Патент USA US2408956код для вставки
Oct. 8,_ 19460 ' ‘ w. A.‘ RAY I FUEL SUPPLY ‘ SYSTEM -‘ 2,408,954 ' Filed June 8', 1944 2 sheets?snee't 1 .lggez lufomafl'c SWIM 7 2 . . ' Exusm P/wfo fube%$ . Mice ‘7 \ ENVENTQQ ' myl/a Fay < BYMM . ATTORNEY - w. s, 1946. w. A. RAY 12,408,954‘ FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM ~ Filed Juné 8-, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 HNVENTOR ,Wllx'am Aiay Bv%fé H, i A'rrogusvg , 2,408,954 Patented Oct. 8, 1946 UNl-TE'D‘ISTATES PATEpN-TOFFICE William A. Ray, Glendale,’ Calif., assignor to. General Controls Coma corporation Application June 8, 1944, smelled-539,377 9 Claims. (o1.15s_'111.1)‘ . 1 i Since almost allsources of commercial power are ignited fuel. This application is a continuation in part of 5 my application ?led on January 1, 1944, under Serial No. 516,733. r ' 2 v__'I’l'1is system requires a source of unidirectional current for the operation of the reset valve. This invention relates to a system for supply ing fuel to a burner, and more particularly to a safety system ensuring against escape of un alternating current, a recti?er must bev provided. In addition, a safety control device is provided to respond to an unsafe condition, such as an ex tinguished burner ?ame. I ' It is another, object. of this invention to com bine‘ the’ function 'of 3the'recti?erand the safety Inthat prior application, a fluid fuel control system is described that ensures automatic inter ruptionrin the supply of fuel in response to the control device;_-and more particularly by vusing an electronic emission device that responds to occurrence of a condition that would render the tem are either directly or indirectly energized by theexistence of a, pilot ?ame and'thatalso acts as a-recti?er for theisupply of unidirectional cur a commercial source of electrical energy. rent to the reset valve. system unsafe. The main elements of the sys As an ' . H . It is still another object‘ of this invention to example, the system may be caused to respond 15 effect, a further simpli?cation by operation of to the extinguishment of a pilot?ame, to de the main valve by unidirectional current derived energize an electromagnetically operated valve. fromthe electronic emission device. This is ren Although systems of this general character are dered possible ‘by the use of an electronic emis now well-known, they suffer from the disadvan tags that when there has been a power failure 20 sion tube that canpass power sui?cient to op erate an appropriately designed electromagneti from the commercial source, the mere resump cally operated valve. , _ l , _. . tion of the supply of power is insu?icientto place I For example, a type Of tube that can be effec: the system into operative condition. It isneces tively used for thispurpose isa multiplier photo sary in such systems, to resetl'a valve manually, 25 tube. This tube is arranged to be energized ‘by siderable portion of a community, the process of resetting all of the valves involves a considerable expense and time. In saidv prior application, this dif?culty is overcome, it being unnecessary to reset any of the valves, and the system im-' 30 mediately resumes operation upon re-establish a commercial source, of alternating current, and and where the power failure extends over a con ment of the power, Y . . . . It is one of the objects of this invention to im prove the system described in said prior appli cation. ' . . , , the output of the tube is unidirectional. The cur rent ?ow depends upon the intensity» of illumina tion ofvthe photosensitive cathode. Thisinten sity in turn is dependent upon the illumination created by the pilot flame, _ , 7 . It is still another object of this invention ef-_ fectivelyto utilize such a phototube, both as a control device and as a source of unidirectional current for supplying power to the system. __'_I?his invention possesses many other, advan In the system described in said prior applica tion, the controlling valve requiring resetting, and operated electromagnetically, is maintained tages, and hasother objects which may be made open even upon power failure; and yet is closed in response to an unsafe condition. This is ace purpose there are shown a few forms ‘in the more clearly apparent‘from a consideration of several embodiments of the invention. For. this drawings accompanying and forming part of. the complished'?rst, by providing a direct current present specification. These forms will now be electromagnet that has su?icient remanence. to described in detail, illustrating the general prin keep its'armature or core in attracted position ciples of the invention; but it is to beunderstood even when ole-energized; and, second, by utilizing the power to provide an alternating de-magnetiz 45 