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@Ct- 3» 1946.
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R. c. cRoss
I
BOILER
CONSTRUCTION
Filea April 7, -1944
2,@@85968 '
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3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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R C CROSS
BOILER- CONSTRUCTION
Filed April 7,'1944
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0d» 89 194s.
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>2,408,968
BOILER CONSTRUCTION
Fiied April 7. 1.944
5 sheets-sheet s
2,408,968
Patented Óct. 8, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,968
BOILER CONSTRUCTION
Robert C. Cross, Riverside, Ill., assignor to Sears,
Roebuck and Co., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of
New York
Application April 7, 1944, Serial No. _529,986l
2 Claims. (Cl. 122-218)
l
2
The present invention relates to improvements
in the construction and design of radiation heat
ing boilers for use in either steam or hot water
systems to be ñred by means of oil or gas burn
Fig. 2 is a plan sectional View of the boiler il
lustrated in Fig. l., taken approximately on line
2--2 thereof;
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view of the appa
5 ratus featured in Figs. 1 and 2, taken approxi
ing devices.
A principal object is to achieve a more compact
mately on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view
design to be operated for producing more eni
enlarged taken at one corner of the sectionalized
ciently the circulation of the heating medium,
boiler construction as indicated on line 4~-4 of
while attaining esthetic results in the over-all
Fig. 2;
'
outline of the boiler assembly under various ar
rangements of boiler 'sectional composition.
Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional View of the boiler
construction featured in the foregoing figures
In the construction of heating boilers for use
and taken on a line indicated 5-5 on Figs. l and
in steam o-r hot water systems, it has been known
2, indicating an oil burner device and exhaust
to provide intermediate sectional units which
may be varied in quantity so as to accordingly 15 .pipe attached;
Fig. 6 is a Vertical elevational view of a modi
regulate the capacity of the boiler according to
»specific requirements.
ñed boiler construction embodying the features
In the herewith proposed apparatus it is a fur
of the present invention for use with a gas burn
ther object to utilize a cast iron sectional boiler
ing heat element;
Fig. '7 is a detailed perspective View of a flanged
construction for oil or gas burning heater sys 20
control receptacle ñtting adapted for use with a
tems in which the variable sections are provided
heating boiler embodying 'the features of the
with staggered lwater tubes so as to break up the
present invention.
combustion flue stream with inclined section ele
Fig. 8 is a detailed perspective View of an ex
ments that effect an eilicient heat exchange me
dium while inducing a free natural water flow 25 emplary boilei` sectional unit with portions of
from the rear to the fore portions of the as
sembly.
'
'
In order to achieve the objects declared above,
.the inclined connecting flues broken away to in
dicate their conformation; and
Fig. 9 is a plan View of the boiler section fea
tured in Fig. 8, having portions broken away to
porating the features of interchangeable mul .30 reveal the construction of the ñlleted flue junc
tures.
tiple section assembly in which each section is
Referring now more particularly to the accomconstituted of upper and lower header portions
panying drawings, the reference character l des
connected by staggered and inclined water tubes
there is herewith proposed a boiler design incor
of tear-drop cross-section so as to insure the
ignates a combustion chamber or base casting
rapid and eiiicient flow of Water in'the boiler, 35 designed for use in conjunction with an oil burn
ing chamber. This member is ywater jacketed as
and to utilize to a maximum degree the natural
ilow of heated flue gases in order to effect a thor
at 2 on its vertical sides and on the bottom, a
lining of fire clay or other refractory material
ough heat exchange by conduction, to expose a
shaped to produce the desired flame convection,
minimum top surface to the accumulation of soot
deposit which tends to create a heat deterrent and 40 being provided to line the inner chamber of the
base I and thereby constituting the combustion
insulation, and to achieve these and other eni
chamber which is disposed centrally and beneath
ciency motives while maintaining an over-all
the water tubes 6 which will »be discussed in
graceful and pleasing contour that lends itself
greater extent later. The upper edges of the sur
to facile jacketing and artistic enclosure.
