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Патент USA US2408869

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@?» 8, 1946-
H. J. DE N. MGCOLLUM
2949353617
MEANS FOR UTILIZING RADIANT HEAT IN AIRCRAFT
Filed July 22, 1942
I 2 Sheets-Sheet l
____J
a
,
Oct. 8, 1946.
‘H. .1. DEV N. MCCOLLUM
. 2,408,867
MEANS FOR UTILIZING RADIANT HEAT IN AIRCRAFT
Filed July 22, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2,408,867
Patented Oct. 8, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,867
MEANS FOR UTILIZING RADIANT HEAT
IN AIRCRAFT
Henry J. De N. McCollum, Chicago, 111.; Thelma
McCollum executrix of said Henry J. De N. Mc
Collum, deceased
Application July 22, 1942, Serial No. 451,876
4 Claims.
1
My invention pertains to method and means
for utilizing radiant heat in aircraft and is more
particularly concerned with, but not necessarily
(01. 244-134)
2
Another object of my invention is to provide
new and improved radiant heating means.
Other objects and advantages will become ap
parent as the description proceeds.
limited to, the utilization of radiant heat to raise
In the drawings:
the temperature of the passenger compartment
Fig. l is a diagrammatic representation of a
and to prevent icing of the aircraft wings.
front elevation of the upper portion of an air
In both commercial and military aircraft op
plane showing one embodiment of my invention
eration there is constant danger that ice will form
applied thereto;
on the leading edge of the wings of the airplane
Fig. 2 is a horizontal section through an air
and so interfere with the pilot’s control of the 10
plane wing showing a further embodiment of my
plane that an accident will result. Many at
invention applied thereto;
~
tempts have been made to prevent the formation
Fig. 3 is a top View of a portion of an airplane
of ice on the leading edges of the wings of air
with parts cut away to show more clearly the
planes or to remove the ice after it is once formed
thereon, Typical examples of such attempts are 15 application of a further embodiment of my in
vention; and
the invertible pulsating rubber boots which are
Fig. 4 is a vertical section through the wing
commonly used for this purpose. All of the equip
of an airplane showing a fourth embodiment of
ment heretofore provided for this purpose has
my invention.
been objectionable from one or several stand
points, such as unduly increasing the weight of 20 In Fig. 1 I have illustrated somewhat diagram
matically an airplane of the type having two en
the plane, interfering with the aerodynamic prop
gines, only one of which is indicated by reference
erties of the wings, excessive cost, or lack of re_
numeral 20. The engine may be located in the
liability and ruggedness under actual operating
usual nacelle attached to the wing 22 and is illus
conditions.
trated as driving a four bladed propeller 24. It
25
One object of my invention is to provide a new
will be understood that the airplane may be of
and improved method for preventing the forma
any desired type with any number of engines and
tion of ice on the leading edges of the wings of
with any suitable landing gear and other usual
aircraft which will permit the use of'lightweight,
or desired equipment and that the particular air
inexpensive, and serviceable equipment for ac
30 plane shown in Fig. l is selected for purposesvof
complishing the desired result.
illustration only.
'
Another object of my invention is to provide
The engine 20 discharges its exhaust gases
new and improved apparatus which is light in
through an exhaust pipe 26 which, during nor
weight, inexpensive, requires a minimum of serv
mal operation, becomes a cherry red and gives
ice, and will effectively prevent the formation of
off great quantities of heat which are now wasted.
ice on the leading edges of aircraft wings under 35
A feature of my invention lies in the utilization
actual operating conditions.
of this heat to maintain parts of the plane at
Another object of my invention is to provide
predetermined temperatures.
method and means for preventing the formation
In Fig. 1 I have illustrated an apparatus for
of ice on the wings of aircraft which will utilize
4.0 utilizing the heat of the exhaust pipe 26 to main
energy which is now wasted.
tain the cabin or other compartment of the air
Another object of my invention is to provide
plane at any desired temperature. In this ?gure
method and means for preventing the formation
I have provided a parabolic re?ector 28 which
of ice on aircraft wings which will not interfere
extends lengthwise of the exhaust pipe 23 for
with the aerodynamic design of the wings.
45 any length necessary to accomplish the desired
purpose and partially surrounds this exhaust pipe,
Another object of my invention is to provide
as clearly indicated in Fig. 1. The parabolic re
new and improved means for utilizing energy
~?ector 28 re?ects and focuses the heat radiated
which is now ‘wasted in aircraft operation.
by the exhaust pipe 26 and directs it toward
Another object of my invention is to provide "
the airplane cabin 3!] in substantially straight
50
novel method and means for utilizing radiant heat
lines, as shown in Fig. 1.
to heat selected parts of aircraft.
Section 32 of the cabin wall toward which this
Another object of my invention is to provide
radiant heat is directed by the re?ector 28 is
new and improved method and means for utiliz
made of a special glass which permits the pas
ing energy normally lost in the aricraft engine
exhaust to heat various parts of the airplane. 55 sage of radiant heat therethrough. Such a glass
2,408,867
3
.
is manufactured by the Corning Glass Works, of
Corning, New York, and is commercially avail
able. In lieu of this special glass, any other ma
terial which permits the passage therethrough of
radiant heat could be used for this section of the
cabin wall.
