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Get. 8, 1946.
_ A, |__ JEROME A
. 2,409,044
RAILWAY'SIGNALIN? APPARATUS
Filed Jan. 9, 1943
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2,409,0
Patented Oct. 8, 1946
Ul'i‘ED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE
2,409,044
RAILWAY SIGNALING APPARATUS
Arthur L. Jerome, Edgewood, Pa., assignor to The
Union Switch & Signal Company, Swissvale,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application January 9, 1943, Serial No. 471,838
17 Claims.
(01. 246—130)
1
My invention relates to railway signaling ap
paratus and particularly to improved means for
indicating occupancy of a portion of a track
stretch which may not coincide with the track
sections into which the track stretch is divided
for the control of tra?lc through the track
stretch.
track circuit apparatus so that the auxiliary
track circuit apparatus is normally deenergized
and is energized only when the principal track
circuit apparatus detects a train in the portion
of the track stretch in the vicinity of the aux
iliary track circuit apparatus.
A further object of .the invention is to pro
vide improved auxiliary track circuit apparatus
It is customary to divide the track rails of a
of the type described which is arranged so that
track stretch into track sections by insulated
a ?rst set of such apparatus may be employed
joints, and to equip each of these track sections 10 to detect occupancy of a. ?rst portion of a track
with track circuit apparatus for the control of
signaling apparatus governing movement of traf
stretch, and so that a second set of such appa
ratus may be employed to detect occupancy of a
second portion of the track stretch even though
In some situations, as for example the con
the two portions of the track stretch overlap so
15
trol of highway crossing signals or the locking
that some of the track stretch is common to both
of switches, it is desirable to determine occu
portions.
pancy of a portion of the track stretch which
Another object of the invention is to provide
does not coincide with the track sections which
improved auxiliaryv track circuit apparatus of the
are established for the control of the traffic gov
type described which is adapted to detect occu
erning signal equipment. In order to secure the 20 pancy of a zone in a track stretch even though
desired control in such situations it has been
this zone extends beyond the con?nes of a track
customary heretofore to divide the track sections
section.
into subsections and to equip each of these sub
A further object of the invention is to provide
sections with track circuit apparatus, while when
improved auxiliary track circuit apparatus of the
25
more than one track section is involved a line
type described which employs an electron tube
‘circuit controlled by the track relays is pro
governed by occupancy of a selected zone in a
Vided.
track stretch, the apparatus being arranged so
The additional track circuit and other equip
that failure of the electron tube cannot create
ment for the subsections is relatively expensive,
condition.
and if a track stretch includes many highway 30 a hazardous
Another object of the invention is to provide
crossings or track switches so that numerous sub
improved highway crossing signal control means
sections are required, the cost of the equipment
employing the auxiliary track circuit apparatus
?c through the track stretch.
may be excessive.
provided by this invention.
It is an object of this invention to provide imA further object of the invention is to provide
proved train detecting apparatus which may be 35 improved crossing signal control means which
applied to a stretch of railway track to ascertain
occupancy of a portion of said track stretch with
is arranged so that the crossing signals are con
trolled jointly by the principal and the auxiliary
out interfering with the operation of the track
track circuit apparatus, and so that failure of
circuit apparatus with which the track sections
the auxiliary track circuit apparatus will not
are provided to control tramc in the track stretch. 40 result in failure of the crossing signals to pro~
Another object of the invention is to provide
vide adequate warning of the approach of a
improved train detecting apparatus which makes
train.
it unnecessary to subdivide the track sections of
Other objects of the invention and features of
a track stretch when the portion of the stretch
novelty will be apparent from the following de
in which it is desired to determine occupancy 45 scription taken in connection with the accom
does not coincide with the track sections estab
panying drawings.
7
lished to control the traffic governing signals.
A further object of the invention is to provide
improved auxiliary track circuit apparatus of
I shall describe several forms of apparatus
embodying my invention, together with several
modi?cations thereof which I may employ, and
the type described which may be arranged so 50 shall then point out the novel features thereof
that its failure will not interfere with the opera
tion of the principal track circuit apparatus.
Another object of the invention is to provide
auxiliary track circuit apparatus of the type de
in claims.
In practicing my invention, at each end of the
track zone occupancy of which is to be deter
mined I connect a transformer with the section
scribed which may be controlled by the principal 55
3
2,409,044
fails in such mamier as not to substantially in
terfere with the operation of the principal track
circuit apparatus, while permitting energy to be
supplied from one transformer to the other only
when the intervening track zone is unoccupied.
I supply alternating current of a distinctive fre
quency to the track rails through one of these
transformers and I employ energy from the other
transformer to vary the potential on the grid or
control element of a cold cathode type electron
tube, while I supply alternating current to the
anode circuit of this type in series with the wind
ing of a control relay. The tube operates to per
mit half cycles of energy of one polarity only to
be supplied therethrough, and then only when
energy is supplied over the associated track zone
to establish the proper potential on the tube grid
or control element.
4
windings. The energy from one of the trans-‘
former secondary windings is recti?ed and sup
plied to code detecting relay 5H so that the con
tacts of relay 5H are picked up as long as relay
5TB, follows code of either '75 or 180 code fre
quency.
The energy from the other secondary winding
of the decoding transformer is supplied through
a resonant recti?er unit IBUDU to relay 5J. The
elements of the unit I80DU are proportioned so
that sufficient energy to pick up relay 5J is sup
plied through the unit when and only when the
relay 5TB is responding to energy of 180 code fre
quency.
The relays 5H and EJ cooperate in the usual
manner to control signal 58 so that this signal
displays its red or stop indication when relay 5H
is released, and when relay 5H is picked up the
signal 58 displays its caution or its proceed indi
20 cation according as relay 5J is released or picked
way track equipped with highway crossing sig
up.
nal control apparatus embodying my invention,
The relay 5H also controls the supply of energy
Figs. 2, 3, 4., 4A, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9A, and. 10 illus
to coding relay llCTM so that this relay is ener
trate modi?cations which may be employed,
gized over a circuit controlled by a contact of a
Fig. 11 is a diagram showing a stretch of rail
code transmitter 150T or of a code transmitter
way track in which the crossing signals for two
lB?CT depending on whether relay 5H is released
In the drawings
Fig. 1 is a diagram showing a stretch of rail
highway intersections are governed by apparatus
embodying this invention,
or picked up.
The track section 5T includes an intersection
Figs. 12 and 13 are diagrams showing crossing
with a highway H and this invention is directed
signal control means embodying this invention 30 to auxiliary track circuit means for controlling
applied to track sections in which coded alternat
the crossing signals XS at the intersection to warn
ing current track circuit energy is employed, and
users of the highway of the approach of a train.
Fig. 14 is a diagram showing switch locking
An insulated joint I5 is placed in one of the
means embodying this invention.
track rails at a point on the right-hand side of
Similar reference characters refer to similar
the intersection, while the portions of the track
parts in each of the several views.
rail on opposite sides of the insulated joint are
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, there is
connected together through a reactor IS. The
shown therein a stretch of railway track over
which tra?ic normally moves in the direction in
dicated by the arrow, that is from left to right.
