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@ch 8, H46"
5. R. HIRSCH
COMPRESSOR
UNLOADER I
Filed May 17.‘ 1944
2,403,932
'
2 Sheeté-Sheet 1
LEAKAGE F77
Z6
'
girl/Um
at R. Kirsch.
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Patented ‘Oct. 8, 1946
v
2,408,932
.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,932
COMPRESSOR UN'LOADER
Sylvan Roos Hirsch, Utica, N. Y., assignor to
Brunner Manufacturing Company, Utica, N. Y.,
a corporation of New York
Application May 17, 1944, Serial No. 536,007
8 Claims.
(01. 230-49)
‘
'1
2
This invention relates to a refrigeration com
pressor and aims to provide a novel means
A head 25 is detachably bolted at 26 to the
housing H and the bolts 26 removably secure
between the housing and head, a plate 21 for
-
.
whereby differential pressure is relieved from
conventional or usual suction and discharge
the discharge side to the suction side across the
valves 28 and 29 controlling the entrance and
piston or pistons to enable the'motor to start
passage of gas to and from the cylinders 24
against practically no load.
through ports 39 and 3 I, respectively.
A prime object is to provide means for un
.The gas passage is generally designated 32
loading the compressor which employs a release
and may consist of an L-shaped portion 33 in
or bleeder valve in combination with an external
tube or the equivalent situated in the path of the 10 the compressor housing at the suction side, a gas
stream portion 34 of L-shape at the discharge
‘air stream from the usual condenser fan so that
side, ports 35 and 36 in communication there
the tube will be slightly cooled to cause a minute
with, respectively, through the valve plate 21, a
condensation of oil entrained in the gas stream,
portion 31 in the head 25 in communication with
which condensed oil is collected in such positions
as to cover and seal said release or bleeder valve 15 ports 30 and 35, and a portion 38 in said head
to positively prevent communication between the
25 in, communication with said ports 3| and 36.
discharge pressure and the compressor suction
pressure which would impair the capacity of the
The hermetic compressor, as best shown in Fig
ure 2, discharges refrigerant gas, usually
Freon-12, through a conduit 39 into a condenser
48 where the refrigerant gas is liqui?ed so as to
collect in a receiver 4! from' which it travels
through the conduit to an expansion valve 42,
apparatus.
Another important aim is to e?ect the mount
ing of the necessary check valve in the head of
the compressor and to utilize the removable valve
plate which houses and supports the normal op
erating valves of the compressor, as a support
and seat for the check valve.
With the above and other objects in view that
will hereinafter appear, the nature of the inven
tion will be more clearly understood by reference
to the following detailed description, the ap
pended claims, and the several views illustrated
in the accompanying drawings.
In said drawings:
Figure l is a substantially central longitudinal
sectional view through a hermetic. compressor
embodying the present invention, and
-
thence into an evaporator 43, where the liquid
is vaporized or converted to a gas, and it then
returns to the suction side of the compressor to
the portion 33 of the gas passageway 32.
During the operation of the refrigeration sys
tem, the pressures in the condenser 40 will be
around one hundred and twenty-?ve to one hun
dred and ?fty pounds while the pressures in the
evaporator 43 will be anywhere from a vacuum
to perhaps ?fty pounds, depending on the tem
perature desired in the evaporator. When the
proper amount of cooling is developed and no
35 further temperature reduction in the evaporator
43 is necessary, the compressor will shutdown by
Figure 2 is a vertical sectiona1 view through
the action of a usual refrigeration control (not
said hermetic compressor taken at a right angle
shown) and it does so with a pressure difference
to Figure 1.
across the pistons 23 of approximately one hun
In said drawings, the compressor generally des
ignated It], may be of the usual two cylinder con 40 dred and ?fty pounds at the discharge side to
?fty pounds 0n the suction side. This differ—
struction having a housing I I with which a, hous
ential constitutes a very heavy strain against the
ing I2 is cast integrally about an electric motor
motor l3 upon again starting, requiring a com
l3 having a main rotatable shaft l4 suitably
paratively high amount of torque or e?ort to at
,iournaled in bearings at I5 and IQ of the hous
ings ID and II. The crankcase of the compres 45 tain the end. The present invention relieves the
cylinders of such load and hence the motor can
sor is in communication with ‘the base of the
start against practically no load, and promptly.
motor housing at an opening I"! or otherwise,
The aforesaid valve mounting plate 21 also
so that lubricating oil l8 for the working parts
mounts a check valve 44, the same having. a re
will flow from one to the other.