4
In Fig. 2 I have illustrated an embodiment of
my invention wherein the heat radiated from the
engine exhaust pipe is utilized to maintain the
leading edge of the airplane wing at such a tem
i)
perature that ice will not form thereon. In this
?gure an engine exhaust pipe 4|] is indicated as
The radiant heat from the re?ector 28 im
passing horizontally through that portion of a
pinges upon the thin metal wall 34 of an air duct
.wing 42 which is adjacent a cabin or engine
36. The wall 34 is preferably colored black to
nacelle. A parabolic re?ector 44 is located adja
increase its heat absorbing capacity and is pro 10 cent the forward edge 46 of the wing 42 length
vided with sheet metal ?ns 38 which project into
wise _of the exhaust pipe for a distance sufficient
the air passage provided by duct 36, whereby heat
to receive from this exhaust pipe the necessary
radiated from the exhaust pipe .26 is transmitted
amount of heat. The re?ector 44 partially sur
to the air passing through this duct.
rounds the exhaust pipe 40 and is of parabolic
It will be understood that the glass panel 32
cross section to direct the heat radiated by the
and heat absorbing wall 34 are of approximately
exhaust pipe in a stream lengthwise of the wing
the same length and width as the re?ector 28 and
42 as indicated by the light, parallel lines ex
are preferably, but not necessarily, arranged ap
tending lengthwise of this wing and representing
proximately p-arallel thereto. The duct 36 may
the radiant energy given off by the reflector 44.
serve as a means for admitting atmospheric air
The radiant energy received by the re?ector
to the airplane cabin or other compartment and
44 from the exhaust pipe 40 is directed against
a ram, blower, or other suitable means may be
a plurality of diagonally arranged ballles 48, 50,
provided to cause air ?ow through this duct.
52, 54, 56, 58 and 60. The baffle 48 is provided
Instead of constituting a passageway for the
with openings 62, which permit most of the radi
admission of atmospheric air to the cabin or other 25 ant energy from the re?ector 44 to pass through
compartment of the airplane, the duct 36 could
this bailie, but the intervening solid portions 64
be used merely for the circulation of air in the
of the ba?le 48 direct a predetermined portion of
cabin and blower or any other suitable means
the radiant heat toward the leading edge 46 of
could be used to circulate air from the cabin
the wing 42. The radiant heat thus de?ected or
through this duct, thereby heating the circulated 30 redirected against the forward edge of the wing
air and the interior of the cabin itself through
the intermixing of the circulated air with the
quiet air therein.
While I have found it preferable to direct the
radiant heat against the wall of a duct or other
air passage, such an arrangement is not essential
and other arrangements may be used in lieu
thereof. Under some circumstances the ?nned
wall 34 could be used without the remainder of
by the baffle 48 raises the temperature of that
portion of the leading edge of the wing which is
opposite the baffle 48 sufliciently to prevent the
formation of ice on this portion of the leading
edge of the wing.
Part of the radiant energy which passes
through the baffle 48 impinges upon solid portions
of the ba?le 50 and is redirected thereby toward
the portion of the leading edge of the wing which
the duct and would serve the purpose of an ordi 40 is opposite this ba?le 50. Other portions of the
nary heat radiator. When a wall like the wall
radiant energy passing through the baffle 48 also
34 is used by itself, it would usually be more de
pass through openings 66 in the baffle.
sirable to arrange the ?ns vertically to create a
Ba?les 52, 54, 56 and 58 also have openings to
stack effect like that created by the usual room
permit radiant energy to pass .therethrough and
radiator. Other similar modi?cations can, of . solid portions to de?ect part of the radiant energy
course, be made to accommodate special condi
toward portions of the leading edge of the wing
tions.
which are opposite these ba?les. The last baf
It will be noted that the method and apparatus
?e 60 is impervious and all radiant energy strik
disclosed in Fig. 1 require a minimum of addi
ing this ba?le is directed against that portion of
tional parts and that these additional parts the leading edge of .the wing which is opposite
may be simple, inexpensive and lightweight.
this ba?le.
Furthermore, the only additional part which,
under any conditions, is outside of the
enclosed parts of the plane is the re?ector 28 and
this re?ector presents only a thin forward edge
which offers a minimum of drag. Furthermore,
in some designs of plane the exhaust pipe and
reflector will be located in the engine nacelle and
the reflector will offer no additional drag what
soever.
Where the re?ector is located in anen
In Fig. 2 the baffles are generally illustrated as
taking care of a section of wing located between
adjacent struts or wing supports 68. These
structural members 68 have open central portions
through which [the radiant energy from the re
?ector 44 may freely pass. The ballles 48, 50, 52,
54, 56, ‘58 and 6i] and re?ector 44 may be of ex
tremely lightweight material so that the addition
of these parts will not appreciably increase the
weight of the plane. In some designs the battles
and re?ector may constitute structural members,
closure such as an engine nacelle, such enclosure
will, of course, have a wall panel of said glass like
the panel 32.
