Oct- 8, 1946-’ - c. c. WHITTAKER ' ‘ SWITCHING 2,403,837 , MEANS Filed March ‘18, 1944 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 29 43 45 g 4! , J.7 WITNESSES: ' ‘ ‘ f8 INVENTOR Char/es dlf’?/fl‘aie/f BY . . 00M (9, Wu ATTORNEY Oct. 8, 1946. 2,408,837 c. c. WHlT'TAKER ‘ SWITCHING MEANS Filed March 18, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 7-79. 3. | |||||||||-o WITNESSES: wit/64,414,.“ 4/8 67 ‘ INVENTOR I Char/es 6T W?/ffdker BY Pdfl . ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 8, 1946 2,408,837 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,408,837 SWITCHING MEANS Charles C. Whittaker, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts burgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application March 18, 1944, Serial-No. 527,050 ‘ '7 Claims. (c1. 200-—s5) 2 1 in longitudinal section, of a pneumatically op My invention relates to control apparatus, and more particularly to a pneumatically operable erable switch; Fig. 2 is a front view of certain upper parts, looking in the direction indicated by the arrows at the ends of line II—II of the showing in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a plan view of the showing of Fig. 1; time delay switch. The Government of the United States has been granted a certain royalty-free license for gov ernmental purposes with respect to the invention herein described. The present war has brought into use the elec and Fig. 4 is a schematic showing of one applica tion of my time delay switch, the one application trically driven torpedo but in such torpedoes for certain operations gas ?asks are still necessary 10 being in connection with a propulsion control for for the operation of certain devices. While it is an electrically operated torpedo. ordinarily not important to provide for certain To better understand my contribution to the art reference may first be had to Fig. 4 showing one illustrative application of my pneumatically speci?c operations, as the disconnection of an electric motor from the propulsion means, on the ?nal run, it does become rather important how the system of control is utilized fora torpedo dur ing practice runs. In the electric torpedo now in use the pro pulsion motor is connected to the battery, when the torpedo is ?red, as soon as a trigger on the torpedo is actuated by a dog in the ?ring tube. The torpedo propulsion propellers thus often are rotating before the torpedohad cleared the tube, that is, the ‘propulsion propellers are up to full speed or at least a relatively high speed by the time the propellers pass the torpedo tube shut ters. ‘ The connection of the propulsion motor is ef fected by a pneumatically operated switch. operated time limit switch. In Fig. 4, the torpedo ?ring tube I is shown as having a dog 2 for actuating the trigger 3 for operating the starting valve 4 when the torpedo 5 is ?red from the tube I. For the operation of the pneumatic devices, a gas ?ask ‘l, which may contain air under high pressure as 3000 to 4000 pounds per square inch, is utilized. This ?ask is connected to the valve 4 actuated by the starting trigger 3 and, when opened, supplies air under . pressure through ‘pipe, 8 to a four-way valve Brand thence to the pneumatic switch It during one stage of operation and for another stage of op eration to the four-way valve 9, and thence through the tube II to the interior of the prac Since the few air ?asks or gas ?asks still used on 30 tice head 6. v A battery I 2 is utilized for supplying the energy torpedoes carry gas at about 3000 pounds per square inch, it is apparent that the pneumatic switch has an extremely small time constant. The instant the trigger on the torpedo is ac to the propulsion motor [3,. This propulsion mo tor I3 is of the series type having no commutat ing poles but is controlled for operation at con stant speed by the governor mechanism It for tuated, the switch interconnecting the propulsion shifting the brush ring I5 so that constant motor motor and battery is actuated. Since the pro speed is maintained. peller blades are not loaded, not being in the The four-way valve is also designed to be op water, while still in the tube the propulsion mo. erated by the governor mechanism to shift the tor comes up to speed almost instantly. One object of my invention is the provision of 40 four-way valve from the connection shown to such a connection that the ?ask ‘l is connected a delay in the starting of a torpedo motor after to the chamber of the practice head and the con ?ring of a torpedo. duit l6, for supplying the pneumatic switch with A broad object of my invention is the pro gas pressure, is connected to the pressure relief vision of a time delay for a pneumatically actu ated switch. 45 valve IT. A better understanding of some of the details It is also an object of my invention to prevent of my invention can probably behad from a rotation of the propellers of a torpedo while mov study of typical sequence of operation during a ing out of the ?ring tube while the torpedo is practice run. This operation is as follows: The being ?red. The objects hereinbefore recited are merely i1 50 instant the torpedo is ?red, the trigger arm 3 is actuated by the dog 2 and the starting valve 4 is lustrative, because many other objects and ad opened, whereupon gas from the ?ask ‘I is ad vantages will become apparent from a study of mitted under high pressure to the conduits 8 and the following speci?cation and the accompany 8'. The conduit 8' leads to various devices on the ing drawings, in which: Figure 1 is a side view, with some parts shown 55 torpedo not constituting part of the invention 0 2,408,837 3 . herein described. 