The rails l and 2 of the track stretch are divided
by insulated joints 3 into track sections for sig
reactor I6 is designed so that it has relatively little
impedance to the coded direct current trai?c gov
erning energy, but has high impedance to alter
nating current employed in the control of the
crossing signals.
naling purposes. One such section is shown in
A transformer T has a secondary winding hav
Fig. l and is designated 5T.
ing its center terminal connected to track rail I,
The track section 5T has at the entrance end
while one end terminal of this winding is con
thereof a wayside signal 58 which may be of 45 nected through a resistance I8 to the portion of
any appropriate type and is controlled in accord
rail 2 on one side of the joint [5, and the other
ance with traffic conditions in section ST and in
end terminal of the transformer secondary wind
the adjacent section in advance. ‘As shown the
ing is connected through resistance l9 to the
signal 58 is of the familiar color light type and
portion of track rail 2 on the other side of the
has a green or proceed lamp G, a yellow or cau
insulated joint i5. Accordingly, when energy is
tion lamp Y, and and or stop lamp R.
supplied to the primary winding of transformer
As shown the track section ST is provided with
T, one half of the transformer secondary wind
coded track circuit apparatus of well known de
ing supplies alternating current to the portion
sign. The track circuit apparatus includes a
coding relay 5CTM at the exit end of the sec 55 of the track section on one side of the joint l5,
and the other half of the transformer secondary
tion and having a contact H) which controls con
winding supplies current to the portion of the
nection of the track battery 5TB across the sec
track section on the opposite side of the joint l5,
tion rails. The relay ECTM is controlled by traf
while the reactor It prevents ?ow of alternating
?c conditions in section GT in the manner well
current energy between the portions of rail 2
known in the art so that contact I0 of relay 60
5CTM is operated between its released and
picked-up periods so as to cause energy of 75 or
180 code frequency to be supplied to the rails of
section .BT according as section GT is occupied
or is unoccupied.
A code following track relay 5TB is connected
across the section rails at the entrance end of the
section and has associated therewith a decoding
on opposite sides of the joint l5 and thus pre
vents short circuiting of the transformer sec
ondary winding.
The resistances l8 and i9 have relatively high
65 resistance to thereby reduce to a very small value
the now of coded direct current track circuit
energy between the track rails through the two
portions of the transformer secondary winding.
An insulated joint 2:] is located in rail 2 at the
transformer 5DT, and auxiliary relays 5H and 70 point in the rear of the intersection at which it
SJ. When the track section is vacant relay 5TB
is desired to have operation of the crossing sig
follows code and its contact l2 alternately estab
nals initiated by a train moving in the normal
lishes the circuits of the two portions of the de
coding transformer primary winding so that en
direction of tra?ic, while a similar insulated
joint 22 is located in rail 2 at the point in ad
ergy is induced in the transformer secondary 75 vance
of the intersection at which it is desired
2,409,044
5
to have operation of the crossing signals initi
ated by a train moving in the reverse of the nor
6
both picked up the green or clear lamp G of
signal 53 is lightedwhile as relay 51-1 is picked up
its contact 25 establishes the ‘circuit to supply
energy of 180 code frequency to relay 4CTM so
A grid transformer AGT has the terminals of
that energy of 180 code frequency is supplied to
its primary winding connected to the rail 2 on
the rails of section 4T.
,
opposite sides of the insulated joint 20, while a
As relay 5H is picked up its contact 26 estab
grid transformer BGT has the terminals of its
lishes the circuit of control relay CR and it is
primary winding connected to rail 2 on opposite
picked up so that its contact 21 establishes a
sides of the joint 22. The transformers AGT
circuit for relay W, while its contact 28 establish
10
and BGT are of such design that their primary
es a circuit for relay E. Accordingly, relays 'E
windings have little resistance to ?ow of coded
and W are both energized and they establish the
direct current track circuit energy through track
circuits of the windings 3e and 31 of relay XR. so
that contacts 32 and as of the interlocking relay
rail 2.
The transformers AGT and BGT control elec
are both picked up, and interrupt the supply of
15
tron tubes AT and BT respectively, which in turn
energy to the crossing signals XS and thus‘ pre
control relays ATR, and BTR, which govern cir
vent operation of the crossing signals. ' ’
cuits for supplying energy to slow release relays
As relay CR is picked up its contact 35 inter
E and W, while the relays E and W control the
rupts the supply of energy to transformer ST, and
circuits of the windings of the interlocking re
thus cuts off the supply of alternating current
20
lay XR which controls the crossing signals XS.
to the track rails and t0 the electron tubes; Ac
The electron tubes AT and BT are preferably
cordingly the electron tubes and other portions
of the cold cathode, controlled ionization type,
of the auxiliary track circuit apparatus do not
while the associated relay together with a source
function when the track section is vacant, while
of alternating current are connected across the
the crossing signals are controlled by the usual
anode and cathode of the tube to energize the 25 track circuit apparatus as long as the section
relay by current passed by the tube when the
is vacant.
_
>
tube is ionized, the voltage of the source of alter
When a train moving in the normal direction
nating current being, however, normally insuffi
of traffic enters section ET the track relay 5TB
cient to start ionization, but being sumcient to
ceases to follow code and relays 5H and t‘J re
30
cause the tube to break down when a preselected
lease and cause the signal 58 to display its red
control electromotive force is applied to the con
or stop indication and change the energy sup
trol element or grid of the tube.
plied to relay tiCTM from 180 to '75 code fre
Each tube is provided with a grid or control
element which is governed by the associated grid
On release of relay 5H its contact 26 interrupts
transformer. As shown one terminal of the 35 the circuit of relay CR and relay CR releases
secondary winding of the transformer AGT is
so that its contact 35 establishes the circuit of the
connected through a resistance 40 and a con
primary winding of transformer ST and energy
denser Iii to the grid 42 of the tube AT, While
is supplied from this tranformer to the primary
the other terminal of the secondary winding of
windings of transformers ATT, BTT and T. “
the transformer AGT is connected to an inter
On the supply of energy to transformer T en
mal direction.
quency.
mediate point on a biasing resistor M which is
connected across the terminals of the secondary
winding of transformer ATT.
’
'
‘
ergy is supplied from one half of the transformer
secondary winding through resistor i8 tot-he
portion of the track section in the rear- of the
Similarly, one terminal of the secondary wind
This energy feeds from an end ter
ing of grid transformer BGT is connected through 45 intersection.
minal of the transformer secondary winding
a resistor (55 and a condenser 46 to the grid 48
through resistor iii, rail 2, primary winding of
of tube BT, while the other terminal of the trans
transformer AGT, through the wheels and axles
former secondary winding is connected to an in
of the vehicles forming the train, and o-verraii
termediate point on a biasing resistor 50 which so I to the center terminal of the transformer pri
is connected across the terminals of the seconds
mary winding.
ary winding of transformer BTT.