that this detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, since the scope. of they inven ing flux for the electromagnet. Normally, there tionis best de?ned by the appended claims. . fore, the remanence is neutralized and the elec Referring to the drawings: I , tromagnetically operated valve responds to any Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view of’ a system control condition requiring it to close. But on power failure, the de-magnetizing force is ab— 50 Fig. 2 is awiring diagram of the system; and. sent, and the remanence is then effective to keep Fig. 3 is a‘ wiring diagram of a slightly modi?ed, the reset valve open. This'open condition is not incorporating the invention; dangeroussince thepower failure causes an other electromagnetically operated valve to close, - thus interrupting the ?ow of vfuel. form of the system. , v v a . , , _ I. , ‘ . Thesystem may be utilized for the control of fuel generally, such ‘as liquid or gaseous fuels.‘ 2,408,954 3 4 In the present instance a main burner I, adapted for gas fuel, is illustrated in Fig. 1. It is supplied In order that the phototube 8 transmit a sum cient current for the operation of valve 3, it is shown as of the multiplier type. One such tube is known as the 931-A. It includes a photo sensitive cathode I8 which emits electrons when its active surface is illuminated, as by the ?ame 5. The anode I9 ?nally receives the electrons produced in the tube by successive action of the electrons upon a number of auxiliary electrodes from an appropriate source of fuel supply, as through the pipe 2. The ?ow of fuel to the burn er is controlled by a main fuel valve 3, shown also in Figs. 2 and 3. A pilot burner 4 provides a ?ame 5 for igniting the burner I when valve 3 is opened. This pilot burner 4 is shown as sup plied through conduit 6 leading to the pipe 2 and arranged back of the valve 3, so that closure of 10 or secondary emitters 20, 2I. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, valve 3 will not serve to shut off the supply of 21, and 28. In the present instance, nine such fuel to the pilot burner 4. The conduit 6 is shown auxiliary electrodes are shown. In order that as including a pilot burner valve ‘I, shown also-in these electrodes serve effectively to reinforce the Figs. 2 and 3. - - I Both of the valves 3 and ‘I are shown as'elec 15 original electronic stream emanating from the cathode I8 by secondary emission, they are shown trically operated. Furthermore, the control is as connected by taps to the high voltage sec ondary coil 29 of a step-up transformer 30. The such as extinguishing of pilot ?ame 5, both valves ‘ primary coil 3| may be connected to a commer cial source of alternating current. are caused to close. After the pilot valve 1 is closed, the arrangement is such that it will not 20 The operation of such a multiplier tube is well re-open by mere re-establishment of the safe con known. A relatively weak stream of electrons is dislodged from the photo-sensitive surface of dition, but mustbe held open until the burner 4 is lighted and the ?ame 5 is re-established. cathode I8. This stream is greatly reinforced The safety control circuit includes a light-sen by secondary emission successively from the aux sitive device, such as a phototube 8. that re iliary electrodes 2!) to 28 inclusive the active sur such that, in the event of an unsafe condition, sponds to the light produced by the pilot flame 5, to the substantial exclusion of any other light source, as by the aid of appropriate shields. A focussing device .9 may be used to project the light from ?ame 5 onto the light-sensitive elec 30 faces of which are successively encountered by the electron stream. The output current be tween the anode I9 and cathode I8 is unidirec tional. The main valve 3 is diagrammatically illus Thus, for the operation of the electromagnet I2, the anode I9 is connected as by conductor 32 with the electromagnet I2. The other ter _ trated in section in Fig. 2. It is shown as includ ing a stem I 0 carrying a magnetic member or ar minal of electromagnet I2 is shown as connected by connection 33 to an automatic switch 34 trode of tube 8. . mature II. An electromagnet structure I2 serves to exert a pull upwardly upon the armature I I to open the valve 3 when the electromagnet I2 is su?iciently energized. ' which may be a. thermostat or other condition responsive device. Thence, the current flows through connection 35 to the upper terminal of secondary coil 29. From the lower terminal of Preferably this valve structure is such that a relatively small current of the order of one watt is sufficient to lift the armature I I for opening the valve, secondary coil 29, connection 36 leads to the cathode I8. The alternating current electro motive