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Get. '8, 194% _ G. G. GILPIN 2,409,035 RAILWAY CAR STRUCTURE Filed Oct. 2'7’.v 1943 .lr lK 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Get. 8, 1946. 2,409,035 e. s. GlLPIN RAILWAY CAR STRUCTURE 2 Sheets-Sheei 2 ‘Filed Oct. 27, 1943 / _ \ M Q QM i .m.\ 3M“ \433ON. Y / mm 5:555 ma, . m A‘ BY - / 2,409,035 Patented Oct. 8, 194% UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,409,035 RAILWAY CAR STRUCTURE Garth G. Gilpin, Chicago, Ill., assignor-to Stand ard Railway Equipment Manufacturing Com pany, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Delaware Application October 27, 1943,‘Serial No._508,083 6 Claims. (Cl. 105~409) 1 My invention relates to railway freight cars and more particularly to the wall structure for open top railway cars, such as hopper and gondola cars, though the construction is adaptable for other parts of conventional railway freight cars, such as end walls, doors and separate panels. Railway freight cars are generally designed so that the side walls are girders or trusses to carry part of the weight of the lading and the car itself to the body bolsters which transmit such load to the trucks. Such walls also, of course, retain the load in the car. Since the outside width of any car is limited by the dimensions of tunnels and projections adjacent the track; and the pay-load 2 the free and ready discharge of the lading. Even rivet heads are objectionable. It is important, therefore, that the portions of the car wall adiae cent to Or forming part of the top and bottom chords, respectively, are sloped to eliminate pockets which would retain parts of certain lad ings (such as sand, chats or ?ne coal). It is also important that the upper sloping element be as near the top of the side wall as possible and that the sloping element of the bottom chord be as near the bottom of the interior of the car as pos sible because the further these two elements are apart the greater the cubical capacity of the car will be. The entire wall being shaped from ?at sheet metal plates, bent, pressed or otherwise formed without the necessity of heating, provides the is limited to the cubical capacity of the car, it is extremely desirable to so design the walls of the car so that the space, otherwise occupied by the most economical Way of constructing the car wall, wall itself, is available for lading and thereby which is another important object of the inven the cubical capacity of the car is increased with out increasing the overall car dimensions. This 20 tion. Other objects and advantages of the invention constitutes the principal object of the invention. will appear in the following description thereof. Attempts have heretofore been made to in Referring now to the accompanying drawings crease the capacity of cars by bulging outwardly forming part of this application and wherein like central parts of wall panels, such, for example, as shown in the Hart Patent No. 1,623,591 of April 25 reference characters indicate like parts: Fig. 1 is a partial side elevation of a hopper 5, 1927. With my present invention, however, car side wall embodying one form of my invention. the whole wall, from the center line of bolster at Fig. 2 is a top plan view of Fig. 1. ' one end to that at the other end, is disposed out~ Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section on the line 3-—3 side of the car posts, and thereby, is, in effect, ‘ one continuous outwardly bulged panel, affording 30 of Fig. 1. the maximum possible inside ‘width of car, and this without decreasing the strength of such car wall, which is another object of my present in vention. Another object of the invention is to form the wall posts which extend within the lading corn partment of a single web of relatively thin mate rial to thereby reduce the carrying capacity of the car the minimum amount and to assure a complete discharge of the load when the hopper 40 doors are opened or when the car is turned up side down for unloading. As stated before, the side wall of a hopper or gondola railway car is a girder between the car Fig. 4 is a vertical section on the line 4-4 of Fig. 1. Fig. 5 is a section on the line 5-5 of Fig. 1. Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the inside por tion of a car wall embodying the invention. Fig. '7 shows the chamfered top of one of the stakes. Fig. .8 shows how two wall sheets and a stake are welded together. Fig. 9 is a vertical section through the lower chord of a modi?ed form of the invention. In the form of invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 8 inclusive, my improved wall for railway car comprises a vertical wall sheet 2 extending sub from end to end of car in one or more bolsters and as girders comprise top chords, bot 45 stantially pieces and comprising a main portion 3 and up tom chords, web plates and web plate stiffeners. per margin portion bent to provide an upwardly The side walls are also load retaining means in and inwardly inclined marginal portion 4. The which some of the stiffeners function as posts or stakes. Such cars are sometimes