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@CL _8, ì946v
G. A. REYNOLDS, .1R
2,408,955
AMPHIBIAN STEERING DEVICE
' Filed Aug. 7, 1943 ~
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G. A. REYNOLDS, .JR
2,408,955-
AMPHIBIAN STEERING DEVICE
Filed Aug. '1, 1943
:s sheets-sheet 2
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Oct» 8» 19456»
2,408,955
G. A. REYNOLDS, JR
AMPHIBIAN STEERING DEVICE
F'iled Aug. 7, 1943
3 sheds-sheet 5
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Patented Oct. 8, 1946
2,408,955
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,955
AMPHIBIAN STEERING DEVICE
George A. Reynolds, Jr., Los Angeles, Calif., as
signor to Food Machinery Corporation, San
Jose, Calif., a corporation of Delaware
Application August 7, 1943, Serial No. 497,725
8 Claims.
'I‘his invention relates to the art of steering
amphibious land and water craft while in the
water.
Such amphibians generally depend for propul
sion in the water on the running gear with which
the amphibian is supported and propelled while
travelling on land. While useful with amphibians’
having various types of running gear', my inven
tion is especially adapted for use on amphibians
(Cl. 115-1)
2
type which is subject to minimum disadvantages
due to the vulnerable location in which it is
mounted.
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'
The manner of accomplishing the foregoing
objects, as well as further objects and advantages,
will be made manifest in the following descrip
tion taken in connection with the following draw
ings, in which:>
Fig. 1 is a plan view of an amphibian in which
employing track-laying mechanism for support 10 is incorporated Aa preferred embodiment of my
and propulsion.
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invention.
It is an object of the invention to provide an
Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of Fig. l.
improved steering device for use on amphibians.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary enlarged detail view o_f
In my co-pending application, Serial No.
a portion 0f Fig, 2, which includes the invention,
462,484, in which I am a joint applicant with Dan 15 with a portion of the latter broken away to show
R. Rankin, amphibian steering mechanism is dis
this in section taken on the line 3--3 of. Fig. 4.
closed which is especially suitable for use on
Fig. 4 is a rear elevational view of Fig. 3.
amphibians equipped with track-laying mecha
Fig. 5 is a sectional view of a modified form of
nism. The essential feature of the steering mech
the invention, the plane in which said view is
anism there disclosed is ñxing the steering blades 20 taken being indicated by line 5_5 in Fig. 4. The
in the paths of the streams of water propelled
upwardly and rearwardly by the two track-laying
modiñed structure shown in Fig. 5 has openings
which are not found vin the structure of the pre
mechanisms where they leave the water at the
stern of the craft. The speciñc steering mecha
ferred form of the invention illustrated in Fig. 4,
but is otherwise identical thereto.
n_ism there disclosed while having great merit, 25 Referring specifically to the drawings, these
nevertheless produced forces which retarded the
show an amphibian I0 including a hull II having
forward movement of the amphibian equipped
an engine compartment I2 in the stern end there
therewith and anything which cuts down the
of anda pilot’s cabin I3 in the bow thereof, there
speed of the craft is, of course, highly undesirable.
being a well I4 ldisposed therebetween for accom
It is an object of the present invention to pro 30 modating cargo or passengers’. Disposed in the
vide an improved steering device for amphibians
compartment I2 is an engine I5, power from
operating similarly to the steering mechanism
which is transmitted through a drive shaft’lß
aforesaid, but eliminating the drawback men-and transmission I'I to drive sprockets I8 of a
tioned.
pair of track-laying mechanisms I9 mounted on
lI‘he present invention accomplishes the im 35 opposite sides of the hull Il.
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provement aforesaid by disposing the steering
vThe transmission I1 transmits power dineren
blades of the device in' planes which are substan
tially to the sprockets I8 through independent
tially parallel with the fore and aft axis of the
shafts 20 having brakes 2| which are separately
amphibian equipped therewith. It is desirable
controlled by levers 22 and 23 so that pulling on
however, that these blades be reinforced without 40 the left hand lever 22 retards the operation of
adding substantially to their weight or develop
the left hand track laying mechanism I9 and
ing any reaction with the Water discharged from
speeds up the right hand track laying mechanism
the track-laying mechanisms which would retard
I 9. Relaxing the lever 22 and pulling on the right
the forward >motion of the amphibian.
hand lever 23 has exactly the opposite effect. '
It is thus another object of my invention to 45 Each of‘the >track-laying mechanisms I9 has
provide an amphibian steering device` reinforced
an idle sprocket 26, a series of spring mounted
as aforesaid.
