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@?» 8, 1946- H. J. DE N. MGCOLLUM 2949353617 MEANS FOR UTILIZING RADIANT HEAT IN AIRCRAFT Filed July 22, 1942 I 2 Sheets-Sheet l ____J a , Oct. 8, 1946. ‘H. .1. DEV N. MCCOLLUM . 2,408,867 MEANS FOR UTILIZING RADIANT HEAT IN AIRCRAFT Filed July 22, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 2,408,867 Patented Oct. 8, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,408,867 MEANS FOR UTILIZING RADIANT HEAT IN AIRCRAFT Henry J. De N. McCollum, Chicago, 111.; Thelma McCollum executrix of said Henry J. De N. Mc Collum, deceased Application July 22, 1942, Serial No. 451,876 4 Claims. 1 My invention pertains to method and means for utilizing radiant heat in aircraft and is more particularly concerned with, but not necessarily (01. 244-134) 2 Another object of my invention is to provide new and improved radiant heating means. Other objects and advantages will become ap parent as the description proceeds. limited to, the utilization of radiant heat to raise In the drawings: the temperature of the passenger compartment Fig. l is a diagrammatic representation of a and to prevent icing of the aircraft wings. front elevation of the upper portion of an air In both commercial and military aircraft op plane showing one embodiment of my invention eration there is constant danger that ice will form applied thereto; on the leading edge of the wings of the airplane Fig. 2 is a horizontal section through an air and so interfere with the pilot’s control of the 10 plane wing showing a further embodiment of my plane that an accident will result. Many at invention applied thereto; ~ tempts have been made to prevent the formation Fig. 3 is a top View of a portion of an airplane of ice on the leading edges of the wings of air with parts cut away to show more clearly the planes or to remove the ice after it is once formed thereon, Typical examples of such attempts are 15 application of a further embodiment of my in vention; and the invertible pulsating rubber boots which are Fig. 4 is a vertical section through the wing commonly used for this purpose. All of the equip of an airplane showing a fourth embodiment of ment heretofore provided for this purpose has my invention. been objectionable from one or several stand points, such as unduly increasing the weight of 20 In Fig. 1 I have illustrated somewhat diagram matically an airplane of the type having two en the plane, interfering with the aerodynamic prop gines, only one of which is indicated by reference erties of the wings, excessive cost, or lack of re_ numeral 20. The engine may be located in the liability and ruggedness under actual operating usual nacelle attached to the wing 22 and is illus conditions. trated as driving a four bladed propeller 24. It 25 One object of my invention is to provide a new will be understood that the airplane may be of and improved method for preventing the forma any desired type with any number of engines and tion of ice on the leading edges of the wings of with any suitable landing gear and other usual aircraft which will permit the use of'lightweight, or desired equipment and that the particular air inexpensive, and serviceable equipment for ac 30 plane shown in Fig. l is selected for purposesvof complishing the desired result. illustration only. ' Another object of my invention is to provide The engine 20 discharges its exhaust gases new and improved apparatus which is light in through an exhaust pipe 26 which, during nor weight, inexpensive, requires a minimum of serv mal operation, becomes a cherry red and gives ice, and will effectively prevent the formation of off great quantities of heat which are now wasted. ice on the leading edges of aircraft wings under 35 A feature of my invention lies in the utilization actual operating conditions. of this heat to maintain parts of the plane at Another object of my invention is to provide predetermined temperatures. method and means for preventing the formation In Fig. 1 I have illustrated an apparatus for of ice on the wings of aircraft which will utilize 4.0 utilizing the heat of the exhaust pipe 26 to main energy which is now wasted. tain the cabin or other compartment of the air Another object of my invention is to provide plane at any desired temperature. In this ?gure method and means for preventing the formation I have provided a parabolic re?ector 28 which of ice on aircraft wings which will not interfere extends lengthwise of the exhaust pipe 23 for with the aerodynamic design of the wings. 45 any length necessary to accomplish the desired purpose and partially surrounds this exhaust pipe, Another object of my invention is to provide as clearly indicated in Fig. 1. The parabolic re new and improved means for utilizing energy ~?ector 28 re?ects and focuses the heat radiated which is now ‘wasted in aircraft operation. by the exhaust pipe 26 and directs it toward Another object of my invention is to provide " the airplane cabin 3!] in substantially straight 50 novel method and means for utilizing radiant heat lines, as shown in Fig. 1. to heat selected parts of aircraft. Section 32 of the cabin wall toward which this Another object of my invention is to provide radiant heat is directed by the re?ector 28 is new and improved method and means for utiliz made of a special glass which permits the pas ing energy normally lost in the aricraft engine exhaust to heat various parts of the airplane. 