4 The conduit 8 leads to the - same clamping bolts, as shown, I dispose the four-way valve 9 and as shown in the dotted lines sleeves 25. provides gas pressure to the pneumatically op To the upper ends of the four sleeves 25, I erated switch III which is thereupon, after a rela connect the horizontal plate 26 for mounting the tively short time interval, explained hereinafter, 01 bearings 21, 28 and 29. Bearing 21 supports the operated to close the contacts I8 to thus establish shaft for the pinion 3D and inertia member or a circuit from the battery |2 through the motor disc 3|. Bearing 28 supports the shaft for the ?eld winding l9, the motor armature, conductor pinion 32 and spur gear 33. Bearing 29 provides 20, contacts I8 back to the battery I2. The mo a pivot at the left for the gear sector 34. tor thus, in a suitable time after the torpedo 1O The gear sector 34 is so designed, being gen leaves the ?ring tube, assumes the propulsion of erally T-shaped, and so mounted on its bearing the torpedo driving it, through suitable gyro 29 that it tends to rotate clockwise, but for the scopic controls, towards the target. If a practice position of the parts shown is prevented from ro run is only contemplated, no war head is used, tating in the clockwise direction by the link 35 of but the practice head 6 is used. the toggle mechanism 36 interconnected, or cou The pneumatically operable switch comprises a pled, to the gear section 34 and the movable con nipple 41 to be connected to the conduit l5, and a cylinder 48 for housing the piston 49, This tacts 51. To the mid portion of the contacts 51, I rigidly piston is designed as a. valve at the region 50 connect a pair of vertically disposed arms 31. At and coacts with the valve seat 5| in the region the upper end of these arms 31 and disposed be 01' the mid portion of the cylinder 48. The re tween the upper ends of the arms 31, the bottom duced upper end of the piston is rigidly con end of the link 35 is pivotally secured at point or nected to the inverted cup-shaped member 52 pivot 42. A second link 38 has its lower end piv having the reentrant shoulder connection 53. otally secured at pivot 39 to the link 35 and has The upper outer portion of the cylinder is pro 25 ‘its upper end pivotally secured at pivot 4| to the stem 40 of the gear sector 34. vided with a collar 54, and a spring 55 under compression is disposed between the collar 54 and The pivots 4| and 42 are substantially in ver the reentrant shoulder connection to thus nor tical alignment and both lie in a vertical line falling to the right of bearing 29. The pivot cen mally hold the piston in the position shown. The piston is provided with a rod 50’ having 30 ter 39 lies to the right of the vertical line includ ing the pivot centers 4| and 42. the stop nut 56 secured at its upper end. On this rod is disposed a contact member 51 suitably The pivot centers 4| and 42 are in effect in the insulated from the rod by the insulating sleeve axes of the projecting pins 43 and 44. On the 58. The contact member 51 slides freely on the outer ends of pins 43 and 44, the tension springs piston rod 50’ and is designed to resiliently en 45 and 46 are mounted and these springs, by virtue gage the contact members l8. of an initial tension of a desired value given to To effect this resilient engagement of the con them when mounted on the pins, tend to move tacts, a spring 59 under compression is disposed links 38 and 35 counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively, with reference to each other. Such between the lower face of the contact members 51 and a suitable circumferential outer ledge 22 410 movement is, however, prevented by pin 10 mounted on link 35. on the outer portion of the cup-shaped member 52. To obtain adjustment for the compressive force The link 35 has a projection 60 which provides of spring 59, I may position a ring 2| between a rest, or stop, limiting the downward, or clock the shoulder or ledge 22 and the spring 59. This wise movement of gear sector 34. The spur gear ring preferably is rectangular in section and of a 33 is provided with pin 6| normally resting on a. suitable lug on stem 40 of the gear sector. The selected axial length, or dimension, to selectively alter the compression of spring 59. arrangement and design of all the parts of the The piston is designed to ?t somewhat loosely in timing mechanism are such that the parts are the cylinder so that when pressure is suddenly ad all in the position shown when the movable con mitted to the conduit |6 by the operation of start 50 tact 51 is not in contact with the stationary con tacts l8. ing valve 4, there is some leakage of the gas'past the piston and the piston is thus not operated In operation, when the torpedo is fired, the with too much impact so as to injure any portion trigger 3 is actuated to open the starting valve 4. Almost instantly the switch piston 49 is moved of the device. However, once the piston is forced upwardly, the conical portion of valve 5|] engages up, however, since the movable contact 51 is loose on the piston rod 50’, the upward move the valve seat 5|, thus providing a substantially ment of the cup-shaped member 52 merely com perfect seal against any leakage of the gas from presses spring 59. The contact 51 thus tries to the switch. close against contacts