia member or
a circuit from the battery |2 through the motor
disc 3|. Bearing 28 supports the shaft for the
?eld winding l9, the motor armature, conductor
pinion 32 and spur gear 33. Bearing 29 provides
20, contacts I8 back to the battery I2. The mo
a pivot at the left for the gear sector 34.
tor thus, in a suitable time after the torpedo 1O
The gear sector 34 is so designed, being gen
leaves the ?ring tube, assumes the propulsion of
erally T-shaped, and so mounted on its bearing
the torpedo driving it, through suitable gyro
29 that it tends to rotate clockwise, but for the
scopic controls, towards the target. If a practice
position of the parts shown is prevented from ro
run is only contemplated, no war head is used,
tating in the clockwise direction by the link 35 of
but the practice head 6 is used.
the toggle mechanism 36 interconnected, or cou
The pneumatically operable switch comprises a
pled, to the gear section 34 and the movable con
nipple 41 to be connected to the conduit l5, and
a cylinder 48 for housing the piston 49, This
tacts 51.
To the mid portion of the contacts 51, I rigidly
piston is designed as a. valve at the region 50
connect a pair of vertically disposed arms 31. At
and coacts with the valve seat 5| in the region
the upper end of these arms 31 and disposed be
01' the mid portion of the cylinder 48. The re
tween the upper ends of the arms 31, the bottom
duced upper end of the piston is rigidly con
end of the link 35 is pivotally secured at point or
nected to the inverted cup-shaped member 52
pivot 42. A second link 38 has its lower end piv
having the reentrant shoulder connection 53.
otally secured at pivot 39 to the link 35 and has
The upper outer portion of the cylinder is pro 25 ‘its upper end pivotally secured at pivot 4| to the
stem 40 of the gear sector 34.
vided with a collar 54, and a spring 55 under
compression is disposed between the collar 54 and
The pivots 4| and 42 are substantially in ver
the reentrant shoulder connection to thus nor
tical alignment and both lie in a vertical line
falling to the right of bearing 29. The pivot cen
mally hold the piston in the position shown.
The piston is provided with a rod 50’ having 30 ter 39 lies to the right of the vertical line includ
ing the pivot centers 4| and 42.
the stop nut 56 secured at its upper end. On
this rod is disposed a contact member 51 suitably
The pivot centers 4| and 42 are in effect in the
insulated from the rod by the insulating sleeve
axes of the projecting pins 43 and 44. On the
58. The contact member 51 slides freely on the
outer ends of pins 43 and 44, the tension springs
piston rod 50’ and is designed to resiliently en
45 and 46 are mounted and these springs, by virtue
gage the contact members l8.
of an initial tension of a desired value given to
To effect this resilient engagement of the con
them when mounted on the pins, tend to move
tacts, a spring 59 under compression is disposed
links 38 and 35 counterclockwise and clockwise,
respectively, with reference to each other. Such
between the lower face of the contact members
51 and a suitable circumferential outer ledge 22 410 movement is, however, prevented by pin 10
mounted on link 35.
on the outer portion of the cup-shaped member 52.
To obtain adjustment for the compressive force
The link 35 has a projection 60 which provides
of spring 59, I may position a ring 2| between
a rest, or stop, limiting the downward, or clock
the shoulder or ledge 22 and the spring 59. This
wise movement of gear sector 34. The spur gear
ring preferably is rectangular in section and of a
33 is provided with pin 6| normally resting on a.
suitable lug on stem 40 of the gear sector. The
selected axial length, or dimension, to selectively
alter the compression of spring 59.
arrangement and design of all the parts of the
The piston is designed to ?t somewhat loosely in
timing mechanism are such that the parts are
the cylinder so that when pressure is suddenly ad
all in the position shown when the movable con
mitted to the conduit |6 by the operation of start 50 tact 51 is not in contact with the stationary con
tacts l8.
ing valve 4, there is some leakage of the gas'past
the piston and the piston is thus not operated
In operation, when the torpedo is fired, the
with too much impact so as to injure any portion
trigger 3 is actuated to open the starting valve
4. Almost instantly the switch piston 49 is moved
of the device. However, once the piston is forced
upwardly, the conical portion of valve 5|] engages
up, however, since the movable contact 51 is
loose on the piston rod 50’, the upward move
the valve seat 5|, thus providing a substantially
ment of the cup-shaped member 52 merely com
perfect seal against any leakage of the gas from
presses spring 59. The contact 51 thus tries to
the switch.