The particular heating arrangement shown in
in which case they would be made of heavier ma
Fig. 2 utilizes only heat which isotherwise wasted 65 terial having plated re?ecting surfaces and in
and in no wise interferes with the operation of
such arrangement the increased weight result
the engine 20 or other operating mechanism of
ing from the adoption of my invention would be
the plane. Where desired, the other side of the
still further reduced.
cabin may be provided with a second duct 36
The baffles 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58 and 60 are il
heated by radiant energy obtained from ‘the ex 70 lustrated in Fig. 2 as being ?at plates and under
haust pipe of the other engine, not shown, or the
these circumstances would de?ect a stream of
heat from the exhaust pipe of this other engine
may be utilized exclusively for other purposes,
radiant heat against the leading edge of the wing
as broad as the stream directed against these baf
such as those hereinafter ‘explained in connec
fles by the re?ector 44. In some instances it
tion with other embodiments of my invention.
75 may be desirable to concentrate the radiant heat
2,408,867
5
on a narrower portion of the leading edge of the
wing and this can easily be done by providing baf~
?es whose re?ecting surfaces are concave. If,
on the other hand, it should be desired to direct
the radiant heat over a broader portion of the
leading edge of the wing, the re?ecting surfaces
6
which are illustrated as arranged in the same
manner as shown in Fig. 2.
The radiant heater 90 may be of any suitable
type and construction and may derive its heat
from any available or suitable source of energy.
For example, such heater may be an internal
combustion heater burning gasoline or other suit
able fuel, supplied from any available source, or
An important feature of that embodiment of
may be an electric heater, supplied with current
my invention shown in Fig. 2 lies in the fact that
any additional parts required are located within 10 from a generator or battery.
It is to be understood that the particular em
the wing itself and do not necessitate any change
bodiments
disclosed herein are illustrative only
in the external shape of the wing. This permits
and that numerous modi?cations and variations
the plane designer to give the leading edge of
may be made without departing from my inven
the wing any shape which he considers most de
tion. Also while my invention is particularly
sirable or effective and my invention in no wise
adapted for use in connection with airplanes or
limits his selection in this regard.
other aircraft, it is not limited to such use and
In Fig. 3 I have shown a further form of ap—
various features of my invention may be utilized
paratus for heating the airplane cabin by radiant
in other applications. The scope of my invention
heat. In this embodiment of my invention the
engine exhaust pipe 10 is provided with a para 20 is de?ned in the following claims.
I claim:
bolic re?ector 12, which may be identical with
1. Apparatus for preventing the icing of air
the re?ectors heretofore described. The re?ector
plane wings which comprises means for radiating ~ .
12 directs radiant heat toward the pivoted metal
heat energy as a beam lengthwise of each wing,
shutters 14 which control the admission of atmos
and
means for de?ecting different portions of each
25
pheric-air to a duct 16 leading to the cabin or
beam against the leading edge of its .wing.
other compartment of the airplane. The shut
2. Apparatus for preventing icing of the lead
ters 14 are preferably colored black and absorb
ing edge of an airplane wing comprising means
the radiant heat directed thereagainst by the re
for radiating heat energy lengthwise of said wing
?ector 12. The heated shutters 14 give up their
heat to the air passing therebetween and thus 30 and a plurality of ba?les located lengthwise of
said wing and each serving to de?ect a portion of
heat the atmospheric air admitted to the duct
said heat energy against a portion of the lead
16.
ing edge of said wine‘.
The shutters 14 are connected to a control strip
3. Means for heating a surface capable of ab
18, having an arm 80 connected to and moved
sorbing
radiant heat comprising means for ra
35
by a Bowden wire 82 which may be either man
diating heat in a beam parallel to said surface,
ually or automatically controlled to shift the
and means for de?ecting increments of said
shutter 14 to admit more or less air to the duct
radiated heat against successive lengthwise por
16.
tions
of said surface.
In Fig. 4 I have shown a modi?cation of the de
4. Apparatus for heating an airplane wing com
icing apparatus of Fig. 2. In Fig. 4 a radiant
prising an exhaust pipe extending transversely of
heater, diagrammatically indicated at 90, radiates
of the baiiles could be made convex.
heat to a re?ector 92 which directs the radiant
heat lengthwise of the wing 94. This wing is of
tapering cross section and the re?ector 92 is so
designed that the stream of radiant heat con
verges as it travels lengthwise of the wing. The
heat radiated by the re?ector 92 passes through
openings in the wing struts 96 and is de?ected
1 against the leading edge of the wingr by baffles 98
said wing, a re?ector for receiving heat energy
radiated by said exhaust pipe and ‘directing said
radiant energy longitudinally of said wing, and a
plurality of perforated baf?es de?ecting incre
ments of said radiated heat against successive
longitudinal portions of said wing.
HENRY J. DE N. MCCOLLUM.
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