@CL _8, ì946v G. A. REYNOLDS, .1R 2,408,955 AMPHIBIAN STEERING DEVICE ' Filed Aug. 7, 1943 ~ ., I l l s sheets-sheet’ 1 Get. , i946. ' G. A. REYNOLDS, .JR 2,408,955- AMPHIBIAN STEERING DEVICE Filed Aug. '1, 1943 :s sheets-sheet 2 WWII' wimWu wl ¿y 'l Oct» 8» 19456» 2,408,955 G. A. REYNOLDS, JR AMPHIBIAN STEERING DEVICE F'iled Aug. 7, 1943 3 sheds-sheet 5 y Mame» ¿fa/ffm; ./,g Patented Oct. 8, 1946 2,408,955 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,408,955 AMPHIBIAN STEERING DEVICE George A. Reynolds, Jr., Los Angeles, Calif., as signor to Food Machinery Corporation, San Jose, Calif., a corporation of Delaware Application August 7, 1943, Serial No. 497,725 8 Claims. 'I‘his invention relates to the art of steering amphibious land and water craft while in the water. Such amphibians generally depend for propul sion in the water on the running gear with which the amphibian is supported and propelled while travelling on land. While useful with amphibians’ having various types of running gear', my inven tion is especially adapted for use on amphibians (Cl. 115-1) 2 type which is subject to minimum disadvantages due to the vulnerable location in which it is mounted. - ' The manner of accomplishing the foregoing objects, as well as further objects and advantages, will be made manifest in the following descrip tion taken in connection with the following draw ings, in which:> Fig. 1 is a plan view of an amphibian in which employing track-laying mechanism for support 10 is incorporated Aa preferred embodiment of my and propulsion. ' ' invention. It is an object of the invention to provide an Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of Fig. l. improved steering device for use on amphibians. Fig. 3 is a fragmentary enlarged detail view o_f In my co-pending application, Serial No. a portion 0f Fig, 2, which includes the invention, 462,484, in which I am a joint applicant with Dan 15 with a portion of the latter broken away to show R. Rankin, amphibian steering mechanism is dis this in section taken on the line 3--3 of. Fig. 4. closed which is especially suitable for use on Fig. 4 is a rear elevational view of Fig. 3. amphibians equipped with track-laying mecha Fig. 5 is a sectional view of a modified form of nism. The essential feature of the steering mech the invention, the plane in which said view is anism there disclosed is ñxing the steering blades 20 taken being indicated by line 5_5 in Fig. 4. The in the paths of the streams of water propelled upwardly and rearwardly by the two track-laying modiñed structure shown in Fig. 5 has openings which are not found vin the structure of the pre mechanisms where they leave the water at the stern of the craft. The speciñc steering mecha ferred form of the invention illustrated in Fig. 4, but is otherwise identical thereto. n_ism there disclosed while having great merit, 25 Referring specifically to the drawings, these nevertheless produced forces which retarded the show an amphibian I0 including a hull II having forward movement of the amphibian equipped an engine compartment I2 in the stern end there therewith and anything which cuts down the of anda pilot’s cabin I3 in the bow thereof, there speed of the craft is, of course, highly undesirable. being a well I4 ldisposed therebetween for accom It is an object of the present invention to pro 30 modating cargo or passengers’. Disposed in the vide an improved steering device for amphibians compartment I2 is an engine I5, power from operating similarly to the steering mechanism which is transmitted through a drive shaft’lß aforesaid, but eliminating the drawback men-and transmission I'I to drive sprockets I8 of a tioned. pair of track-laying mechanisms I9 mounted on lI‘he present invention accomplishes the im 35 opposite sides of the hull Il. Y provement aforesaid by disposing the steering vThe transmission I1 transmits power dineren blades of the device in' planes which are substan tially to the sprockets I8 through independent tially parallel with the fore and aft axis of the shafts 20 having brakes 2| which are separately amphibian equipped therewith. It is desirable controlled by levers 22 and 23 so that pulling on however, that these blades be reinforced without 40 the left hand lever 22 retards the operation of adding substantially to their weight or develop the left hand track laying mechanism I9 and ing any reaction with the Water discharged from speeds up the right hand track laying mechanism the track-laying mechanisms which would retard I 9. Relaxing the lever 22 and pulling on the right the forward >motion of the amphibian. hand lever 23 has exactly the opposite effect. ' It is