rounding Vertical wall sections of the base cast
For a better understanding of how the fore
ing including a transverse jacketed front wall 2a
going objects are attained >and the details con
are inclined with the fore portion at a higher ele
cerning the constructional features of this appa
Vation, as best indicated in Fig. 5, than that of
ratus, reference will now be had to the accom
the rear portion, conforming in this respect to
panying drawings and to the following detailed
speciiication in which like reference characters 50 the angle of inclination oi the several interme
designate corresponding parts throughout and in
diate sections 4 and 5 with respect to their for
ward and rearward header portions 1 and 8. The
which:
'number of sections 4 and 5 which may be pro
Fig. l is a front elevation of a boiler embody
vided inthe assembling of each unit heating
ing the characteristics of this invention with an
55 boiler will vary in accordance with; the heating
illustrative jacketing structure in section;
2,408,968
3
capacity required by the specific installation
4
outer extremity with reference to a median line
paralleling the center ilue pipe. The general
problems. Alternate sections are preferably of
effect therefore is to induce clockwise and coun
identical design, while contiguous ones prefer
ter-clockwise current flow in each section in terms
ably differ from each other in respect to the nurn
ber and relative disposition of their water tubes- 5 of each half thereof with the aforedescribed
median line as an intermediate boundary. This
E, as best indicated in Fig. 3. Specifically this
circulation control assures a lateral rotary move
arrangement provides for the displacement of the
ment in combination with the forward movement
consecutive tubes at intervening points in verti
which is induced by the inclination of the water
cal alinement `so that the heated gases rise and
pass through the boiler sections where current 10 tubes 6.
The base casting I is provided with two water
deflections and eddy streams formed upon en~
return embossments I4 to‘either or both of which
gaging the rounded lower surfaces of the several
there may be connected the cold water return
tubes 6 are broken up by the staggered arrange
pipes from the circulating system depending upon
ment of consecutive sections causing 'the air
the conveniences of a given installation. The
streams to be driven into closer contactual en
water enteringr therethrough, being relatively
gagement and eiïecting thereby a more complete
colder, will become heated by conduction due to
transfer of heat from these gases to the tubular
its exposure to the Walls of the fire box and as
elements 6.
'
it is heated will rise within the boiler traveling
The sections 4 and 5 are otherwise of identical
formation and each is provided with four corner 20 through a course as above outlined, including
the angularly disposed tubes 6 to the right or
push nipple openings that flare with a gradual
to the left of the vertical center of the boiler to
taper in accordance with conventional boiler as
be drawn into the system for circulation again
sembly practice, so that each with its adjacent
through the header circulating pipe 25. In the
section may be integrated to form a continuous
passageway with the other internally by connec 25 case of a steam system, the heating of the return
_ tion of push nipples 9 that are received in the
vapor will travel through a similar course as is
well known in circulating heating systems.
Referring now again to the arrangement and
disposition of the interchangeable boiler sections
base casting I, while the uppermost section 4 is
thus connected to an upper dome casting I2. In 30 5, attention is directed to the relatively narrow
construction of the front or upper headers 1, as
this way the entire water space of the dome, base,
best indicated in Fig, 5, and by contrast there
and intermediate sections is rendered continuous
with the flared and relatively wider construction
and the assembly, after being cemented for seal
of the rear or lower headers 8 which are pro
ing, is clamped together by means of external
draw bolts I8 which pass through dome section 35 vided with abutting rib formations 8a so as to
nipple boss formations III. The lowermost sec
tion 5 is connected in a similar manner with the
ears ISa and base section ears ISD, as clearly
illustrated in Figs. 1 and 6.
As a result of the inclination in the water tubes
6 of the intermediate boiler sections, the water
form a continuous closed surface to that region
of the boiler in contrast with the accessible open
ings ‘Ia which intervene sections 1.
Clean-out door 35 indicated in both embodi
content is facilitated in rising in a direction from v ments, Figs. 5 and 6, is particularly essential in
the oil burning system to provide accessibility for
the rearmost part of the boiler unit to the fore
removing soot deposits from the upper surfaces
most part, thereby constituting the primary fac
of the water tubes that may be reached by contor in promoting a maximum eiiiciency circula~
ventional cleaning brushes by projecting them
tion of this fluid internally of the boiler unit
through the aforedescribed spaces 1a that inter
which makes for the proper mixing of cooler in
vene sections l'.> In this way a maximum heating
coming or return fluid with the contents‘of the
efliciency of the boiler sections may be maintained
unit and the introduction of maximum heated
at all times, although the tear-drop cross-scc
fluid at the fore portion of the dry pipe 24 when
tional design of the flues E affords a further ad
used as a water boiler. The dry pipe 24 is pro
vided with upper surface perforations 25 after the 50 vantage of minimizing heat exchange losses due
to soot deposit insulation by reason of the fact
manner of conventional boiler design practice,
that minimum surface areas are afforded to give
thus effectively providing a means of insuring the
support to such deposits.
delivery of dry steam to a steam heating system;
Narrow spacing slots I6, Fig. 6, between the
The pipe 24 also serves the purpose of insuring
proper internal boiler circulation when used as 55 adjacent outer waterways I5, see also Fig. 3, may
be ñlled in with furnace cement or other ealking
a hot water boiler.
material whereby there is sealed the heating space
In addition to the aforedescribed control of in
which extends from the combustion chamber to
ternal water or steam circulation, a further de
the flue pipe 20 iitted on the flue pipe collar 2l.