force across the terminals of secondary . Substantially the same type of structure is uti lized for the pilot burner valve ‘I. In this case the electromagnet associated with the valve in cludes a pair of coils I4 and I5 wound upon a u magnetic core I6. The. arrangement is such that, coil 29 is recti?ed through the unidirectional ?ow of electrons between the cathode I8 and the an ode I9. The electromagnet I2 is connected to receive this recti?ed current, by the aid of the circuit iust traced. once the armature I3 is released from the core This circuit is de-energized as soon as cathode I6, re-energization of the electromagnet does not cause lifting of the armature I3; instead, it must be urged upwardly toward the poles of the core It by the manual reset button I‘I.. Accordingly, once the. ?ow of fuel to the pilot burner 4 is in terrupted by valve 1, such ?ow cannot be re established until the button I‘! lifts the armature I8 ceases to be illuminated by the pilot ?ame 5, and then valve 3 closes.’ However, upon re establishment of ?ame 15, the electronic emission current passing through tube 8 is sumci'ent to re~energize the electrpmagnet I2, provided the automatic switch device 34 is closed. As heretofore stated, the pilot burner valve ‘I is arranged to close when there is a failure of the ?ame 5. However, it is arranged to be vleft 50 I 3 into the operative in?uence of magnetic mem- ' ber I5. Then while the valve ‘I is held open, the pilot burner 4 can be ignited to re-establish the ?ame 5; and this in turn, causes operative ener open if there is a total failure of the power sup ply. In, order to effect this result, use is made gization of coil I4. of a supplemental coil I5 'on core I6. ‘Coil I4, So long asthis ?ame 5 is in existence, the pho 60 normally energizing the electromagnet, is sup totube 8- serves to control the circuits associ plied with unidirectional current through the ated with the valves 3 and ‘I, so as to maintain phototube 8. However, it is so connected that them in operative condition. As soon as the ?ame the current flow is considerably less than the 5 is extinguished the phototube becomes inactive current ?ow through the main valve electro 65 magnet I2. For this purpose, the coil I4 is con One type of control circuit for effecting this nected in the lead between any one of the aux result is illustrated in Fig. 2. In this arrange iliary electrodes 20 to 28, and a tap on the sec ondary coil 29. In‘ the present instance ‘the coil ment, the phototube 8 is utilized to serve also as I4 is interposed in the lead from auxiliary elec an electronic emission recti?er for supplying uni directional current to the electromagnet I2 and 70 trode 28 and its corresponding tap 31.- By ap to the coil I4 of valve ‘I. Accordingly, the photo propriate choice of the auxiliary electrode, the quantity of current ?ow in coil I4 can be that tube 8 serves a plurality of functions: not only is it a control device, but it also serves to trans most suitable; and therefore the magnctomotive mit recti?ed current to the system, capable of force ‘produced by the coil I4 is su?icient to m'ain- ‘ and these valves are caused to close. directly operating main valve 3. tain the armature I3 in attracted position, but 4,408,954 5 its valve closing position. T I w. trolling the ?ow of ‘ fuel to'the burner,‘ a photo . The coil I5 is shownas directly connected-in serieswith the primary coil 3| of transformer 30. 'This coil l5 has a magnetomotive force" just 0: sufficient to neutralize the magnetic remanence of core 16 when the coil 14 is de-e‘nergized. . This remanence, by appropriate choice of ma terial for core [3, is such that it would retain the armature [3 in attracted position even when coil [4' is vde-energized. . ‘Accordingly, in order that 6 burner, an electrically operated valve forYcon-' not suincient to attract‘ the armature l3 from electric tube having a photosensitive cathode and adaptedto be energized from a source of alter natingcurrent, said‘ device serving to rectify the alternating current, and supplying the. resultant unidirectional current to operate said valverand alight source affecting the cathode for control ling the ?ow of said unidirectional current, vsaid light source being active in response to a condi tion of operation of said system. . ' ' 3. In a system of the character described, a the armature l3 be released, the coil. 15 must be energized, for neutralizing the remanence. I In the event of powerv failure, the coil 15 is main burnerza pilotiburner for providing a pilot ?ame, an electrically operated valve ‘forcontrol not energized and, therefore, the remanenceof core I6 retains the armature 13 in attracted po sition, if the armature happens to be in~ that position. The necessity- of resetting each and photo-electric tube having ‘a photosensitive cath ode and adapted to“ be energized by a source-of alternating current, said device serving to rectify every one of the valves-‘such as 1, that'are in stalled in a district where ‘the power failure oc ling the ?ow 'offuelwtothe main burner, and a theialternating current, and ‘supplying the rre- . 