.
.
bogie wheels 21 and idler rollers 28 all of which
Steering devices of the type to which my inven
are mounted upon one of two pontoons 29 ex
tion relates generally must occupy exposed posi
tending laterally from the hull sides 30. Trained
tions at the rear end of the amphibian where 50 about sprockets I8 and 26, the 'bogie wheels 21,
these devices are likely to become damaged by
and the rollers 28 of each mechanism I9 is an
hitting trees or other obstacles when the am
phibian is backing.
endless iiexible track 35 having a, series of grouser
blades 36 thereon which contact the ground to
lIt is yet another object of my invention to pro
support and propel the amphibian when the lat
vide an amphibian steering device »of this general 55 ter is travelling on _land but which are also suit
2,408,955
3
ably shaped to engage the water and provide
propulsion for the amphibian when it is afloat.
Provided to extend outward from the upper
4
results in a lessening of the stream of water 40
produced by the retarded track-laying mechanism
and an increase in the volume and speed of .the
stream of water 40 produced by the accelerated
edge of each side of the hull II to overlie the
5 track-laying mechanism.
adjacent mechanism I9 is a track guard 31.
As each 4track 35 travels along its endless path
(see Fig. 2')A the grouser blades 3.6; infleavingthe»
water, throw a substantial stream Vof water` 40 up
wardly and rearwardly as shown in Fig. 3.
Mounted on the two r'ear corners of the hull Hg.,
is a pair of defiector devices 45 and 46 which are
Assuming that the operator had pulled on the
left control lever 22 as shownl indottedlines in
Fis. 1, this ‘would havegretarded'f‘the' left track
laying mechanism I9 and accelerated the right
track-laying mechanism thereby decreasing the
stream 40 produced by the ilrst and increasing
that‘prod-uced- by the second. As a result, the
leftward moment created by reaction of the left
hand stream 40 'with the deilecting device 45 is
device includes a heavy V-shaped‘channelA iron .
¿much‘V
less than the rightward moment produced
guard rail 41 one arm of which is’ united'. with.;
by the corresponding reaction of the right hand
.the adjacent track guard 31 while theother arm
stream' >¿Ill withì the deflecting device 46. The
is rigidly fixed to .the stern end of the' hull" with-`
latter right hand turning moment is thus unbal
the apex of the V extending rearwardly somegdis
anced, and swings the rear end of the amphibian
tance behind the hull. The device 45 also includes
to .the right causing the ship to turn in the water
a kite-like structure 5f!- made up of outer and
reverse duplicates of each other so 'that a- de->
scription of device 45 will suilicefor both.A ',Ir‘his
inner verticall plates- 5I- Aand. 52Í'and an interme
diate vertical plate 53', these plates being- secured
at their upper edges Ito a base plate 54 'mounted
on the Vguard rail 41- andthe track guard 31'.
toîthe left'.
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In a like" mann‘er pulling on the right control
lever 23 and releasing. the left lever will accelerate
the speed of the left track-laying mechanism, re
tard the speed of -the- right track-laying mecha
mism-and will turn'the `amphibian I0' to the-right.
, The verticalplates 5I, 52.l andr53 are connected
by deilect'or plates» 55- which slope outwardly and
This operation' ofthe invention to turn the
amphibian Iii'` in responseïto the reaction of the
iixedfdeñector's with streams of water discharged
downwardly at about 40° to the horiáóntal. _These
plates are disposed in the stream o'ffwater 40`dis
ychargedlfroxnthe'adjacent track' 35 and obliquely
phibian l0 .to the right. The deflector plates 55,
by the' propulsion- devices on opposite sides of the
ship is accomplished without a retar'ding moment
being ’set up by this' reaction. This' is due, of
course, to the> fact Ythat the' deñectoi" plates`155
though inclined tothe horizontal, are disposed
parallel with the fore and aft‘axis ofl the am
are parallel with tlie'ïfor'e andaft axis of the ship.
phibi‘an.v I’II so that the impinging of the stream
of water 40lthereagainst` sets» up no moment which
would-¿tend .to retard the forward motion of the
The kite-like structure> 50 offÍ-tiie deflector> de
vices is prote'ctedlb'y the guard rails 41 when the
amphibian is backing sothat only when backing
against a heavy'> obj'ectwhich is low enough to
intercept this stream sov as to turn' this‘stream .
inwardly and-set up areacting turning`»moment
directed'outwardly and tending to turn the am
amphibian».