Similarly, energy is supplied from the other
Alternating current is supplied from a trans
half of the secondary winding of transformer T
former ST to the transformer T, and to trans
to the portion of the track section in advance of
formers ATT and BTT associated with the elec 55 the intersection. This energy feeds from the end
tron tubes, while the supply of energy to trans
terminal of the transformer through resistor l9,
former ST is governed by a control relay GB.’
track rail 2, primary winding of transformer BGT,
The alternating current may be supplied from
thence over back contact 10 of relay SCTM or
any suitable source, not shown, the terminals of
through the battery 5TB and front contact iii
which are designated BX and CX.
of relay 5CTM, and rail i to the center terminal
The signal lamps and the relays other than 60 of the transformer secondary winding.
the track relay are operated by direct current
In addition on the supply of energy to trans
supplied from a suitable source, such as storage
former ST energy is supplied therefrom to trans
batteries, not shown, the terminals of which are
formers ATT and BT'I' with the result that en
designated B and C.
65 ergy is induced in the secondary winding of each
The equipment is shown in the condition which
of these transformers and is impressed between
it assumes when sections ET and GT are vacant.
the anode and cathode of the associated tube,
At this time energy of 180 code frequency is sup
while a portion of the transformer secondary
plied to relay ECTM and it operates to supply
voltage is impressed on the grid of the associated
energy of 180 code frequency to the rails of sec 70 tube through the biasing resistor.‘
tion ET. This energy feeds over the section rails
As pointed out above, the voltage of the energy
and through the reactor is and the primary
windings of transformers AGT and BGT to the
impressed'between the anode and cathode of each
tube is insufficient to cause ionization of the tube.
track relay 5TB, and operates it so that energy
The potential applied to the grid of each tubeby
is supplied through the decoding transformer 75 energy supplied thereto through the biasing‘re
to relays 5H and 5J. As relays 5H and EU are
2,409,044
7
sistor is insufficient to cause ionization of the
tube, so that unless energy is supplied to the tube
grid from the associated grid transformer the
8
cuits‘ which it controls for supplying energy to
relays E and W, and the time at which relays
tube is not ionized and no current flows in the
tube anode circuit.
A'I‘R and BTR pick up and establish circuits for
the relays E and W. The relays E and W are
On the supply of alternating current through
the primary winding of grid transformer AGT
energy of relatively high voltage low amperage
tacts remain picked up throughout this period
and maintain the circuits of the windings of the
interlocking relay XR.
of a type which are slow in releasing so their con
is induced in the transformer secondary winding
Accordingly, when a train enters section 5T
and is supplied therefrom to the grid 42 of the 10 relay CR releases and interrupts the circuits which
tube AT.
During the half cycles in which the energy
supplied from the grid transformer AGT to the
it controls for supplying energy to the relays E
and W, while the auxiliary track circuit appa
ratus provided by this invention is placed in
grid 42 of the tube AT are of positive relative
operation and causes the relays ATR and BTR
polarity the potential on the tube grid is increased 15 to be picked up and establish circuits to supply
to a value effective to ionize the tube and cause it
energy to the relays E and W so that they con
to become conducting.
tinue to prevent operation of the crossing sig
The transformers AGT and ATT are supplied
nals.
from the same source so the energy impulses sup
When the train advances beyond the joint 20,
plied from these transformers to the tube AT are 20 the wheels and axles of the vehicles forming the
substantially in phase. The various parts of
train provide a path between the rails I and 2
the equipment are arranged so that when an im
which shunts the alternating current away from
pulse of energy of positive polarity is supplied
transformer AGT, and energy is no longer sup
from grid transformer AGT to the grid of tube
AT, the impulse of energy supplied from the 25 plied to the transformer AGT while energy is no
longer supplied from the transformer AGT to
transformer ATT is of such polarity that the posi
the grid of tube AT. Accordingly, the tube AT
tive terminal of the transformer secondary wind
ceases to be conducting so energy ceases to be
ing is connected to the anode 5! of the tube AT.
supplied to relay ATR and its contact 55 re
The tube AT, therefore, breaks down and energy
?ows through the tube to relay ATR over the cir 30 leases and interrupts the supply of energy to re
lay E. Contact 65 of relay E therefore releases
cuit which is traced from an end terminal of the
and interrupts the circuit of the winding 30 of
secondary winding of transformer ATT to the
relay XR so that the contact 32 controlled by
tube anode 5|, through the tube space to cathode
winding 30 releases and establishes the circuit
52, and Winding of relay ATR to the other termi
of the crossing signals XS and these operate to
nal of the transformer secondary winding.
35 yarn users of the highway of the approach of a
The tube AT, once it has become conducting,
train.
continues to be conducting throughout most of
When the train advances beyond the joint IS
the positive half cycle of energy from the trans
the supply of energy to transformer BGT is cut
former ATT. The next or negative half cycle of
energy from the transformer ATT serves ‘to de
energize the tube and restore it to its normal con
dition, while as long as energy continues to be
supplied from the grid transformer to the tube
grid, the tube is rendered conducting on each
subsequent positive half cycle so that an impulse 45
of energy is supplied to the winding of relay ATR
during every other half cycle of the alternating
current.
A condenser 55 is preferably connected across
off and the tube ET is rendered non-conducting
so relay BTR releases and interrupts the circuit
of relay W with the result that contact 6| of re
lay W interrupts the circuit of winding 3| of the
interlocking relay XR. The internal construc
tion of the relay XR is such that on deenergiza
tion of winding 3| while winding 35 is deener
gized the contact 33 is prevented from moving
all of the way to its released position.
When the rear of the train vacates the por
tion of the track section in the rear of the joint
the terminals of the winding of relay AIR, and 50
t5 alternating current is again supplied through
during the supply of each impulse of energy
the primary winding of transformer AGT so en
through the tube AT, a charge is built up on the
ergy is supplied from the transformer secondary
condenser 55, while in the intervals between im
winding to the grid 42 of tube AT so that the
pulses of energy from the tube, energy from the
condenser feeds to the relay winding and main 55 tube is rendered conducting and energy is sup
plied to relay ATR to pick up its contact 55.
tains the flow of energy through the relay wind
The alternating current energy supplied to
ing and thus maintains the relay contacts picked
transformer AGT at this time is supplied through
up. If desired the relays ATR and BTR may be
the winding of relay 5TH. The value of this
of a type the contacts of which are slow to release
alternating
current energy is too small to cause
so that they will remain picked up in the inter
vals between the energy impulse-s supplied to the 60 operation of the relay, however.
On picking up of contact 55 of relay ATR en
relay winding, and thus eliminate the need for
ergy ‘is supplied to relay E and its contact 6!]
condensers connected across their terminals.
establishes the circuit of the winding 30 of re
On the supply of alternating current to the
primary winding of transformer BGT the tube 65 1ay XR so that contact 32 is picked up and dis
continues operation of the crossing signals XS,
ET is rendered conducting and energy from trans
which is proper as the rear of the train has
former B'I'I‘ is supplied through the tube to relay
IB'I‘R to pick up its contact.