55 sage of radiant heat therethrough. Such a glass 2,408,867 3 . is manufactured by the Corning Glass Works, of Corning, New York, and is commercially avail able. In lieu of this special glass, any other ma terial which permits the passage therethrough of radiant heat could be used for this section of the cabin wall. 4 In Fig. 2 I have illustrated an embodiment of my invention wherein the heat radiated from the engine exhaust pipe is utilized to maintain the leading edge of the airplane wing at such a tem i) perature that ice will not form thereon. In this ?gure an engine exhaust pipe 4|] is indicated as The radiant heat from the re?ector 28 im passing horizontally through that portion of a pinges upon the thin metal wall 34 of an air duct .wing 42 which is adjacent a cabin or engine 36. The wall 34 is preferably colored black to nacelle. A parabolic re?ector 44 is located adja increase its heat absorbing capacity and is pro 10 cent the forward edge 46 of the wing 42 length vided with sheet metal ?ns 38 which project into wise _of the exhaust pipe for a distance sufficient the air passage provided by duct 36, whereby heat to receive from this exhaust pipe the necessary radiated from the exhaust pipe .26 is transmitted amount of heat. The re?ector 44 partially sur to the air passing through this duct. rounds the exhaust pipe 40 and is of parabolic It will be understood that the glass panel 32 cross section to direct the heat radiated by the and heat absorbing wall 34 are of approximately exhaust pipe in a stream lengthwise of the wing the same length and width as the re?ector 28 and 42 as indicated by the light, parallel lines ex are preferably, but not necessarily, arranged ap tending lengthwise of this wing and representing proximately p-arallel thereto. The duct 36 may the radiant energy given off by the reflector 44. serve as a means for admitting atmospheric air The radiant energy received by the re?ector to the airplane cabin or other compartment and 44 from the exhaust pipe 40 is directed against a ram, blower, or other suitable means may be a plurality of diagonally arranged ballles 48, 50, provided to cause air ?ow through this duct. 52, 54, 56, 58 and 60. The baffle 48 is provided Instead of constituting a passageway for the with openings 62, which permit most of the radi admission of atmospheric air to the cabin or other 25 ant energy from the re?ector 44 to pass through compartment of the airplane, the duct 36 could this bailie, but the intervening solid portions 64 be used merely for the circulation of air in the of the ba?le 48 direct a predetermined portion of cabin and blower or any other suitable means the radiant heat toward the leading edge 46 of could be used to circulate air from the cabin the wing 42. The radiant heat thus de?ected or through this duct, thereby heating the circulated 30 redirected against the forward edge of the wing air and the interior of the cabin itself through the intermixing of the circulated air with the quiet air therein. While I have found it preferable to direct the radiant heat against the wall of a duct or other air passage, such an arrangement is not essential and other arrangements may be used in lieu thereof. Under some circumstances the ?nned wall 34 could be used without the remainder of by the baffle 48 raises the temperature of that portion of the leading edge of the wing which is opposite the baffle 48 sufliciently to prevent the formation of ice on this portion of the leading edge of the wing. Part of the radiant energy which passes through the baffle 48 impinges upon solid portions of the ba?le 50 and is redirected thereby toward the portion of the leading edge of the wing which the duct and would serve the purpose of an ordi 40 is opposite this ba?le 50. Other portions of the nary heat radiator. When a wall like the wall radiant energy passing through the baffle 48 also 34 is used by itself, it would usually be more de pass through openings 66 in the baffle. sirable to arrange the ?ns vertically to create a Ba?les 52, 54, 56 and 58 also have openings to stack effect like that created by the usual room permit radiant energy to pass .therethrough and radiator. Other similar modi?cations can, of . solid portions to de?ect part of the radiant energy course, be made to accommodate special condi toward portions of the leading edge of the wing tions. which are opposite these ba?les. The last baf It will be noted that the method and apparatus ?e 60 is impervious and all radiant energy strik disclosed in Fig. 1 require a minimum of addi ing this ba?le is directed against that portion of tional parts and that these additional parts the leading edge of .the wing which is opposite may be simple, inexpensive and lightweight. this ba?le. Furthermore, the only additional part which, under any conditions, is outside of the enclosed parts of the plane is the re?ector 28 and this re?ector presents only a thin forward edge which offers a minimum of drag. Furthermore, in some designs of plane the exhaust pipe and reflector will be located in the engine nacelle and the reflector will offer no additional drag what soever. Where the re?ector is located in anen In Fig. 2 the baffles are generally illustrated as taking care of a section of wing located between adjacent struts or wing supports 68. These structural members 68 have open central portions through which [the radiant energy from the re ?ector 44 may freely pass. The ballles 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, ‘58 and 6i] and re?ector 44 may be of ex tremely lightweight material so that the addition of these parts will not appreciably increase the weight of the plane. In some designs the battles and re?ector may constitute structural members, closure such as