l8 and in so doing the bars It should be remembered though that this leak age of fluid past the piston 49 while in upward 60 31 are moved upwardly. Since the toggle mech anism 36, for the position of its elements and motion, does by no means provide a su?icient for this stage of operation, provides a rigid con time constant for the switch contacts Hi to pre nection between contact 51 and the stem 40 oi’ vent operation of the propeller driving motor be the gear sector 34, the gear sector is moved coun fore the torpedo propellers have cleared the ?ring tube shutters. I, therefore, have devised the 65 terclockwise. This operation of the gear sector rapidly drives the spur gear 33 in a clockwise special timing means shown in the upper portion direction, which, in turn, drives the inertia disc of Fig. 1. in a counterclockwise direction. The inertia My special pneumatic switch is rigidly secured member in accelerating prevents a too rapid rer to a panel board, the torpedo, locomotive, ship, or tical motion of contact 51. other machine, by plate elements 23. On the lower plate 23 I disposed the guide sleeves 24 for guiding the contact 51 that is slidably disposed on the upper end piston rod 50' of piston 49. In line with the guide sleeves 23 and held by the After a relatively short vertical movement of contact 51, spur gear 33 will have rotated through a sufficient angle so that pin 5| trips the link 35 at region 63 and thus breaks the rigidity of the toggle. Links 35 and 38 move counterclock 2,408,837 5 wise and clockwise,respeotively. with 'respect‘to each other, and thusinstantly free ‘contact 5'l'to tion in one of its overcenter positions, whereby move to rapidly make contact with the station ary contacts I'B. ment of the gear sector, and means operable by For the particular application of my device movement of the switch element causes ‘move movement of ‘the gear sector to break the over center position of the toggle mechanism. shown, a time delay of 2/3 of a second will usually 3. In a pneumatically operable switch, in com suf?ce. If a longer time delay is required, ring bination, a cylinder, means for admitting fluid 2| may be replaced with a narrower ring or ring to the cylinder, a piston in the cylinder, a piston 2| may be threaded vto the cup-shapedhousing rod projecting from the cylinder, a pair of stops so that the initial compression force of spring'59 10 on the piston rod, a contact slidably mounted on may be adjusted to the time delay needs of the the piston rod, .a spring under compression dis application, or use, .of my device. posed between one stop on the piston rod and At ‘the instant the toggle breaks, inertia disc the contact slidably mounted on the piston rod 3| will be rotating at a relatively high speed and to bias the slidable contact against the other if it should be stopped suddenly, the pinion teeth stop on the piston rod, a pair of stationary con would be damaged. I, therefore, provide spur tacts disposed to be bridged bythe slidable con gear 33 with a toothless zone between points 65 tact when the slidable contact is in its actuated and 61 on the periphery of the gear 33. The ar position, inertia means mounted to be set in rangement is such that this zone is opposite the motion, a toggle~joint coupling between the slid pinion just as the toggle is broken by Din 6|. 20 able contact and the inertia means, means for holding the toggle-joint in one overcenter posi Inertia disc 3| is thus permitted to coast to rest. tion to provide a rigid operative connection be To insure reengagement of the teeth of spur gear 33 with the pinion 30 I cut the ?rst tooth tween the inertia means and the slidable con tact, whereby movement of the slidable contact at the end 161 of the toothless region to a sharp toward its operated position sets said inertia edge as shown. means in motion with the inertia means retard When air is released .from the cylinder, spring ing the motion of the slidable contact, and means 55 causes the switch to open, the gears revolve operable by a predetermined movement of the in the reverse direction and the toggle is auto inertia means for moving the toggle-joint to its matically reset byhaving the lower end of sector other overcenter position to thus eliminate the 34 strike the rest 60 on the link 35. rigid operative connection between the slidable The time element can also be changed by vary contact and the inertia means. ing the weight of the inertia member or by at 4. In a machine having an operating charac— taching weights in balanced relation to the in teristic whereby a machine element is, when ertia disc 3|. operated, moved with relatively high speed from While I have shown but one embodiment and one position to another position, in combination, a modi?cation and have shown my device in a particular application, it is readily apparent that a machine element having, a member slidably mounted thereon, a pair of speed stops on the my time delay switch is not limited to the appli member, and a compression spring disposed be cation made nor is it limited to the particular details shown, but my invention is only to be 40 tween one stop and the member to bias the member against the other stop; means for mov limited by the scope of the claims hereto ap ing the machine element from one of its posi pended. tions to its other position in the direction of the I claim as my invention: biasing force of the spring on the member; an 1. A pneumatically. operated time limit switch, in combination, a