.
cleared the highway intersection.
The internal construction of the interlocking
relay
XR is such that on picking up of contact
establishes a circuit to supply energy to a wind
ing of relay E, while on picking up relay BTR 70 32 contact 33 is prevented from moving to its
released position to establish the circuit of the
its contact 58 establishes a circuit to supply en
crossing signals.
ergy to relay W.
When the rear of the train advances beyond
There is a short period between the time at
the joint IS the shunting effect of the train on
which relay CR releases and interrupts the cir 75 the
alternating current supplied to the portion
On picking up of relay ATR its contact 56
2,409,044.
9
10
energy to the transformer ST so that energy from
of the track section in the rear of the joint I5
is relatively small because of the impedance of
the reactor 15 to the alternating current. Ac
this transformer is supplied to the transformers
AT’T and BTT associated with tubes AT and BT,
and is also sup-plied through transformer T and
cordingly, as soon as the rear of the train passes
over the section rails to the grid transformers
AGT and BGT to render the tubes conducting.
over the joint 55 there is a substantial increase
in the alternating current supplied to transformer
Accordingly energy is supplied through the tubes
AGT and the tube AT is rendered conducting so
to pick up relays ATR and BTR and they estab
relay ATR will become picked up to discontinue
lish circuits for relays E and W and thus prevent
operation of the crossing signals. The reactor
_
10 operation of the crossing signals XS.
l6, therefore, serves to insure that operation of
When the train advances beyond the joint 22
the crossing signals will be discontinued as soon
_ transformer BGT is shunted and tube ET is ren
as the train clears the intersection.
dared non-conducting so that relay BTR re
When the rear of the train advances beyond
leases and interrupts the circuit of relay W. Con
the joint 22, alternating current is again sup
6i of relay W, therefore, releases and inter
plied through the primary winding of transform V15 tact
rupts the circuit of winding 3| of relay XR and
er BGT so that the tube ET is again rendered
contact 33 of relay XR releases and establishes
conducting. Accordingly, relay BTR picks up
the circuit of the crossing signals XS so that they
and establishes a circuit for relay W and con
tact Si of relay W picks up and establishes the
circuit of winding 3! of the interlocking relay XR "
so that contact 33 of relay 2B is picked up.
W hen the train advances far enough to vacate
section ET the impulses of coded direct current
supplied from the track battery 5TB to the track
operate towarn users of the highway of the ap
proach of a train.
'
When the train advances beyond the joint 15
it shunts the transformer AGT so that tube AT
is rendered non-conducting and relay ATR re
leases and causes release of relay E with resultant
interruption of the circuit of the winding 30 of
relay KB. The internal construction of relay XR
is such, however, that contact 32 is prevented
from moving to its released position at this time.
through the reactor it to the track relay 5TB When the train vacates the portion of the
and operate it so that energy is supplied through
track section between insulated joints l5 and 22
30
the decoding transformer EDT to relay 5H. At
energy is again supplied to transformer BGT so
this time energy of '75 code frequency is supplied
that tube ET is rendered conducting and relay
to section ET and the rate of operation of relay
BTR is picked up and establishes the circuit of
5TB is such that too little energy is supplied to
relay W. Accordingly contact 6| of relay W picks
relay 5J through the associated resonant unit to
up and establishes the circuit of the winding 3! of
35
pick up the relay contacts. Accordingly, relay 5J
relay XE so that contact 33 is picked up and dis
remains released and on picking up of relay 5H
continues operation of the crossing signals XS.
energy is supplied to the yellow lamp Y of signal
When the train vacates the portion of the track
58 over a front contact of relay 5H and a back
section between insulated joints l5 and 20 en
contact of relay SJ, while on picking up of relay
again supplied to transformer AGT so
5H its contact 25 changes the energy supplied to 40 ergy'is
that tube AT is rendered conducting and energy
section llT from '75 to 180 code frequency.
is supplied to relay ATR to pick up its contact and
In addition, on picking up of relay 5H its con
establish the circuit of relay E with the result
tact 26 establishes the circuit of relay CR so that
that contact Bil of relay E establishes the circuit
its contacts 2? and 28 establish circuits to supof the winding 36 of relay XR.
45
ply energy to relays W and E, while its contact
When the train vacates section ET, the impulses
35 interrupts the supply of energy to transformer
of coded direct current supplied to the section
ST and thus cuts oil“ the supply of alternating
rails feed to relay 5TB and operate it so that re
current energy to the track rails, and also cuts
lay EH is picked up to establish the circuit of re
off the supply of energy to the transformers ATT
lay vCR. and it picks up to establish circuits for
and BTT associated with the tubes AT and BT. 50 the relays E and W and to discontinue operation
Accordingly, energy is no longer supplied through
of the auxiliary track circuit apparatus.
the tubes to relays ATR and BTR and they release
When the front of a train moving in the normal
and interrupt the circuits which they control for
direction, or the rear of a train moving in the re
supplying energy to the relays E and W. Be
verse direction, is at a point in the track section
fore this occurs, however, energy is supplied to 55 intermediate the insulated joints l5 and 22, al
relays E and W over the circuits established by
ternating current from transformer T is pre
relay CR so the relays E and W remain picked
vented from reaching transformer BGT, but
up and maintain the circuits of the windings 39
coded direct current supplied at the exit end of
and 3| of interlocking relay XR and thus pre
the section flows through the primary winding of
rails during the picked-up periods of contact Iii
of coding relay ECTM feed through the primary
windings of transformers ‘.BGT and AGT and
vent operation of the crossing signals at this
time.
.
This system also operates to provide proper
control of the crossing signals on movement of a
train through the track stretch in the reverse‘ of
the normal direction.
'
When a train moving
the reverse direction
enters section 51‘ it shunts the track rails so as
to prevent the supply of coded. direct current to
the track relay
it'remains released so
that relay 5H releases. On release of relay 5H
its contact ‘25 interrupts the circuit of relay CR
so that it releases and interrupts the circuits
which it controls for supp-lying energy to relays
E and W. In addition, on release of relay CR its
contact 35 establishes the circuit for supplying
transformer EST and may cause impulses of
energy to be induced in the secondary winding
of the transformer and therefore cause im
pulses to be supplied to the grid of the tube ET.
transformer BGT and the other portions
.65 The
of the apparatus are proportioned so that the
impulses of energy supplied to the tube grid as
a result of the flow of the impulses of coded di
rect current through the primary winding of
BC-T are of such value as to be in
.70 transformer
effective to render the tube conducting. Accord
ingly the relay BTR is released under the condi
tions outlined.
The relay BTR may be of a type the contacts
of which are slow to pick up, while the condenser
2,409,044
11
64 connected across the terminals of the relay
winding renders the relay slow to pick up. The
relay BTR and the associated condenser may be
proportioned so that the relay will not pick up if
supplied with impulses of energy at the frequency
of the coded track circuit energy if the impulses of
coded track circuit energy supplied through the
transformer BGT should cause the tube BT to
become conducting.