The drive or operating shaft for the compres 50 duced stem 45 passing through the port 36 and
also having a pin 48 passing therethrough and
sor at E9 is a continuation or part of the shaft l4
engageable with the upper surface of plate 21 to
and it is equipped with eccentrics at 20 in opera
suspend such check valve. The latter has a disk
tive relation to straps or pitmans 2| connected
like head 46 at its lower end located in the pas
by wrist pins 22 to pistons 23 operable in cylin
,55 sageway portion 34 and coacting with a valve
ders 24 formed in the housing I l.
2,408,932
3.
4
seat 41 embedded in the plate 21. This check
valve 44 has an upper or plunger like head 49 at
the upper end of stem 45 and such head 49 has
gas being saturated with oil vapor and due to
cooling in the conduit 5|, condenses and oil col
lects in the well or chamber 52. Within a matter
of seconds it completely ?lls such well or chamber
because the latter is made relatively small to
facilitate immediate ?ooding. This oil seals the
bleeder valve 55 effectively and absolutely so that
a leakage ?t in a chamber or passage 50. From
the passage 50, leads a release line or cOoling
coil 5| which is external so as to be in the path
of air from the fan of the condenser 45 (not
no leakage can occur. When the motor l3 stops,
the governor arms 64 collapse and under the ac
shown), and which line or conduit 5| is con
nected to discharge into the motor housing I2
and from the same into the crankcase of the 10 tion of spring 63, ?nger 62 pushes forward, mov
compressor.
ing bleeder valve 55 off of its seat and thereupon
all liquid and vapor from the well or chamber 52
Said conduit 5| discharges direct into a well or
chamber 52 provided in a block or plate 53 fas
bleeds through the port 54 into the housing l2
and crankcase where suction pressure prevails.
tened to the motor housing |2. The latter has
‘ a port therethrough in communication with the 15 The drop in pressure in chamber 59 provides a
chamber or well 52 which is adapted to be closed
when the compressor is running by a release or
bleeder valve 55 in the form of a metallic leaf
or blade so as to be ?exible and which is fas
tened to the housing |2 by means of a screw or
differential force across the upper part of the
check valve 44 or head 49 which causes it to rise
and seat itself against seat 41 at the disk 45. The
discharge pressure in the part 34 of the passage
way acts against the disk 45 causing'it to seal
the like at 56. A seat 51 for said valve 55 is em
bedded in the housing l2 around the port 54.
between head 49 and chamber 53 permits all dis
itself tightly against said seat 41.
The leak ?t
charged gas from the compressor head to be re
Fixed on one end of the shaft |4 so as to rotate
with the latter is a centrifugal governor means
leased into the crankcase through the bleeder
to actuate the valve 55 to control the opening 25 conduit 5| and release or bleeder valve 55. Be
and closing of the bleeder port 54. This mech
cause of the action traced, the pistons 23 and
anism is generally designated 58 and comprises a
cylinders 24 have only suction pressure against
which they must act upon restarting and this
cup 53 suitably fastened to the shaft 14 provided
with a central bore 60 for a slidable plunger 6|
gives complete unloading of the machine. Upon
having a ?nger 62 of less diameter‘ than the port
54 and disposed therein. An expansive coil spring
63 located in the bore 65 urges projection of the
plunger 6! to such an extent that it de?ects and
restarting, the discharge spaces are ?lled with
discharged gas which balances the pressure from
the condenser 40 and causes the check valve 44
to drop by gravity, thereby opening up the pas
sage for the gas from the pistons 23 to the con
denser 40.