thus another object of my invention to 45 Each of‘the >track-laying mechanisms I9 has provide an amphibian steering device` reinforced an idle sprocket 26, a series of spring mounted as aforesaid. . . bogie wheels 21 and idler rollers 28 all of which Steering devices of the type to which my inven are mounted upon one of two pontoons 29 ex tion relates generally must occupy exposed posi tending laterally from the hull sides 30. Trained tions at the rear end of the amphibian where 50 about sprockets I8 and 26, the 'bogie wheels 21, these devices are likely to become damaged by and the rollers 28 of each mechanism I9 is an hitting trees or other obstacles when the am phibian is backing. endless iiexible track 35 having a, series of grouser blades 36 thereon which contact the ground to lIt is yet another object of my invention to pro support and propel the amphibian when the lat vide an amphibian steering device »of this general 55 ter is travelling on _land but which are also suit 2,408,955 3 ably shaped to engage the water and provide propulsion for the amphibian when it is afloat. Provided to extend outward from the upper 4 results in a lessening of the stream of water 40 produced by the retarded track-laying mechanism and an increase in the volume and speed of .the stream of water 40 produced by the accelerated edge of each side of the hull II to overlie the 5 track-laying mechanism. adjacent mechanism I9 is a track guard 31. As each 4track 35 travels along its endless path (see Fig. 2')A the grouser blades 3.6; infleavingthe» water, throw a substantial stream Vof water` 40 up wardly and rearwardly as shown in Fig. 3. Mounted on the two r'ear corners of the hull Hg., is a pair of defiector devices 45 and 46 which are Assuming that the operator had pulled on the left control lever 22 as shownl indottedlines in Fis. 1, this ‘would havegretarded'f‘the' left track laying mechanism I9 and accelerated the right track-laying mechanism thereby decreasing the stream 40 produced by the ilrst and increasing that‘prod-uced- by the second. As a result, the leftward moment created by reaction of the left hand stream 40 'with the deilecting device 45 is device includes a heavy V-shaped‘channelA iron . ¿much‘V less than the rightward moment produced guard rail 41 one arm of which is’ united'. with.; by the corresponding reaction of the right hand .the adjacent track guard 31 while theother arm stream' >¿Ill withì the deflecting device 46. The is rigidly fixed to .the stern end of the' hull" with-` latter right hand turning moment is thus unbal the apex of the V extending rearwardly somegdis anced, and swings the rear end of the amphibian tance behind the hull. The device 45 also includes to .the right causing the ship to turn in the water a kite-like structure 5f!- made up of outer and reverse duplicates of each other so 'that a- de-> scription of device 45 will suilicefor both.A ',Ir‘his inner verticall plates- 5I- Aand. 52Í'and an interme diate vertical plate 53', these plates being- secured at their upper edges Ito a base plate 54 'mounted on the Vguard rail 41- andthe track guard 31'. toîthe left'. , " .. d In a like" mann‘er pulling on the right control lever 23 and releasing. the left lever will accelerate the speed of the left track-laying mechanism, re tard the speed of -the- right track-laying mecha mism-and will turn'the `amphibian I0' to the-right. , The verticalplates 5I, 52.l andr53 are connected by deilect'or plates» 55- which slope outwardly and This operation' ofthe invention to turn the amphibian Iii'` in responseïto the reaction of the iixedfdeñector's with streams of water discharged downwardly at about 40° to the horiáóntal. _These plates are disposed in the stream o'ffwater 40`dis ychargedlfroxnthe'adjacent track' 35 and obliquely phibian l0 .to the right. The deflector plates 55, by the' propulsion- devices on opposite sides of the ship is accomplished without a retar'ding moment being ’set up by this' reaction. This' is due, of course, to the> fact Ythat the' deñectoi" plates`155 though inclined tothe horizontal, are disposed parallel with the fore and aft‘axis ofl the am are parallel with tlie'ïfor'e andaft axis of the ship. phibi‘an.v I’II so that the impinging of the stream of water 40lthereagainst` sets» up no moment which would-¿tend .to retard the forward motion of the The kite-like structure> 50 offÍ-tiie deflector> de vices is prote'ctedlb'y the guard rails 41 when the amphibian is backing sothat only when backing against a heavy'> obj'ectwhich is low enough to intercept this stream sov as to turn' this‘stream . inwardly and-set up areacting turning`»moment directed'outwardly