12
train enters section 5T instead of being delayed
until the train advances beyond the insulated
joint 20.
In addition when the tube AT is defective, op
eration of the crossing signals will not be dis
continued when the train passes the joint l5.
Instead the signals will continue to operate until
the train vacates the track section. When this
occurs the tra?ic governing track circuit appara
The coded track circuit current is of relatively 10 tus functions in the normal manner and discon
low frequency, the highest code speed usually em
tinues operation of the crossing signals and of the
ployed being 180 cycles a minute, or 3 cycles a
auxiliary track circuit apparatus.
second. The alternating current employed in the
Similarly, if the tube ET is defective operation
track circuit is of much higher frequency, such
of the crossing signals will be initiated as soon
as 60 or 100 cycles a second, so there will be a
as the section is occupied and will be continued
great di?erence between the frequency of the
until the section is vacated.
supply of impulses of energy to relay BTR when
If the tube failure is caused by short circuiting
the tube ET is rendered conducting by alternat
of the elements of the tube, the tube will cease to
ing current supplied to the transformer BGT and
serve as a recti?er and alternating current will
when the tube is rendered conducting by coded 20 be supplied through the tube. The relay ener
track circuit energy supplied through the trans
gized by current supplied through the tube is of
former BGT. Accordingly, the relay BTR and
the direct current type and its contacts will re
the associated apparatus may be proportioned
main released on the supply of alternating cur
so that the relay will pick up when alternating
rent to the relay winding.
current is supplied to transformer BGi'I‘, but 25
Failure of the tubes, therefore, will cause opera
to not pick up when coded track circuit energy is
tion of the crossing signals to be initiated sooner
supplied to transformer BGT.
and to be continued longer than usual. While
It will be seen that this crossing signal control
this additional time of operation of the crossing
system operates so that the trai?c governing
track circuit apparatus operates to prevent oper 30 signals may delay users of the highway, it will not
create a hazardous condition, and the operation
of the equipment is such that users of the high
section is vacant, while the auxiliary track cir
way are always provided with a warning of the
cuit apparatus is deenergized as long as the sec
approach of a train for at least the normal pe
tion is vacant. As soon as the track section is
riod.
occupied the auxiliary track circuit apparatus is 35
In like manner failure of the line circuits con
energized and control of the crossing signals is
ation of the crossing signals as long as the track
transferred to the auxiliary track circuit appara
tus, while the auxiliary track circuit apparatus
necting transformers ATI‘ and BTT with the
transformer T, or of the line circuits over which
the relays ATR and BTR control the relays E and
serves to prevent operation of the crossing signals
until the train advances to within a selected dis 40 W, will result in prolonged operation of the cross
ing signals but will not cause a failure of the
tance from the crossing.
crossing signals to operate, and will not interfere
When a train moving in either direction enters
with operation of the traffic governing signal ap
an approach section for the crossing, the crossing
paratus. Failure of the line circuit over which
signals are placed in operation, while the auxil
relay
5H controls the relay CR, will result in con
iary track circuit apparatus operates to discon
tinue operation of the crossing signals as soon as 45 tinued operation of the auxiliary track circuit
apparatus to control the crossing signals, while
the approach section is vacated. The crossing
operation
of the crossing signals will be started
signals remain under the control of the auxiliary
and
stopped
at the usual times, and operation of
track circuit apparatus as long as the section is
the'tra?ic governing signals will not be affected.
occupied, but as soon as the section is vacated the
The auxiliary track circuit apparatus is shown
traffic governing track circuit apparatus assumes 50 controlled
by the traffic governing signal appa
control of the crossing signals and discontinues
ratus so as to be deenergized when the associ
operation of the auxiliary track circuit apparatus.
ated track section is vacant, and to be energized
Since the auxiliary track circuit apparatus is
and control the crossing signals only when the
normally deenergized and becomes energized only
section is occupied. This is the preferred ar
when the section is occupied, the wear on the elec 55
rangement, but it is contemplated that the relay
tron tubes is reduced to a minimum and their life
CR may be omitted and the auxiliary track cir
is correspondingly increased, while the‘ energy
cuit apparatus be continuously energized and
consumed by the auxiliary track circuit apparatus
is reduced to a minimum.
'
have complete control of the crossing signals.
The auxiliary track circuit apparatus is
This system is arranged so that failure of the 60
shown
arranged to provide for control of the
electron tubes or other portions of the auxiliary
crossing
signals on movement of trains in the
track circuit apparatus will not produce an ob
reverse as well as in the normal direction of
jectionable failure of the crossing signals nor in
tra?ic. If control of the crossing signals on
terfere with the proper functioning of the trai?c
movement
of trains in the reverse direction is
65
governing signal apparatus.
not required, the tube BGT and associated ap
If when a train moving in the normal direction
paratus such as transformers BTT and BGT,
of tra?ic enters the section the tube AT is defec
and relays BTR and W, may be omitted, and
tive and will not function, relay ATR will remain
the auxiliary track circuit apparatus may be
released and will not establish a circuit for relay
employed to detect occupancy only of the por
E, and this relay will release and interrupt the
tion of the track section between insulated joints
circuit of the winding 30 of relay XR so that con
20 and I5.
tact 32 releases and establishes the circuit of the
In the system shown in Fig. 1 the alternating
crossing signals. Accordingly, operation of the
current employed in the auxiliary track circuit
crossing signals will be initiated as soon as the 75 ‘apparatus is supplied from a commercial source
2,409,044
13
of current. If such a source is not available the
alternating current may be supplied by a tuned
alternator, and Fig. 2 illustrates such an ar
rangement.
Referring to Fig. 2 there is shown therein a
tuned alternator TA which may be of any well
known construction and which when supplied
14
In the modi?cations shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3,
the transformer T is provided with two second
ary windings one of which supplies energy to
the portion of the track stretch at one side of
the joint l5 and the other of which supplies en
ergy to the'portion of the track stretch at the
other side of the joint I5. If desired energy may
be supplied from the same secondary winding to
with direct current supplies alternating current
the ‘portions of the track stretch. on both sides of
of a, suitable frequency, such as 60 or 100 cycles
the joint l5, and Fig, 4 shows such an arrange
10
a second, to the transformer ST. The supply
ment.