an engine nacelle, such enclosure will, of course, have a wall panel of said glass like the panel 32. The particular heating arrangement shown in in which case they would be made of heavier ma Fig. 2 utilizes only heat which isotherwise wasted 65 terial having plated re?ecting surfaces and in and in no wise interferes with the operation of such arrangement the increased weight result the engine 20 or other operating mechanism of ing from the adoption of my invention would be the plane. Where desired, the other side of the still further reduced. cabin may be provided with a second duct 36 The baffles 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58 and 60 are il heated by radiant energy obtained from ‘the ex 70 lustrated in Fig. 2 as being ?at plates and under haust pipe of the other engine, not shown, or the these circumstances would de?ect a stream of heat from the exhaust pipe of this other engine may be utilized exclusively for other purposes, radiant heat against the leading edge of the wing as broad as the stream directed against these baf such as those hereinafter ‘explained in connec fles by the re?ector 44. In some instances it tion with other embodiments of my invention. 75 may be desirable to concentrate the radiant heat 2,408,867 5 on a narrower portion of the leading edge of the wing and this can easily be done by providing baf~ ?es whose re?ecting surfaces are concave. If, on the other hand, it should be desired to direct the radiant heat over a broader portion of the leading edge of the wing, the re?ecting surfaces 6 which are illustrated as arranged in the same manner as shown in Fig. 2. The radiant heater 90 may be of any suitable type and construction and may derive its heat from any available or suitable source of energy. For example, such heater may be an internal combustion heater burning gasoline or other suit able fuel, supplied from any available source, or An important feature of that embodiment of may be an electric heater, supplied with current my invention shown in Fig. 2 lies in the fact that any additional parts required are located within 10 from a generator or battery. It is to be understood that the particular em the wing itself and do not necessitate any change bodiments disclosed herein are illustrative only in the external shape of the wing. This permits and that numerous modi?cations and variations the plane designer to give the leading edge of may be made without departing from my inven the wing any shape which he considers most de tion. Also while my invention is particularly sirable or effective and my invention in no wise adapted for use in connection with airplanes or limits his selection in this regard. other aircraft, it is not limited to such use and In Fig. 3 I have shown a further form of ap— various features of my invention may be utilized paratus for heating the airplane cabin by radiant in other applications. The scope of my invention heat. In this embodiment of my invention the engine exhaust pipe 10 is provided with a para 20 is de?ned in the following claims. I claim: bolic re?ector 12, which may be identical with 1. Apparatus for preventing the icing of air the re?ectors heretofore described. The re?ector plane wings which comprises means for radiating ~ . 12 directs radiant heat toward the pivoted metal heat energy as a beam lengthwise of each wing, shutters 14 which control the admission of atmos and means for de?ecting different portions of each 25 pheric-air to a duct 16 leading to the cabin or beam against the leading edge of its .wing. other compartment of the airplane. The shut 2. Apparatus for preventing icing of the lead ters 14 are preferably colored black and absorb ing edge of an airplane wing comprising means the radiant heat directed thereagainst by the re for radiating heat energy lengthwise of said wing ?ector 12. The heated shutters 14 give up their heat to the air passing therebetween and thus 30 and a plurality of ba?les located lengthwise of said wing and each serving to de?ect a portion of heat the atmospheric air admitted to the duct said heat energy against a portion of the lead 16. ing edge of said wine‘. The shutters 14 are connected to a control strip 3. Means for heating a surface capable of ab 18, having an arm 80 connected to and moved sorbing radiant heat comprising means for ra 35 by a Bowden wire 82 which may be either man diating heat in a beam parallel to said surface, ually or automatically controlled to shift the and means for de?ecting increments of said shutter 14 to admit more or less air to the duct radiated heat against successive lengthwise por 16. tions of said surface. In Fig. 4 I have shown a modi?cation of the de 4. Apparatus for heating an airplane wing com icing apparatus of Fig. 2. In Fig. 4 a radiant prising an exhaust pipe extending transversely of heater, diagrammatically indicated at 90, radiates of the baiiles could be made convex. heat to a re?ector 92 which directs the radiant heat lengthwise of the wing 94. This wing is of tapering cross section and the re?ector 92 is so designed that the stream of radiant heat con verges as it travels lengthwise of the wing. The heat radiated by the re?ector 92 passes through openings in the wing struts 96 and is de?ected 1 against the leading edge of the wingr by baffles 98 said wing, a re?ector for receiving heat energy radiated by said exhaust pipe and ‘directing said radiant energy longitudinally of said wing, and a plurality of perforated baf?es de?ecting incre ments of said radiated heat against successive longitudinal portions of said wing. HENRY J. DE N. MCCOLLUM.