sign feature is provided which will be explained
No leakage losses result from the openings which
with particular reference to Fig. 9. There it will
face the clean-out door 35 during the time that
be noted that the water tubes 6 join their- re
this door is closed, and accordingly there is ob
spective headers 1 and 8 forming at the point of
tained an efficient leak-proof heat chamber that
juncture arcuate fillets having on the one hand
is nevertheless accessible for periodic cleaning
major radius junctures as at 33 and opposite
thereto minor radius junctures as at 34; As the 65 purposes. At the inner end of the passageway,
which is co-extensive with cellar 2|, there are
flow of water from the lower to the higher header
levels approaches the juncture, the tendency
formed radial fins 22 which serve as a final means
upon encountering major radius turns is to in
duce water circulation in that direction as against
sharp turning in the direction of the minor radius 0
34. All of the tubes 6 are thus designed, save
the central tube, in the case of a section having
an odd number of flue pipes. The major radius
fillets 33 cause the water flow from the pipes to
be directed in a preferential current toward the 75
to absorb the heat from the outgoing gases, trans
ferring it to the adjacent water space in the boiler
section I2. Similar rib formations may also be
provided in the bottom surface Iîa of the boiler
section I2, which defines the ceiling of the com
bustion chamber and which lies just beneath the
dry Pipe 24.
„
The dry pipe is preferably carried by a special
2,408,968
5
6
pipe fitting 36, Fig. 7, which is secured to the
boiler head by its bolted flange 3l and which is
supply thereto may be suitably mounted for sup
port within this casting, or it may be carried by.
provided with a pair of horn formations 38
means of leg brackets 44 which are associated
with the base casting, as indicated in this ñgure.
threaded to receive special immersion type fit
tings or si'rdevices, for example, pressure 5 Both types of installations may be expected to
control a
tus, safety valves or temperature
regulators. The steam or water main supply line
2t is screw threaded into the body of the ñtting
35 in axial alinement with the dry pipe 24 and
openings for similar header connections may be
provided in one or two places as in the case of
perform more ef?ciently when jacketed by an
outer enclosure casing ¿i5 spaced from the prin
cipal casting sections and insulated therefrom
by appropriate heat insulation material such
as rock wool, fibre glass, etc.
While the present invention has been explained
the return pipe embossments lil, depending upon
and described with reference to but few speciño
specific requirements.
illustrations, it is to be understood, nevertheless,
Fig. 5 indicates the location of an oil burner
nozzle 2ï with relation to the ñre box space
and shows the manner in which this apparatus
is projected through a front panel 28 of the
base section i with the rear wall of the retort
that numerous variations and modifications may
be invoked without departing from the essential
spirit and scope thereof. Accordingly, it is not
intended to be limited by the speciñc details of
the accompanying illustrations, nor by the
particular wording in the foregoing detailed de
box appropriately curved to impart a rotary
now of the heating flame from the nozzle 21 20 scription, except as indicated in the hereunto
appended claims.
according to the curvature designated 29 in the
I claim:
‘
lining material. An observation port having a
1. A boiler section comprising a unitary cast
protective glass window 3i? may be provided in
ing affording higher and lower header sections,
the panel 23 through which may be seen the
inclined ñues connecting said header sections of
performance of the oil burner and draft move
ment imparted to its flame. An immersion type
tear-drop cross-section and having their small
water heating unit 32 may also be provided to
radius curvature uppermost, said nues being
serve as a means for heating a domestic hot
ñlleted at their point of junction with said
‘water supply system. rl‘his type of heat exchange
higher header in non-symmetrical radii so as to
apparatus will perform most efficiently if main 30 present minimum iiow resistance to contained
tained in contact with the hot water and below
the steam boiler water line 3l at all times, as
best indicated in Fig. 3.
To adapt this type of boiler for use with a gas
ñuid in a direction outwardly oi the transverse
center oi said boiler section.
2. A boiler section comprising a casting of
rectangular outline having a header at each end,
burner, the interchangeable sections 4 and 5 and
alined push nipple oriñces in the top and bot
the same type of dome section l2 may be sup
ported upon a modiiied base casing 40 provided
with water jacket spaces el on all four sides, but
preferably not on the bottom, after the manner
illustrated in Fig. 6. Any conventional type of 40
tom`walls of each header, for tier assembly with
other sections, perimetric flues connecting said
headers and having perimetric defining flanges,
and intermediate flues connecting said headers
ñlieted at their points of juncture with relatively
larger radii in mean direction from the center
flue outward and relatively smaller radii at each
said points of juncture in opposite direction.
ROBERT C. CROSS.
gas burner having perpendicularly directed jets,
such as the element designated 42, may be
utilized for this purpose, and an inlet arm 43
for supporting the burner and conveying gas
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