20 sultant unidirectional current to ' operate ‘ said valve, the ?ame of the pilot burner supplying illumination for the cathode, to causean'oper ating unidirectional current to?ow- for electri' curred is avoided. 'Nevertheless,'it is ensured that valve 3 closes when the‘ power goes off, for electromagnet I2 is then de-energized. ' Normally, without any power failure, the pilot cally .4. In operating a' system the of valve. thecharacter " . described,‘ i’ . ~ " a burner valve 1 is maintained open only 'while ?ame 5 is in existence. As soon as ?ame 5 is main burner,’ a pllotburner for producing a pilot ?ame, an electrically operated valve for control ling theflow of fuel to. the main'b-urner, an elec extinguished, the phototube 8 becomes inactive. The electromagnet i2 is also de-energized, en suring closing of ‘the valve 3; and, at the same time, core I6 releases armature [3, thereby caus ing the closing of valve'l. The coil 15 acts to trically operated valve forthe, pilot burner, hav 30 ing a magnetic member and a coil for-magnetiz ing said member, an electronic emission. device, adapted to be energized‘ from a source of alter neutralize the remanence of core I6, ensuring nating_current,'said device serving to-rectify the alternating current, and-supplying the resultant unidirectional current-‘to; operate both of said release of armature I3. Thetunsafe condition created by the extinguishing of ?ame 5 thus sets into operation the safeguardsthat ensure against any ?ow of unignited fuel. valves, said electronic emission device including meanscausing?ow of saidunidirectional current of sufficient quantity to operate said main valve, only while the pilot ?ame is in existence, said de respond to the temperature of the space to be heated. The valve 3 may be operated thereby to 40 vice also supplying'unidirectional currentto the pilot burner valve coilfor holding the pilot burner open and close, as required by temperature con Valve 3 is independentlycontrollable by the automatic switch or thermostat 34, which may valve, open, the remanence of the magnetic mem ditions. . ‘ ber being suf?cient to retain the pilot burner In the form illustrated in Fig. 2, the coil 14 is valve‘ open after the coil is de-energized, and a provided with unidirectional current of appropri ate potential di?'erence below the potential dif ference applied to the electromagnet I 2. This is accomplished, as heretofore stated, by inter posing the coil M in the lead between one of the auxiliary electrodes and the secondary coil 29. In the form illustrated in Fig. 3, the system operates substantially identically with that illus trated in Fig. 2, except that the reduced poten tial diiference of coil I4 is obtained in a slightly di?erent way. In this form of the invention the electromagnet I2 is supplied, as before, with uni directional current as by appropriate connections 32, 33 and 35, as in-the form illustrated in Fig. 2. The coil 14 is placed in parallel with the electromagnet I2; and a resistance 38 included in the circuit of coil M to reduce the potential difference across the coil. The inventor claims: 1. In a system of the character described, a burner, an electrically operated valve for con trolling the ?ow of fuel to the burner, a photo electric tube having a photosensitive cathode and adapted to be energized from a source of a1 demagnetizing coil for the magnetic member and supplied from the source of alternating current, said demagnetizing coil operating to render said remanence ineffective while the source of alter nating current is active. 50 5. In a system of the character described, a main burner, a pilot burner for producing a pilot ?ame, an electrically operated valve for control ling the ?ow of fuel to the main burner, an elec trically operated valve for the pilot burner, hav ing a magnetic member and a coil for magnetiz ing said member, a photo-electric tube having a photosensitive cathode and aifected by the pilot ’ ?ame, said tube being adapted to be energized from a source of alternating current, for supply ing unidirectional current to operate the main valve only‘ while the pilot ?ame is in existence, said device also supplying unidirectional current to the pilot burner valve coil for holding the pilot burner valve open, the remanence of the mag netic member being sufficient to retain the pilot burner valve open after the coil is de-energized, and a demagnetizing coil for the magnetic member and supplied from the source of alternating current, said demagnetizing coil operating to ternating current, said device serving to rectify render said remanence ineffective while the the alternating current, and supplying the re 70 source of alternating current is active. sultant unidirectional current to operate said valve, and a light source a?ecting the cathode for controlling the ?ow of said unidirectional current. 