cylinder, a piston provided with 45 inertia element; a pivotally mounted arm opera tively engaging the inertia element to set the a rod disposed within the cylinder, means for inertia element in motion when the arm is moved supplying gas under pressure to the cylinder to about its pivot; a toggle-joint operatively inter operate the piston, stationary contacts, a mov connecting the member and the arm; means for able contact, slidably mounted on the piston rod, for bridging the stationary contacts, a toggle 50 holding the toggle-joint in a given overcenter position to provide a relatively rigid arm-operat mechanism coupled to the movable contact, a ing interconnection between the member and spring coacting with the piston and movable con arm when the machine element is moved in the tact to bias the movable contact toward the sta direction of the biasing force of the compression tionary contact upon operation of the piston, and time-limit means operable after a given move spring on the member; and means operable by ' is moved angularly about its pivot, a link pivoted member, and a compression spring disposed be the inertia element for moving the toggle-joint ment of the movable contact toward the station over center from its given overcenter position to ary contacts for breaking the toggle mechanism thus break the arm-operating interconnection to thus release the movable contact so that it between the member and arm. makes rapid contact with the stationary con 5. In a machine having an operating charac 60 tacts. teristic whereby a machine element is, when op 2. In a timing device for a switch, in combina erated, moved with relatively high speed from tion, a pivoted gear sector, an inertia disc, a one position to another position, in combination, transmission gear between the gear sector and a, machine element having, a member slidably the disc to drive the disc when the gear sector 65 mounted thereon, a pair of speed stops on the at one of its ends to the gear sector between the gears of the sector and its pivot, a movable tween one stop and the member to bias the mem ber against the other stop; means for adjusting switch element, a second link pivotally coupled the spring compression, means for moving the at one of its ends to the movable switch element 70 machine element from one of its positions to its by a second pivot disposed remote from its said other position in the direction of the biasing one end to the other end of the ?rst link, said force of the spring on the member; an inertia second pivot being off center so that the links element; a pivotally mounted arm operatively form a toggle mechanism, a spring and stop for engaging the inertia element to set the inertia maintaining the toggle mechanism in ?xed rela element in motion when the arm is moved about 2,408,837 its pivot; a toggle-joint operatively intercon necting the member and the arm; means for holding the toggle-joint in a given overcenter position to provide a relatively rigid arm-oper ating interconnection between the member and 8 given overcenter position to thus break the oper ative connection between the operating member and gear sector. a '7. In an inertia controlled time delay device, in combination, an operating member, an inertia disc mounted for rotation, a ?rst pinion coupled to the disc, a rotatably mounted spur gear mesh arm when the machine element is moved in the direction of the biasing force of the'compression spring on the member; means operable by the ing with the pinion, a second pinion coupled to inertia element for moving the toggle-joint over the spur gear, a pivotally mounted gear sector center from its given overcenter position to thus 10 meshing with said second pinion, whereby a rela break the arm-operating interconnection between tively high gear ratio is provided between the the member and arm, whereby the member after gear sector and the inertia to accelerate the disc an initial time delay is freed to move by action to a high speed for a small movement of the gear of the compression spring against one of the sector, a toggle-joint, having its links restrained stops on the machine element. ' to a given overcenter position, operatively con 6. In an inertia controlled time delay device, nected to the gear sector and the operating mem in combination, an operating member, an inertia ber, and means operated by the spur gear for disc mounted for rotation, a ?rst pinion coupled moving the toggle-joint over center from the to the disc, a rotatably mounted spur gear mesh given overcenter position to thus break the oper ing with the pinion, a second pinion coupled to 20 ative connection between the operating member the spur gear, a pivotaily mounted gear sector and gear sector, said spur gear having no teeth meshing with said second pinion, whereby a rel over a relatively small section of its periphery atively high gear ratio is provided between the whereby the operative interconnection between gear sector and the inertia to accelerate the disc the spur gear and inertia disc may be inter to a high speed for a small movement of the gear rupted when the toggle-joint is broken over cen sector, a toggle-joint, having its links restrained to a given overcenter position, operatively con ter to thus thereafter make the operation of the nected to the gear sector and the operating disc independent of the operation of the gear member, and means operated by the spur gear for sector. moving the toggle-joint over center from the 30 CHARLES C. WHIT'I'AKER.