and tending to turn the am amphibian». l , _ get under the railsl 41A liutwhich is' higher‘than the»l bottom of the structure 50 will this structure be engaged and possibly damaged. The kite-like structure 50' al's'o is‘m‘ade‘ of relatively light sheet ' Eront edges oftthelplates 5,5 _connect with and may be formed from the same sheet of metal as reinforcing ilange‘s- (il),` the latter being inclined downwardly relative _to the`- plates 55,` the angle of inclination not being suilîcient to position the metal so that in' exceptional cases- where condi ' tions occur. whi'chrwill cause damageto thi's‘struc flanges 60 where- any negative4 or ‘retarding *mo- ' . ture itcan bef readily lient ba’ckdnto shape if the damage is nottoo, serious on it" can be readily ment` isset upbyv- reaction between the> stream _of replaced by, arlsp'a?e‘» structùr’elcarrie’d with the water _ 40.» and _ these; ilangea l Preferably» these amphibian.„ flangesk are in a neutral positiont/that is, parallel withthe direction _of¿ movement of thestreams of water 411-.A It would-»heì quite possil_n4l¢e,¿‘howeverg for these flanges to'bel bent frornlthe sheet'of metalfprming the plates 55".~ at angles which would lcause, "some, forward _moment to beproduced by the reaction betweenx theÍ flanges Sil andthe stream of water 40 and this result would, ofcourse, notbeundesirable. y Y » j ' Y '_ While thev vertical' plates_52.l_‘and V53 are shown as'continüó'u’s' tófsíf?plifythë design ófÀ the struc ture 5Illit might he', advántag'eous-toform- open ingslllïin theuplates 52`Í and-53ïj'úst beneath the lines'whe're these -plates- join with deñector plates 5.5_as shown in Fig.l 5 sothat water travelling upwardly alongî or deflected> upwardly from- the lowerpassfthroughythese surfaces lof-. the openings deflectingplates linf the _plates?52 55 and Y ,Óperatioîi 5?»T insteadV of strikingagainst-:theseÍ vertical plates ~and beingltrapp‘eds. À'I-'he provision olf-_these When the amphibian: I0 is -añoat' and both ~ openings in these verticalgplates 52- and 53 pre track-layingA mechanisms I9 arelopera'tingat the 60 vents .waterf otïthe stream 40 being caught in the samespe'e'ds,v the( streams'fof >water 40 engage the inverted-‘_1 vV-sl¿i_apecl traps ybetween the f vertical oblique' del'lectorplàltes 55 ofthe right and left plates 52 and-¿Sìfe-nd the upper I_twov o! the de-V deflectingî devices.- 45 and v4Iìßso that .thes'enstreams of Water are'> deflected` inwardly towards . each other` thereby producing equal andoppositeout wardy turning moments. - .i .» . . Should it be desiredrto .turn the amphibian Il) in thewater, the operatorv seizes one of .the levers 22' or 23, depending> upon whether heiwishesuto flector plates 55:, l . 65 l. In a dirigible water craft the combination of: a hull;. right andleft propulsion means' pro vided :on ,opposite sidesÍ of said hull, each of said means in-its operation'k discharging a stream of turn to the left» orv to-«the right, .and pulls this water non-parallel-„with theffore and> aftaxis of towardshim to setthelb'rakexzl controlled by thisr lever and ythereby,l slow upithe operation of the> track-laying; mechanism on Athat side ofthe these at the samepr ydifferent'speeds; and Yde said cra-ft;Y ineansf for contrcllingtthe operation of said right and left propulsiommeans to drive ñeewr means dìSpQSe-dzfiri the» Paths .Offr Said amphibian and increase thespeed- with which the , ' opposite track-laying mechanism functions. This 75 streams at angles to oppositely intercept and 2,408,955 5 6 deflect said streams from their course said de flector means being disposed substantially par allel with said axis whereby the driving of one of said propulsion means at a higher speed than sion means at a higher speed than the other the other causes an unbalanced turning moment to be produced by the reaction of the deflector means to the stream produced by the faster moving propulsion means without thereby pro- . causes an unbalanced turning moment to be produced by the reaction of the deñector means to the stream produced by the faster moving propulsion means without thereby producing a substantial moment tending to retard the for ward motion of the craft; and reinforcing means for said deflector means which is embodied with an edge thereof and disposed substantially par ducing a substantial moment tending to retard the forward motion of the craft. 10 allel with said streams. 