'
of direct current to the alternator TA is con
Referring to Fig. ‘hone end terminal of the
trolled by back contact 35 of relay CR so that
secondary winding of transformer T is connected
the alternator is deenergized as long as the
to track rail l, while the other end terminal of
track section is vacant and is energized and
this winding is connected through resistance 18
causes alternating current to be supplied to the 15 to the portion of rail 2 at the left of joint l5 and
auxiliary track circuit apparatus as long as the
through resistance 19 to the portion of rail 2 at
section is occupied.
the right of joint l5. When a train is in the por
In the systems shown in Figs, 1 and 2 alter
tion of the track stretch at either side of the joint
nating current of the same frequency is sup
15, the supply of alternating current to the grid
plied over the track rails to the grid transform 20 transformer on that side of the intersection is cut
ers as is‘ supplied to the tube anode circuits.
oil’, while the resistor included in the circuit for
If desired energy of different frequencies may
supplying energy from the transformer T to the
be employed for these purposes, and Fig. 3 shows
track rails limits the current taken from the
such a modi?cation.
transformer and thus prevents excessive reduc
As shown in Fig. 3 energy is supplied from the 25 tion in the value of the energy supplied from the
transformer ST to the transformer T through a
transformer to the portion of the track section at
recti?er RX with the result that the frequency
the
other side of the joint l5.
of the energy supplied from transformer T to
When
train is in the portion of the track
the track rails is twice that supplied from trans
section at one side of the joint I5 it exerts a
30
former ST to the transformers ATT and BTT.
shunting effect through resistors l8 and 19 on
Accordingly, because of the higher frequency
the portion of the section at the other side of
of ‘the energy supplied to the tube grids, there
the joint. The resistance of resistors l8 and I9
will always be a time during each half cycle in
is so high, however, that the shunting effect ex
which energy of positive polarity is supplied to
erted through them will not interfere with
the anode of a tube that the potential on the
operation of the apparatus on the side of the
tube grid is such as to render the tube conduct
joint opposite from the train.
‘
ing. This will be true even though there is a
In the modifications described above the sec
considerable phase shift in the energy supplied
over the track rails relative to the energy sup
plied to the tube anode circuits. The tube char
ondary winding of the transformer T is connected
4-0 across the section rails and a reactor is connected
around the insulated joint l5 at the highway
acteristics are such that once a tube becomes
intersection to permit flow of direct current track
conducting it continues to be'conducting re
circuit energy around the joint l5 while prevent
gardless of changes in the grid potential as long
ing ?ow of alternating current auxiliary track
as energy of proper potential and polarity is
circuit energy between the portions of the track
45
supplied to the tube anode circuit, so the use
section on opposite sides of the joint I5 to there
of the higher frequency energy in the track cir
by insure prompt cessation of operation of the
cuits will not substantially reduce the time dur
crossing signals when the rear of a train passes
ing which a tube is conducting, and the relay
over the insulated joint It.
which is energized by current supplied through
The need for the reactor can be eliminated by
the tube will be supplied with energy an ade 50 connecting the secondary winding of transformer
quate proportion of the time to keep its con
T around the joint [5 as shown inlFig. 4A. In
tacts picked up.
this modi?cation the transformer T is propor
The impedance of the reactor Is to flow of
tioned so that its secondary winding has little
alternating current therethrough is proportional
resistance to flow of direct current, while a cur
to the frequency of the alternating current, and 55 rent limiting resistance 56 is connected in series
if alternating current of relatively high fre
with the primary winding of the transformer
quency, such as is made possible by the use of
T to limit the energy supplied through the trans
the frequency doubling arrangement shown in
former T to the track rails.
Fig. 3, is employed in the track circuits, the re
The grid ‘transformers AGT and BGT are
60
actor I 6 may be proportioned so as to have little
shown connected in series with the track rail 2,
resistance to the coded direct current track while
but they may be connected across the rails l and
having high impedance to the alternating current
2 as shown, in Fig. 9. A reactor 61 may be con
track circuit energy so that a train on one side
nected
in series with the track relay 5TB to pre
of the joint l5 will have little shunting effect
vent flow of alternating current energy in the
with respect to alternating current supplied to 65 winding thereof, while an impedance of appro
the portion of the track section at the other
priate form, such'as a resistance 68, is connected
side of the joint [5. This will insure prompt
across the section rails intermediate the insu
termination of operation of the crossing signals
lated joint 28 and the entrance end of the sec
when a train passes beyond the joint 15, while it
tion to permit ?ow of alternating current be
also permits the coded direct current track cir 70 tween the track rails while substantially prevent
cuit energy to be readily supplied through the
ing flow of direct current between the section
reactor so that the maximum length of track
rails.
section over which the coded track circuit ap- .
The supply of energy to the transformer ST
paratus may be operated will not be substan
75 may be governed by a relay CR as shown in Fig. ,1,
tially affected.
15
2,409, 044
so that energy is supplied to the transformer
when and only when the associated track sec
tion is occupied.
When a train enters section 5T so that energy
is supplied to the transformer ST, energy is sup
plied therefrom through the resistance 65 to the
transformer T, while energy is supplied from the
transformer T to the grid transformers AGT and
16
contact 10 of relay E and front contact 1| of relay
W. The equipment is otherwise the same as that
shown in Fig, 1 except that the reactor i6 is
omitted, while a transformer with a single sec
ondary winding, as shown in Fig. 4, is employed
to supply energy to the section rails. This type
of transformer is necessary to prevent short cir
cuiting of the transformer secondary by the
BGT over the circuit which ‘is traced from the
shunt circuit which is at times established around
left-hand terminal of the secondary winding of 10 the joint [5.
transformer T over rail 2, through the primary
When the track stretch is vacant relays E and
winding of transformer AGT, through wheels and
W are held picked up by energy supplied over
axles of the vehicles forming the train to rail
front contacts of relay CR so contacts 70 and ‘H
I; over contact it of relay CTM to rail 2, and
establish the circuit shunting the joint l5 and
thence through the primary winding of trans 15 coded track circuit energy may flow around joint
former BGT to the right-hand terminal of the
!5 through the shunt circuit. The resistance of
secondary winding of transformer T. Accord
the shunt circuit may be extremely low so that
ingly, each of the grid transformers supplies en
there is little impedance to the ?ow of coded di
ergy to the associated tube so that the auxiliary
rect current track circuit energy over the section
track circuit apparatus operates as explained in 20 rails.
connection with Fig. 1 to prevent operation of
When a train enters the track section relay
the crossing signals.
CR. releases and establishes the circuit to supply
When the train advances beyond joint 2!), the
energy to transformer ST so that the auxiliary
shunt between the track rails provided by the
track circuit apparatus functions as explained in
train prevents flow of energy from transformer T
connection with Fig. 1 to supply energy to relays
through the primary winding of transformer AGT
E and W and keep them picked up although the
so the tube associated with transformer AGT
circuits controlled by relay CR for supplying en
ceases to be conducting and operation of the
ergy to these relays are interrupted.
crossing signals is initiated. At this time energy
When the train enters the approach section at
from transformer T continues to be supplied
the left of joint l5 relay E releases and its con
through the primary winding of transformer
BGT, but when the train advances beyond the
joint I 5 the supply of energy to transformer BGT
is cut off and the relay associated with this trans
former releases.