While one form of the invention has been shown
for purposes of illustration, it is to be clearly un~
derstood that various changes in the details of
construction and arrangement of parts may be
made without departing from the spirit and scope
of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
opens the valve 55 when the motor and compres
sor are not running.
Generally L-shaped governor arms 54 are piv
oted at 65 to lugs 66 on the cup 55. Any desired
number of the governor arms may be employed
and it will be noted that at one end, they abut
the plunger 6| and at the other ends have Weights
65'. During operation of the motor and com
pressor, the governor arms 64 act centrifugally
to throw the weighted ends 65' outwardly and
1. In a refrigeration compressor, a head having
throw the other ends inwardly, thereby retract
a chamber provided with a port in communica
ing the plunger BI and maintaining the ?nger 62 ‘15 tion with the gas passage of the compressor, con
retracted and out of engagement with the valve
duit means in communication with said chamber
55 which remains closed due to its inherent ?exi
bility.
and with the crankcase of the compressor to con
vey oil-laden gas from the chamber to the crank
case when the compressor is idle and for con
50 densation of the oil in the conduit means when
the compressor is operating, a check valve ar
During operation, because of the character
istics of the refrigerant used, for instance “Freon
12,” there is a ?ow of entrained oil with the
Freon gas at all times. This is advantageous in
asmuch as the oil which leaves on the discharge
of the compressor returns from evaporator 43,
enters the portion 33 of the passageway 52 and 55
ranged to close said port through differential
pressures on opposite sides thereof, said check
valve having a leakage ?t at the entrance of said
conduit means, and a bleeder valve controlling
the excess oil drains from the gas stream back
the communication of the conduit means to the
into the housing II and its crankcase through a
crankcase positioned so as to be sealed by the
port 51 of such housing. It will be appreciated
aforesaid condensation of the oil in said conduit
that the crankcase and motor housing are at
means when the compressor is operating.
suction pressure, whereas chamber 50 and con 60 2. In a refrigeration compressor, a head having
duit 5| are at discharge pressure. This makes
a chamber provided with a port in communica
it imperative that the release valve 55 be sealed
tion with the gas passage of the compressor, con~
tightly; otherwise the gas will by-pass into con
duit means in communication with said chamber
duit 5| rather than continuing into the con
and with the crankcase of the compressor to con
denser 40.
65 vey oil-laden gas from the chamber to the crank
When the compressor end is running, the gov
case when the compressor is idle and for conden
ernor arms 64 through centrifugal action are
sation of the oil in the conduit means when the
thrown outwardly and since their inner ends
compressor is operating, a check valve arranged
bear against the plunger 6|, the bleeder valve 55
will seat or close.
At the beginning of opera
tion, the oil laden gas at discharge pressure, will
leak past the plunger like head 49 of the check
valve 44 into chamber or passage 59 and conduit
a leakage ?t at the entrance of said conduit
means, and a bleeder valve controlling the com
munication of the conduit means to the crankcase
positioned so as to ‘be sealed by the aforesaid
Such 75 condensation of the oil in said conduit means
5| and thence into the chamber or well 52, hold- 7
ing the bleeder valve 55 against its seat.
to close said port through di?erential pressures
70 ‘on opposite sides thereof, said check valve having
2,408,932
5
when the compressor is operating, means to open
the bleeder valve, and centrifugal mechanism op
erable by the compressor to retract the last men
tioned means during operation of the compressor
6
said plunger retracted duringoperation so that
the bleeder valve will remain closed.
6. In a refrigerant compressor having a plate
ing operation of the compressor.
between its housing and head mounting inlet
and outlet valve means for the piston and cylin
der mechanism of the compressor,'said head
3. In a refrigeration compressor, a conduit
means in communication with the gas passage
having a chamber provided with a port in com
munication with the gas passage of the com
of the compressor and with the crankcase of the
pressor, a check valve located in said port hav
so that the bleeder valve will remain closed dur
latter to convey oil-laden gas from the passage
to the crankcase when the compressor is idle
and for condensation of the oil in the conduit
means when the compressor is operating, a check
ing a head and a piston, conduit means in com
munication with said chamber and with the
crankcase of the compressor to convey oil-laden
gas from the chamber to the crankcase when the
compressor is idle and for condensation of the
oil in the conduit means when the compressor
valve controlling the passage of the oil-laden gas
from the passage to the conduit, and a bleeder
valve controlling the communication of the con
duit means to the crankcase positioned so as to
be sealed by the aforesaid condensation of the
is operating, said check valve being operable
condenser of the compressor so as to condense
last mentioned means.