2. In a dirigible water craft the combination 5. In a dirigible water craft the combination of: a hull; right and left propulsion means pro vided on opposite sides of said hull, each of said means in its operation discharging a stream of water non-parallel with the fors and aft axis of said craft; means for controlling the operation cf said right and left propulsion means to drive these at the same or different speeds; and de flector means fixed in the paths of said streams at angles to oppositely intercept and deflect said streams from their course said deñector means being disposed substantially parallel with said axis whereby the driving of one of said propul sion means at a higher speed than the other causes an unbalanced turning moment to be produced by the reaction of the deflector means to the stream produced by the faster moving propulsion means without thereby producing a substantial moment tending to retard the for ward motion of the craft. 3. In a dirigible water craft the combination of t a hull; right and left propulsion means pro vided on opposite sides of said hull, each of said means in its operation discharging a stream of water non-parallel with the fore and aft axis of ~ said craft; means for controlling the operation of said right and left propulsion means to drive these at the same or different speeds; and de ñector means disposed in the paths of said streams at angles to intercept and deflect said streams inwardly from their course said deflec tor means being disposed substantially parallel with said axis whereby the driving of one of said ci: propulsion means provided on opposite sides of said craft, said means in their operation dis charging streams of water rearwardly and non horizontally through the air above the surface of theA water sustaining said craft; deflectors "»iounted on craft and disposed parallel with the fore and aft axis of said craft in said streams of water so as to intercept and deilect the same oppositely; and means for selectively controlling the operation of said propulsion means to effect a steering of said craft by said deflector. 6. In an amphibian craft the combination of: a hull; right and left track~laying belts on oppo site sides of said hull; an endless series of blades on said belts for engaging the water when said craft is afloat; power means for driving said belts to propel said craft through the water, said blades on said belts discharging streams of water rear wardly and upwardly in eifecting said propul sion; deilectors iixed on said hull in parallelism with the fore and aft axis of said craft and dis posed in the paths of said streams s0 as to de flect the latter inwardly; and means for con-‘ trolling the driving of said belts to drive these at the same or different speeds. '7. In an amphibian craft the combination of: a hull ; right and left track-laying belts on oppo- » site sides of said hull; an endless series of blades on said belts for engaging the water when said craft is ailoat; power means for driving said belts to propel said craft through the water, said blades on said belts discharging streams of water propulsion means at a higher speed than the rearwardly and upwardly in eiîecting said pro other causes an unbalanced turning moment to pulsion; deiiectors iixed on said hull in parallel be produced by the reaction of the deflector ism with the fore and aft axis of said craft and means to the stream produced by the faster disposed in the paths of said streams so as to moving propulsion means without thereby pro deilect the latter inwardly; means for controlling ducing a substantial moment tending to retard the driving of said belts to drive these at the the forward motion of the craft. Ll) same or different speeds; and reinforcing vanes d. In a dirigible water craft the combination bent from leading edges of said deiiectors and disposed substantially parallel with said streams of: a hull; right and left propulsion means pro~ so as to produce no reaction from engagement vided on opposite sides of said hull, each of said means in its peration discharging a stream of with said streams tending to retard the forward water non-parallel with the fore and aft axis of ¿¿ motion of the craft. said craft; means for controlling the operation 8. A combination as in claim 1 in which said of said right and left propulsion means to drive dei‘lector means is made of relatively light sheet these at the same or different speeds; deflector metal; and a protecting guard provided on said means disposed in the paths of said streams at hull and extending rearwardly aa greater distance angles to oppositely intercept and deflect said CU than said deflector means to guard the latter against damage when said craft is backing. streams from their course said deflector means being disposed substantially parallel with said axis whereby the driving of one of said propul GEORGE A. REYNOLDSl JR.