As soon as the rear of the train advances be
yond the joint 55 energy from transformer T is
supplied to transformer AGT over the circuit
which is traced from the left-hand terminal of
the secondary winding of transformer T over
track rail 2, through primary winding of trans
former AGT and resistor 68 to rail I, and thence
through the wheels and axles of the vehicles of
the train to rail 2 and the right-hand terminal
of the winding of transformer T. Accordingly,
the tube associated with transformer T is ren
dered conducting and operation of the crossing
signals is discontinued promptly when the rear
of the train clears the intersection.
tact 50 interrupts the circuit of winding 30 of the
interlocking relay XR to thereby initiate opera
tion of the crossing signals, while contact 70 of
relay E interrupts the shunt circuit around joint
I 5.
Since the section is occupied at this time
there is no need for the coded direct current to be
supplied around joint [5 and interruption of the
shunt circuit will not interfere with operation of
the traffic governing signal system.
When the train advances beyond joint (5 relay
W releases and its contact 1| additionally inter
rupts the shunt circuit around the joint [5. Ac
cordingly, when the rear of the train passes be
yond the joint l5 the train ceases to exert any
" shunting effect on the alternating current sup
plied to the portion of the track section at the left
of joint [5, and the auxiliary track circuit appa
ratus associated with the portion of the track
section at the left of joint l5 will function imme
When the rear of the train passes over joint '
diately after the rear of the train passes over
22 energy from transformer T is again supplied
joint [5, and relay E will pick up to discontinue
to transformer BGT and the relay associated with
operation of the crossing signals.
this transformer picks up. When the train
When the train advances farther in the track
vacates the track section coded direct current sup
stretch relay W will be picked up, as explained in
plied at the exit end of the section feeds to the
connection with Fig. 1, while on picking up of
track relay 5TB and operates it so that the supply
relay W its contact ll completes the circuit
of energy to transformer ST is cut off and the
shunting the joint l5. At this time, however, the
auxiliary track circuit apparatus ceases to func
train is so far removed from the joint l5 as to
tion.
have little or no effect on energy supplied from
The equipment operates in a similar manner 60 transformer T to the section rails, and the relays
on movement of a train through the track stretch
E and W are maintained energized by the auxil
in the reverse direction.
iary track circuit apparatus.
In the modifications shown in Figs. 1 to 4 the
When the train advances far enough to vacate
coded direct current track circuit energy must be
the section 5T, coded direct current supplied to
supplied through the reactor It. This reactor
the track rails at the exit end of the section feeds
will have some resistance to the coded direct cur
over the track rails and through the shunt circuit
rent and will therefore reduce the maximum 0p
established by front contacts 70 and ‘H of relays
erable length of track circuit. This can be over
E and W to the track relay and operates it so that
come by substituting for the reactor a circuit con
the relay 5H is picked up and establishes the cir
trolled by the auxiliary track circuit apparatus 70 cuit of relay CR, Accordingly, the relay CR picks
and shunting the joint l5, and Fig. 5 shows such
up and its contact 35 cuts off the supply of en
an arrangement.
ergy to transformer ST and thus discontinues
Referring to Fig. 5, a circuit shunting the joint
operation of the auxiliary track circuit appara
15 is established when the contacts of relays E
tus, while contacts 2'! and 28 of relay CR establish
and W are picked up. This circuit includes front
circuits for the relays W and E so that their con
2,409,044
17
18
ate it so that the associated code detecting relay
5H picks up to establish a circuit for relay CR.
When CR picks up it establishes circuits for relays
operation of the crossing signals.
E and W and they pick up to discontinue opera
The modi?cation shown in Fig. 5, like that
tion of the crossing signals, and to establish the
shown in Fig. l, operates so that if on entrance
circuit which they control for shunting the joint
of a train into the track section, one of the elec
l5.
tron tubes is defective, or the auxiliary track
With the arrangement shown in Fig. 6, when a
circuit apparatus does not function for any other
train is in section 5T with the end of the train
reason, operation of the crossing signals will be
adjacent one side of the joint l5, during the.
initiated as soon as the train enters the section 10 closed periods of contact 13 of coder 200T the
instead of being deferred until the train advances
train will exert shunting e?ect on the auxiliary
to a predetermined point in the section. In addi
track circuit energy supplied to the portion‘ of
tion, the equipment shown in Fig. 5 operates so
the track section on the opposite side of the joint
that operation of the crossing signals will not be
15. The relays E and W may be of a type which
discontinued when the train passes the intersec 15 are slow enough in releasing to remain picked up
tion if the auxiliary track circuit apparatus is not
during the periods in which contact 13 is closed,
tacts are maintained'picked up to maintain the
shunt circuit around the joint l5 and to prevent
functioning properly.
and thus prevent momentary operation of the
When the equipment is arranged as shown in
crossing signals.
Fig. 5, if the auxiliary track circuit apparatus
In the modi?cations shown in Fig. 1 a relay
is defective, the circuit shunting the insulated 20 ATR is energized through the tube AT and con
joint i5 will not be established when the ap
trols the supply of energy to a winding of relay
proach sections on opposite sides of the highway
E. It is possible, however, to energize the winding
crossing are Vacated. ‘Accordingly, when the
of relay E from the tube AT, and thus eliminate
train vacates the track section, coded direct cur
the relay ATR, and Fig. '7 illustrates such a modi
25
rent energy supplied at the exit end of the section
?cation.
'
cannot feed to the track relay, and the asso
The modification shown in Fig. 'l is the same as
ciated relay 5H will remain released and will not
that shown in Fig. 1 except that the relay ATR
establish'the circuit of relay CR. As a result the
and the transformer ATT have been eliminated
relay E or W will remain released, the one de
and
the anode circuit of tube AT has been con
pending on which part of the auxiliary track cir 30 nected to a winding of relay E, while the grid bias
cuit apparatus is defective, and the crossing sig
ing resistor 44 is connected between the line wires
nals will continue to operate, while the signal at
92 and S3. The condenser 55, employed in the
the entrance to section 5T will display its stop
system shown in Fig. 1, is connected across the
indication and energy of 7 5 code frequency will be
terminals of the winding of relay E.
'
“
supplied to the rails of the adjacent section in 35
As long as the section is vacant relay E is held
the rear to cause the signal for that section to
picked up by energy supplied over contact 28 of
display its caution indication.
relay CR as explained in connection with Fig. 1.