'7. In a refrigerant
through differential pressures in said passage
and chamber, said piston having a leakage ?t at
the entrance to said conduit means and said head
oil in said conduit means when the compressor
is operating.
~
20 being arranged to close said port, a bleeder valve
controlling the communication of the conduit
4. In a refrigeration compressor, a conduit
means to the crankcase, said conduit means hav
externally thereof in communication with the
ing a Well to collect condensed oil about the valve
gas passage of the compressor and with the
to seal the same when the compressor is oper
crankcase of the latter to convey oil-laden gas
from the passage to the crankcase when the 25 ating, means urging the valve to open position
when the compressor is idle, and centrifugal
compressor is idle, said conduit being disposed
means operable by the compressor to retract the
in the path of air circulated by the fan of the
compressor, a conduit
passage of the oil-laden gas from the passage to 30 means leading from the head thereof and dis
oil in the conduit, a check valve controlling the
the conduit, said check valve having a leakage
fit at the entrance to the conduit, and a bleeder
valve controlling the communication of the con
duit to the crankcase positioned so as to be sealed
by the aforesaid condensation of the oil in said
conduit when the compressor is operating.
5. In ‘a refrigeration compressor, a head
having a chamber provided with a port in com
munication with the gas passage of the com
pressor, conduit means in communication with
said chamber and with the crankcase of the
compressor to convey oil-laden gas from the
chamber to the crankcase when the compressor is
idle and for condensation of the oil in the con
duit means when the compressor is operating, a
posed in communication with the gas passage of
the compressor and with the crankcase of the
latter to convey oil-laden gas from the passage
to the crankcase when the compressor is idle and
for condensation of the oil in the conduit means
when the compressor is operating, a check Valve
controlling the passage of the oil-laden gas from
the passage to the conduit, and a bleeder valve
controlling the communication of the conduit
means to the crankcase positioned so as to be
sealed by the aforesaid condensation of oil in
said conduit means when the compressor is oper
ating.
means to the crankcase positioned so as to be
sealed by condensed oil in said conduit means
8. In a refrigeration compressor, a head hav
ing a chamber provided with a port in communi
cation with the gas passage of the compressor,’
conduit means in communication with said
chamber and with the crankcase of the com
pressor to convey oil-laden gas from the cham
ber to the crankcase when the compressor is
idle and for condensation of the oil in the conduit
means when the compressor is operating, a check
when the compressor is operating, said conduit
means being externally of the compressor and
valve arranged to close said port through differ
ential pressures on opposite sides thereof, said
including a well in which said bleeder valve is
located and which collects the aforesaid con
of said conduit means, a bleeder valve control
check valve arranged to close said port through
differential pressures on opposite sides thereof,
said check valve having a leakage ?t at the en
trance of said conduit means, a bleeder valve
controlling the communication of the conduit
densation of the oil in sealing engagement with
the bleeder valve, the wall of the compressor
having a passage therethrough adapted to be
closed by said valve and through which condensed
oil returns to the crankcase, a plunger having a
part movable in the last mentioned passage,
means urging the plunger to a position to nor
check valve having a leakage fit at the entrance
ling the communication of the conduit means to
the crankcase positioned so as to be sealed by
the aforesaid condensation of the oil in said con
duit means when the compressor is operating, the
compressor having a plate located between its
head and housing mounting the valves for the
piston and cylinder mechanism of the compressor,
said check valve also being mounted by said head.
mally open said bleeder valve, and centrifugal
SYLVAN ROOS HIRSCH.
means operable by the compressor to maintain 65
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