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get under the railsl 41A liutwhich is' higher‘than
the»l bottom of the structure 50 will this structure
be engaged and possibly damaged. The kite-like
structure 50' al's'o is‘m‘ade‘ of relatively light sheet
'
Eront edges oftthelplates 5,5 _connect with and
may be formed from the same sheet of metal as
reinforcing ilange‘s- (il),` the latter being inclined
downwardly relative _to the`- plates 55,` the angle
of inclination not being suilîcient to position the
metal so that in' exceptional cases- where condi
' tions occur. whi'chrwill cause damageto thi's‘struc
flanges 60 where- any negative4 or ‘retarding *mo- ' . ture itcan bef readily lient ba’ckdnto shape if the
damage is nottoo, serious on it" can be readily
ment` isset upbyv- reaction between the> stream _of
replaced by, arlsp'a?e‘» structùr’elcarrie’d with the
water _ 40.» and _ these; ilangea l Preferably» these
amphibian.„
flangesk are in a neutral positiont/that is, parallel
withthe direction _of¿ movement of thestreams of
water 411-.A It would-»heì quite possil_n4l¢e,¿‘howeverg
for these flanges to'bel bent frornlthe sheet'of
metalfprming the plates 55".~ at angles which would
lcause, "some, forward _moment to beproduced by
the reaction betweenx theÍ flanges Sil andthe
stream of water 40 and this result would, ofcourse,
notbeundesirable.
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'_ While thev vertical' plates_52.l_‘and V53 are shown
as'continüó'u’s' tófsíf?plifythë design ófÀ the struc
ture 5Illit might he', advántag'eous-toform- open
ingslllïin theuplates 52`Í and-53ïj'úst beneath the
lines'whe're these -plates- join with deñector plates
5.5_as shown in Fig.l 5 sothat water travelling
upwardly alongî or deflected> upwardly from- the
lowerpassfthroughythese
surfaces lof-. the
openings
deflectingplates
linf the _plates?52
55 and
Y
,Óperatioîi
5?»T insteadV of strikingagainst-:theseÍ vertical
plates ~and beingltrapp‘eds. À'I-'he provision olf-_these
When the amphibian: I0 is -añoat' and both ~
openings in these verticalgplates 52- and 53 pre
track-layingA mechanisms I9 arelopera'tingat the 60 vents
.waterf otïthe stream 40 being caught in the
samespe'e'ds,v the( streams'fof >water 40 engage the
inverted-‘_1
vV-sl¿i_apecl traps ybetween the f vertical
oblique' del'lectorplàltes 55 ofthe right and left
plates 52 and-¿Sìfe-nd the upper I_twov o! the de-V
deflectingî devices.- 45 and v4Iìßso that .thes'enstreams
of Water are'> deflected` inwardly towards . each
other` thereby producing equal andoppositeout
wardy turning moments. - .i
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Should it be desiredrto .turn the amphibian Il)
in thewater, the operatorv seizes one of .the levers
22' or 23, depending> upon whether heiwishesuto
flector plates 55:,
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65
l. In a dirigible water craft the combination
of: a hull;. right andleft propulsion means' pro
vided :on ,opposite sidesÍ of said hull, each of said
means in-its operation'k discharging a stream of
turn to the left» orv to-«the right, .and pulls this
water non-parallel-„with theffore and> aftaxis of
towardshim to setthelb'rakexzl controlled by
thisr lever and ythereby,l slow upithe operation of
the> track-laying; mechanism on Athat side ofthe
these at the samepr ydifferent'speeds; and Yde
said cra-ft;Y ineansf for contrcllingtthe operation
of said right and left propulsiommeans to drive
ñeewr means dìSpQSe-dzfiri the» Paths .Offr Said
amphibian and increase thespeed- with which the ,
' opposite track-laying mechanism functions. This 75 streams at angles to oppositely intercept and
2,408,955
5
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deflect said streams from their course said de
flector means being disposed substantially par
allel with said axis whereby the driving of one
of said propulsion means at a higher speed than
sion means at a higher speed than the other
the other causes an unbalanced turning moment
to be produced by the reaction of the deflector
means to the stream produced by the faster
moving propulsion means without thereby pro- .
causes an unbalanced turning moment to be
produced by the reaction of the deñector means
to the stream produced by the faster moving
propulsion means without thereby producing a
substantial moment tending to retard the for
ward motion of the craft; and reinforcing means
for said deflector means which is embodied with
an edge thereof and disposed substantially par
ducing a substantial moment tending to retard
the forward motion of the craft.