2. In a system of the character described, a 6. In a system of the character described, a main burner, a pilot burner for producing a-pilot ?ame, an electrically operated valve for control ling the ?ow of fuel to the main burner, an elec 2,408,954 trically operated valve for the pilot burner, hav ing a magnetic member and a coil for magnetiz ing-saidmember, a multiplier photo-electric tube having a photosensitive cathode, an anode and intermediate electrodes, said cathode being af fected ‘by the pilot ?ame, said tube being adapted to bev energized from a source of alternating cur 8 magnetizing said member; an electronic emission device, adapted to be energized from a source of alternating current, for supplying unidirectional current to both of said circuits, said device in cluding means causing ?ow of said unidirectional current of su?icient quantity to operate said main valve only while the pilot ?ame is in existence, the remanence of the magnetic member being su?icient to retain the pilot burner valve open 10 after the coil is de-energized, a demagnetizing coil for the magnetic member and supplied from while the pilot flame is in existence, the coil for the source of alternating current, said demagnet the pilot burner valve being supplied with uni izing coil operating to render said remanence in rent, the intermediate electrodes being connected to the source and having progressively higher electromotive forces, said tube supplying uni directional current to operate the main valve only directional current derived from 'one of said in termediate electrodes, to hold the pilot burner valve open, the remanence of the magnetic mem effective while the source of alternating current is active, and condition responsive means for in— dependently controlling the circuit for the main ber being sufficient to retain the pilot burner valve open after the coil is'de-energized, and a demagnetizing coil for the magnetic member 9. In a system of the character described, a main burner, a pilot'burner for producing a pilot supplied from the source of alternating current, - ?ame,>a main valve'for controlling the ?ow ‘of said demagnetizing coil operating to render said remanence ineffective while the source of alter nating current is active. 7. In a system of the character described, a burner, a valve for controlling the ?ow of fuel to the burner, an electric circuit controlling the operation of the valve, a photo-electric tube hav ing a photosensitive cathode and adapted to be energized from: a source of alternating current, said device serving to rectify the alternating cur 30 rent, and supplying the resultant unidirectional current to operate said valve, a light source af fecting the cathode for controlling the flow of said unidirectional current, and condition re valve._ . fuel to the main burner, a circuit for operating the main valve, a valve for the pilot burner, a circuit; for operating the pilot burner valve, said pilot burner having a magnetic member, said pilot burner valve including a coil for magnetiz ing said member, a photo-electric tube having 'a photosensitive cathode and affected by the pilot ?ame, said tube being adapted to be energized from a source of alternating current, for supply ing unidirectional current to operate the main valve only while the pilot ?ame is in existence, said device also supplying unidirectional current to the pilot burner valve coil for holding the pilot burner valve open, the remanence of the mag sponsive means for independently controlling 35 netic member being su?icient to retain the pilot said circuit. ' burner valve open after the coil is de-energized, 8. In a system of the character described, a main burner, a pilot burner for producing a pilot a demagnetizing coil for the magnetic member and supplied from the source of alternating cur ?ame, a main valve for controlling the ?ow of rent, said demagnetizing coil operating to render fuel to the main burner, a circuit for operating 40 said remanence ineifective while the source of the main valve, a valve for the pilot burner, a alternating current is active, and condition re circuit for operating the pilot burner valve, said sponsive means for independently controlling ‘the pilot burner having a magnetic member, said circuit for the main valve. pilot burner valve circuit including a coil for WILLIAM A. RAY.