unloaded by girder sti?eners or stakes 5 are preferably made opening the doors in the hoppers which are po 50 of ??at metallic bars extending transversely of the car whichare chamfered (1) at their upper sitioned between the center sills and side sills of ends (Fig. 7) to accommodate the inclined mar the car and other times are unloaded by turning ginal portion 4 of the wall sheet 2. The main the car almost upside down in a dumping ma portion 3 and the inclined marginal portion 4 are chine. In either event it is imperative that there be no obstruction within the car to interfere with 55 both welded to the outer edges of severalrstakes 2,409,035 3 -4 5 including the chamfered portions 1 thereof. ing or riveting. The member 20 ‘cooperates with the lower portion of the wall sheet 2 (and the angle 26 if used) to form a very strong tension When the wall is made of more than one wall sheet the edges of the adjacent wall sheets over lap the edge of a stake 5 and the adjacent edges chord. of the wall sheets are welded together and to O1 The conventional railway hopper car has a the adjacent stake by a single row of welded ma bottom chord member comprising an angle 28 terial, as shown (8) in Fig. 8. By this arrange extending from bolster to bolster and when using ment very few wall sheets per car need be used; my improved wall for repairing such old cars I in fact, I contemplate extending each sheet from prefer to leave this angle 26 in the car and secure the bolster line I!) to the middle ll of the car, as 10 my bottom chord member 20 to it, as shown in shown in Fig. 1. As each stake 5 comprises a Fig. 4. The vertical stakes 5 extend preferably single web there is practically no interference to the bottom of this angle 26 and are secured with the free discharge of the lading, as no pock thereto. In this arrangement the angle 26 re ets are formed where the stakes meet the top and inforces my bottom chord member 20. The hop bottom chords, respectively. Furthermore, a ?at per sheets 28 are secured in any manner to either metallic plate forms a very strong stiffener for or both my bottom chord member or the angle the car wall as a girder and a very strong stake 26, as shown in Fig. 4. or post for the car wall as a retaining wall; that I prefer to make my bottom chord member 20 is, provided that the ends of the stakes are ade of metallic plate having spaced slots extending quately attached to the top and bottom chords, from one edge thereof with the portions of the respectively, as is hereinafter brought out. The plate between the slots forming the inclined por stakes 5 are restrained from lateral de?ection un tions 22 and the unslotted portions forming the der stress by being attached not only to the wall vertical wall 2| which is secured to the inside sheet but by also being attached to the top and edges of the stakes, all of which is shown in Figs. bottom chords, respectively, as illustrated par 4 and 6. , ticularly in Fig. 6. _ ' The inclined marginal portion 4 of the wall The top chord of the girder includes an in sheet, as shown in Figs. 4 and 6, extends to the verted L-shaped section having a member l3 extreme top of the car and the inclined portion having a horizontal arm [4 welded to the upper part of the marginal portion 4 of the wall sheet at [5 and a substantially vertical arm [6 welded to the lower part of the marginal portion 4 of the wall sheet below the tops of the stakes. This combination of the angular member l3 and the upper marginal portion 4 of the wall sheet pro 22 of the bottom chord is positioned as near the bottom of the side wall as possible (allowing for attachment of the hopper wall sheet) because the further apart the inclined portions 4 and 22 are positioned, the greater will be the cubical capacity of the car. . In the modi?cation shown in Fig. 9 there is vides a hollow or box sectional top chord which is shown a ‘modi?ed form of bottom chord member strong in all directions and especially strong as which is substantially the same as the bottom the compression chord of the girder. By extend chord member illustrated in Fig. 4 excepting that ing the vertical arm [6 of said member I3 below the side sill, illustrated at 26, Fig. 4, is made an the tops of the stakes 5 an interlocking associ 40 integral part of the extension member. In the ation or overlapping relationship between the modified form, Fig, 9, the lower edge of the wall chord and the stakes is provided whereby the tops sheet is shown at 30, to which is welded the up of the stakes are adequately secured to the top wardly extending ?ange 3| of the bottom or ten chord so that these elements will properly func sion chord of the girder. Issuing from the lower tion when the side wall is acting as a girder, edge of this ?ange are downwardly and outward ‘and furthermore, the stakes are adequately at ly inclined portions 32 which extend between tached to the top chord so that the wall will adjacent stakes and are welded to the vertical properly function as a retaining wall because the sides thereof. At the lower edge of the inclined stakes properly transfer any load imposed there ‘ portion the chord member is bent to provide a on (by the wall sheets) to the top chord. .As an , vertical portion 33, from the lower edge of which added protection it may be desirable to use a the member is again bent to provide the hori tie strut member l8 between some stakes on .op— zontal ?ange 34 which may support the floor 35 of posite sides of the car, as, for instance, as shown in Figs. 4 and 6. ' a gondola car when the invention is used with such a car, or may be attached to a structural In order not to increase the overall width of element of the underframe of the car, such as the the car, the top chord does not extend beyond cross bearer 36. the plane of the main portion 3 of the wall sheet; Applicant's copending application, ?led con in fact, a su?iciently strong chord may be pro currently herewith, Serial No, 508,082, discloses vided while allowing the vertical arm i6 of the but does not claim certain structures shown and member is to be well within the outer plane of “ (30 claimed herein. the main portion 3 of the wall sheet, as shown The accompanying drawings illustrate the pre inFig. 4. ferred form of the invention, though it is to be The bottom chord or tension chord of the understood that the invention is not limited to girder includes a member 20 having a vertical the exact details of construction shown and de portion 2| welded to the inside edges of the stakes scribed, as it is obvious that various modi?cations 5 and upwardly and outwardly inclined portions thereof, within the scope of the claims, will occur 22 extending between the stakes and welded to to persons skilled in the art. the vertical sides thereof and in alignment with I claim: corresponding inclined portions on the opposite 1. A wall for a railway car comprising spaced sides of the stakes 5 so that, in effect, the in 70 apart stakes each comprising a single web ex clined portions 22 constitute a single inclined por tending transversely of said car and chamfered tion as far as the tension value is concerned. at its upper outer edge, a wall sheet bent along The member 20 preferably also includes upstand its upper portion to the plane of said chamfers ing’, portions 23 hearing against and secured to and welded to the outer edges of said stakes in~ the main portions 3 of the wall sheets for weld 75 cluding the chamfered portions thereof, and a 2,409,035 5 top chord comprising an inverted L-shaped sec tion welded at both edges thereof to the bent por tion of said wall sheet in overlapping relation with said stakes. 6 formed. of a wall sheet comprising a vertical main portion and an inclined marginal portion, a, plu rality of spaced vertical stakes each including a portion extending normally to said wall sheet 2. A Wall for a railwway car comprising a which are secured to one side of the main portion girder formed of spaced apart stakes each com prising a portion extending transversely of said car and having a chamfered end, a wall sheet and the marginal portion of the wall sheet; and a chord comprising an L-shaped section secured along both of its edges to the bent portion of said including the chamfered portions thereof, and a chord comprising a, continuous angular member 5. A wall for a railway car comprising spaced apart stakes each comprising a single web ex wall sheet in overlapping relation with said bent along a marginal portion to the plane of said chamfers and welded to edges of said stakes 10 stakes. tending transversely of said car and chamfered at its upper outer edge, a wall sheet bent to the of said wall sheet in overlapping relation with the 15 plane of said chamfers and welded to the outer chamfered ends of said stakes. edges of said stakes including the chamfered por 3. A wall for a railway car comprising a wall tions thereof, and a chord comprising an L sheet comprising a vertical main portion and an secured along both its edges to the bent portion upwardly and inwardly inclined marginal por tion, a plurality of spaced vertical stakes formed of ?at metallic bars extending normally to said wall sheet which are welded to the inside of the main portion and the marginal portion of the Wall sheet; a top chord including a member comprising a substantially horizontal arm welded to the upper part of said marginal portion and, a i substantially vertical arm welded to said mar ginal portion below the tops of the stakes, Where by the said marginal portion and the said mem ber form a hollow top chord in overlapping rela 30 tion with the stakes. 4. A wall for a railway car comprising a girder shaped section welded at both edges thereof to the bent portion of said wall sheet in overlap ping relation with said' stakes. ' 6. A wall for a railway car comprising spaced apart stakes each including a portion extending transversely of said car, and chamfered at an outer end margin thereof, a wall sheet bent to the plane of said chamfers and secured to said stakes including the chamfered margin thereof, and a chord comprising an L-shaped section welded at both edges thereof to the bent portion of said wall sheet in overlapping relation with said stakes. GARTH Gr. GILPIN.