close against contacts l8 and in so doing the bars
It should be remembered though that this leak
age of fluid past the piston 49 while in upward 60 31 are moved upwardly. Since the toggle mech
anism 36, for the position of its elements and
motion, does by no means provide a su?icient
for this stage of operation, provides a rigid con
time constant for the switch contacts Hi to pre
nection between contact 51 and the stem 40 oi’
vent operation of the propeller driving motor be
the gear sector 34, the gear sector is moved coun
fore the torpedo propellers have cleared the ?ring
tube shutters. I, therefore, have devised the 65 terclockwise. This operation of the gear sector
rapidly drives the spur gear 33 in a clockwise
special timing means shown in the upper portion
direction, which, in turn, drives the inertia disc
of Fig. 1.
in a counterclockwise direction. The inertia
My special pneumatic switch is rigidly secured
member in accelerating prevents a too rapid rer
to a panel board, the torpedo, locomotive, ship, or
tical motion of contact 51.
other machine, by plate elements 23.
On the
lower plate 23 I disposed the guide sleeves 24 for
guiding the contact 51 that is slidably disposed on
the upper end piston rod 50' of piston 49. In
line with the guide sleeves 23 and held by the
After a relatively short vertical movement of
contact 51, spur gear 33 will have rotated through
a sufficient angle so that pin 5| trips the link
35 at region 63 and thus breaks the rigidity of
the toggle. Links 35 and 38 move counterclock
2,408,837
5
wise and clockwise,respeotively. with 'respect‘to
each other, and thusinstantly free ‘contact 5'l'to
tion in one of its overcenter positions, whereby
move to rapidly make contact with the station
ary contacts I'B.
ment of the gear sector, and means operable by
For the particular application of my device
movement of the switch element causes ‘move
movement of ‘the gear sector to break the over
center position of the toggle mechanism.
shown, a time delay of 2/3 of a second will usually
3. In a pneumatically operable switch, in com
suf?ce. If a longer time delay is required, ring
bination, a cylinder, means for admitting fluid
2| may be replaced with a narrower ring or ring
to the cylinder, a piston in the cylinder, a piston
2| may be threaded vto the cup-shapedhousing
rod projecting from the cylinder, a pair of stops
so that the initial compression force of spring'59 10 on the piston rod, a contact slidably mounted on
may be adjusted to the time delay needs of the
the piston rod, .a spring under compression dis
application, or use, .of my device.
posed between one stop on the piston rod and
At ‘the instant the toggle breaks, inertia disc
the contact slidably mounted on the piston rod
3| will be rotating at a relatively high speed and
to bias the slidable contact against the other
if it should be stopped suddenly, the pinion teeth
stop on the piston rod, a pair of stationary con
would be damaged. I, therefore, provide spur
tacts disposed to be bridged bythe slidable con
gear 33 with a toothless zone between points 65
tact when the slidable contact is in its actuated
and 61 on the periphery of the gear 33. The ar
position, inertia means mounted to be set in
rangement is such that this zone is opposite the
motion, a toggle~joint coupling between the slid
pinion just as the toggle is broken by Din 6|. 20 able contact and the inertia means, means for
holding the toggle-joint in one overcenter posi
Inertia disc 3| is thus permitted to coast to rest.
tion to provide a rigid operative connection be
To insure reengagement of the teeth of spur
gear 33 with the pinion 30 I cut the ?rst tooth
tween the inertia means and the slidable con
tact, whereby movement of the slidable contact
at the end 161 of the toothless region to a sharp
toward its operated position sets said inertia
edge as shown.
means in motion with the inertia means retard
When air is released .from the cylinder, spring
ing the motion of the slidable contact, and means
55 causes the switch to open, the gears revolve
operable by a predetermined movement of the
in the reverse direction and the toggle is auto
inertia means for moving the toggle-joint to its
matically reset byhaving the lower end of sector
other overcenter position to thus eliminate the
34 strike the rest 60 on the link 35.
rigid operative connection between the slidable
The time element can also be changed by vary
contact and the inertia means.
ing the weight of the inertia member or by at
4. In a machine having an operating charac—
taching weights in balanced relation to the in
teristic whereby a machine element is, when
ertia disc 3|.
operated, moved with relatively high speed from
While I have shown but one embodiment and
one position to another position, in combination,
a modi?cation and have shown my device in a
particular application, it is readily apparent that
a machine element having, a member slidably
mounted thereon, a pair of speed stops on the
my time delay switch is not limited to the appli
member, and a compression spring disposed be
cation made nor is it limited to the particular
details shown, but my invention is only to be 40 tween one stop and the member to bias the
member against the other stop; means for mov
limited by the scope of the claims hereto ap
ing the machine element from one of its posi
pended.