10 allel with said streams.
2. In a dirigible water craft the combination
5. In a dirigible water craft the combination
of: a hull; right and left propulsion means pro
vided on opposite sides of said hull, each of said
means in its operation discharging a stream of
water non-parallel with the fors and aft axis of
said craft; means for controlling the operation
cf said right and left propulsion means to drive
these at the same or different speeds; and de
flector means fixed in the paths of said streams
at angles to oppositely intercept and deflect said
streams from their course said deñector means
being disposed substantially parallel with said
axis whereby the driving of one of said propul
sion means at a higher speed than the other
causes an unbalanced turning moment to be
produced by the reaction of the deflector means
to the stream produced by the faster moving
propulsion means without thereby producing a
substantial moment tending to retard the for
ward motion of the craft.
3. In a dirigible water craft the combination
of t a hull; right and left propulsion means pro
vided on opposite sides of said hull, each of said
means in its operation discharging a stream of
water non-parallel with the fore and aft axis of ~
said craft; means for controlling the operation
of said right and left propulsion means to drive
these at the same or different speeds; and de
ñector means disposed in the paths of said
streams at angles to intercept and deflect said
streams inwardly from their course said deflec
tor means being disposed substantially parallel
with said axis whereby the driving of one of said
ci: propulsion means provided on opposite sides
of said craft, said means in their operation dis
charging streams of water rearwardly and non
horizontally through the air above the surface of
theA water sustaining said craft;
deflectors
"»iounted on
craft and disposed parallel with
the fore and aft axis of said craft in said streams
of water so as to intercept and deilect the same
oppositely; and means for selectively controlling
the operation of said propulsion means to effect
a steering of said craft by said deflector.
6. In an amphibian craft the combination of:
a hull; right and left track~laying belts on oppo
site sides of said hull; an endless series of blades
on said belts for engaging the water when said
craft is afloat; power means for driving said belts
to propel said craft through the water, said blades
on said belts discharging streams of water rear
wardly and upwardly in eifecting said propul
sion; deilectors iixed on said hull in parallelism
with the fore and aft axis of said craft and dis
posed in the paths of said streams s0 as to de
flect the latter inwardly; and means for con-‘
trolling the driving of said belts to drive these
at the same or different speeds.
'7. In an amphibian craft the combination of:
a hull ; right and left track-laying belts on oppo- »
site sides of said hull; an endless series of blades
on said belts for engaging the water when said
craft is ailoat; power means for driving said
belts to propel said craft through the water, said
blades on said belts discharging streams of water
propulsion means at a higher speed than the
rearwardly and upwardly in eiîecting said pro
other causes an unbalanced turning moment to
pulsion; deiiectors iixed on said hull in parallel
be produced by the reaction of the deflector
ism with the fore and aft axis of said craft and
means to the stream produced by the faster
disposed in the paths of said streams so as to
moving propulsion means without thereby pro
deilect the latter inwardly; means for controlling
ducing a substantial moment tending to retard
the driving of said belts to drive these at the
the forward motion of the craft.
Ll) same or different speeds; and reinforcing vanes
d. In a dirigible water craft the combination
bent from leading edges of said deiiectors and
disposed substantially parallel with said streams
of: a hull; right and left propulsion means pro~
so as to produce no reaction from engagement
vided on opposite sides of said hull, each of said
means in its peration discharging a stream of
with said streams tending to retard the forward
water non-parallel with the fore and aft axis of ¿¿ motion of the craft.
said craft; means for controlling the operation
8. A combination as in claim 1 in which said
of said right and left propulsion means to drive
dei‘lector means is made of relatively light sheet
these at the same or different speeds; deflector
metal; and a protecting guard provided on said
means disposed in the paths of said streams at
hull and extending rearwardly aa greater distance
angles to oppositely intercept and deflect said CU than said deflector means to guard the latter
against damage when said craft is backing.
streams from their course said deflector means
being disposed substantially parallel with said
axis whereby the driving of one of said propul
GEORGE A. REYNOLDSl JR.
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