tions to its other position in the direction of the
I claim as my invention:
biasing force of the spring on the member; an
1. A pneumatically. operated time limit switch,
in combination, a cylinder, a piston provided with 45 inertia element; a pivotally mounted arm opera
tively engaging the inertia element to set the
a rod disposed within the cylinder, means for
inertia element in motion when the arm is moved
supplying gas under pressure to the cylinder to
about its pivot; a toggle-joint operatively inter
operate the piston, stationary contacts, a mov
connecting the member and the arm; means for
able contact, slidably mounted on the piston rod,
for bridging the stationary contacts, a toggle 50 holding the toggle-joint in a given overcenter
position to provide a relatively rigid arm-operat
mechanism coupled to the movable contact, a
ing interconnection between the member and
spring coacting with the piston and movable con
arm when the machine element is moved in the
tact to bias the movable contact toward the sta
direction of the biasing force of the compression
tionary contact upon operation of the piston, and
time-limit means operable after a given move
spring on the member; and means operable by '
is moved angularly about its pivot, a link pivoted
member, and a compression spring disposed be
the inertia element for moving the toggle-joint
ment of the movable contact toward the station
over center from its given overcenter position to
ary contacts for breaking the toggle mechanism
thus break the arm-operating interconnection
to thus release the movable contact so that it
between the member and arm.
makes rapid contact with the stationary con
5. In a machine having an operating charac
60
tacts.
teristic
whereby a machine element is, when op
2. In a timing device for a switch, in combina
erated, moved with relatively high speed from
tion, a pivoted gear sector, an inertia disc, a
one position to another position, in combination,
transmission gear between the gear sector and
a, machine element having, a member slidably
the disc to drive the disc when the gear sector
65 mounted thereon, a pair of speed stops on the
at one of its ends to the gear sector between
the gears of the sector and its pivot, a movable
tween one stop and the member to bias the mem
ber against the other stop; means for adjusting
switch element, a second link pivotally coupled
the spring compression, means for moving the
at one of its ends to the movable switch element 70 machine element from one of its positions to its
by a second pivot disposed remote from its said
other position in the direction of the biasing
one end to the other end of the ?rst link, said
force of the spring on the member; an inertia
second pivot being off center so that the links
element; a pivotally mounted arm operatively
form a toggle mechanism, a spring and stop for
engaging the inertia element to set the inertia
maintaining the toggle mechanism in ?xed rela
element in motion when the arm is moved about
2,408,837
its pivot; a toggle-joint operatively intercon
necting the member and the arm; means for
holding the toggle-joint in a given overcenter
position to provide a relatively rigid arm-oper
ating interconnection between the member and
8
given overcenter position to thus break the oper
ative connection between the operating member
and gear sector.
a
'7. In an inertia controlled time delay device,
in combination, an operating member, an inertia
disc mounted for rotation, a ?rst pinion coupled
to the disc, a rotatably mounted spur gear mesh
arm when the machine element is moved in the
direction of the biasing force of the'compression
spring on the member; means operable by the
ing with the pinion, a second pinion coupled to
inertia element for moving the toggle-joint over
the spur gear, a pivotally mounted gear sector
center from its given overcenter position to thus 10 meshing with said second pinion, whereby a rela
break the arm-operating interconnection between
tively high gear ratio is provided between the
the member and arm, whereby the member after
gear sector and the inertia to accelerate the disc
an initial time delay is freed to move by action
to a high speed for a small movement of the gear
of the compression spring against one of the
sector, a toggle-joint, having its links restrained
stops on the machine element.
'
to a given overcenter position, operatively con
6. In an inertia controlled time delay device,
nected to the gear sector and the operating mem
in combination, an operating member, an inertia
ber, and means operated by the spur gear for
disc mounted for rotation, a ?rst pinion coupled
moving the toggle-joint over center from the
to the disc, a rotatably mounted spur gear mesh
given
overcenter position to thus break the oper
ing with the pinion, a second pinion coupled to 20
ative connection between the operating member
the spur gear, a pivotaily mounted gear sector
and gear sector, said spur gear having no teeth
meshing with said second pinion, whereby a rel
over a relatively small section of its periphery
atively high gear ratio is provided between the
whereby the operative interconnection between
gear sector and the inertia to accelerate the disc
the spur gear and inertia disc may be inter
to a high speed for a small movement of the gear
rupted when the toggle-joint is broken over cen
sector, a toggle-joint, having its links restrained
to a given overcenter position, operatively con
ter to thus thereafter make the operation of the
nected to the gear sector and the operating
disc independent of the operation of the gear
member, and means operated by the spur gear for
sector.
moving the toggle-joint over center from the 30
CHARLES C. WHIT'I'AKER.
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