The continued operation of the crossing signals
When a train enters the section relay CR releases
and the continued display of a stop indication by
and causes energy to be supplied to transformer
the signal at the entrance to section 5T will pro 40 ST so that energy is supplied over the track to
vide an indication that the equipment is not
transformer AGT to render the tube AT conduct
functioning properly.
ing, while energy is also supplied to the tube
The failure of the equipment shown in Fig. 5 to
anode circuit. Accordingly, energy is supplied
resume normal operation when the section is va
” through the tube over the line wires 92 and 93 to
cated if the auxiliary track circuit apparatus is
a winding of relay E and serves to keep the con
not functioning properly may be overcome by em
tacts of relay E picked up.
i
ploying means to periodically establish a circuit
The various parts of the equipment are ar
shunting the joint I5, as shown in Fig. 6.
ranged so that the energy supplied to the relay E
Referring to Fig. 6, a coding device 200T is
through the tube AT is of the same relative polar
provided which has a contact 13 which when
ity as the energy supplied to the relay E over the
closed establishes a circuit shunting the joint 15.
circuit controlled by contact 28 of relay CR so
The contact 13 of the coder ZIJCT may be operated
that the contacts of relay E will remain picked up
at any appropriate rate, such as 20 code fre
on transfer of control of the relay from the prin
quency, which is substantially different than the ‘ cipal to the auxiliary track circuit apparatus.
rate of operation of the coders controlling the
When a train enters the portion of the track
supply of traffic governing energy to the section ' section between insulated joints l5 and 20, energy
rails. The coder 290T may operate continuously,
is no longer supplied to transformer AGT and the
or it may be controlled as shown by contact 12 of
tube AT ceases to be conducting and energy is no
relay CR so as to operate only when the section
60 longer supplied to relay E and its contact releases
is occupied.
7
to initiate operation of the crossing signals.
With the arrangement shown in Fig. 6 when a
When the portion of the track section between
train passes through the section and the auxiliary
insulated joints l5 and 20 is vacated, energy is
track circuit apparatus is functioning properly,
again supplied to transformer AGT so that the
the relays E and W will be picked up and establish ' tube AT is rendered conducting and energy from
the shunt circuit around joint I5 when the section
the transformer ATT is supplied through the tube
is vacated, as explained in connection with Fig. 5.
AT to a winding of relay E to pick up its contact
If when the section is vacated one of the relays
and discontinue operation of the crossing signals.
E or W remains released, the shunt circuit con
When the track section is vacated relay GR is
trolled by these relays will not be established, but
picked up and discontinues operation of the aux
contact 13 of coder ZBCT will periodically estab 70 iliary track circuit apparatus and establishes a
lish a circuit shunting the joint 15. During the
circuit to energize relay E.
closed periods of contact ‘53 coded track circuit
The modification shown in Fig. 8 is similar to
energy supplied at the exit end of the section will
that shown in Fig. 7. In the sytem shown in
feed around the joint l5 over the circuit estab
Fig. 8 the transformer ATT is‘not employed and
lished by contact 13 to the track relay and oper
19
2,409,044
20
the secondary winding of transformer ST is con
is picked up and its contact 35 interrupts the
nected across the anode and cathode of tube AT
circuit of transformer ST to thereby prevent op
through a current limiting resistor Q5 and over
eration of the auxiliary track circuit apparatus,
line wires 95 and 93, while the grid biasing re
while relay E is maintained picked up by energy
sistor 13/3 is connected between wires 56 and 98. U! supplied over front contact 23 of relay GB.
A winding of relay E is connected across wires 95
The modi?cations shown in Figs. 7 and 8 have
and 98 on the side of resistor 95 remote from the
been illustrated and described in connection with
transformer ST.
When relay CR is released so that energy is
the circuits associated with the tube AT, but it
.
is to be understood that these modi?cations are
supplied to transformer ST, energy is supplied 1() equally applicable to the circuits associated with
through transformer T to the track rails, and thus
the tube BT.
to transformer AGT to render the tube conduct
In the modi?cations already described the pri
me. In addition, when energy is supplied to trans
mary windings of the grid transformers AGT and
former ST, energy will be supplied from the
BGT have been connected in series with the track
transformer secondary winding through the re 15 rail so that coded direct current track circuit
sistor S5 to line wires 95 and 93, and ‘therefrom
energy must be supplied through those windings.
to the winding of relay E.
While the transformers AGT and BGT may be
During the half cycles in which the impulses of
provided with primary windings having low re
energy induced in the secondary winding of trans
sistance to the coded direct current track circuit
former ST are such that energy of positive polar 20 energy, these windings will have some resistance
ity is supplied to wire 98, energy will be supplied
to such energy, and will reduce somewhat the
through the tube AT, assuming that it is con
maximum length of track section over which
ducting, so that the transformer secondary is in
the coded track circuit can be operated. The
effect short circuited through the tube, and the
series connection of the grid transformers is not
tube serves to divert energy from the winding of’ 25 essential, and these transformers may be con
relay E. The resistor 95 serves to limit the supply
nected across the rails as shown in Fig. 9.
of energy from the transformer ST and thus
Referring to Fig. 9 the transformer AGT has
prevents overloading of the tube AT.
one terminal of its primary winding connected to
During the half cycles in which the impulses
one track rail and has the other terminal of its
of energy induced in the secondary winding of 30 primary winding connected to the other track rail
transformer ST are such that energy of positive
through a resistor I80 which serves to limit ?ow
polarity is supplied to line wire 98, energy will not
of coded direct current track circuit energy
be supplied through the tube AT, and all of the
through
the transformer primary winding.
energy supplied through resistor 95 will be sup
The
transformer
AGT is located at a point in
plied to the winding of relay E.
the track stretch far enough in the rear of the
Accordingly, when the tube AT is conducting,
highway crossing so that if operation of the
the impulses of energy of one polarity supplied
crossing signals is initiated When a train ad
to the winding of relay E are of substantially
vances beyond the transformer, the crossing sig
lower value than those of the other polarity, and
nals will be operated for at least a predeter
as a result there is a substantial direct current 49 mined interval before the train reaches the in
component in the energy supplied to the winding
tersection.
of relay E and is eifective to maintain the con
The equipment at the intersection as well as
tacts of the relay E picked up.
the equipment associated with transformer AGT
The various parts of the equipment are ar
ranged so that the direct current component of
the energy supplied from transformer ST to a
winding of relay E is of the same relative polarity
as the energy supplied to relay E over the circuit,
controlled by relay CR.
This insures that the
contacts of relay E will remain picked up when
control of relay E is transferred from relay CR to
the auxiliary track circuit apparatus.
When the portion of the track section between
the insulated joints 20 and i5 is occupied energy
is not supplied to transformer AGT and the tube
AT ceases to ‘be conducting. Under these condi
tions impulses of energy of the same value are
supplied to the winding of relay E during both
halves of the cycles of energy induced in the
secondary winding of transformer ST. Accord
ingly, there is no direct current component in
the energy supplied to the winding of relay E at
this time and the contacts of the relay release
and initiate operation of the crossing signals,
while the winding of the relay may have high in
ductance to reduce the ?ow of alternating cur
rent therein.
When the portion of the track section between
the joints l5 and 20 is vacated and the tube AT
is again rendered conducting, the direct current
component is again present in the energy sup
plied from transformer ST to the winding of relay
E and its contact is picked up to discontinue op
eration of the crossing signals.
When the track section is vacated relay CR
may be arranged as shown in any of the modi
? ?cations previously described.
In operation, when a train enters the section
so that alternating current is supplied to the
section rails at the intersection, this energy is
supplied to the primary winding of transformer
5‘) AGT with the result that energy is supplied from
the transformer secondary winding to the grid
of the associated tube to render it conducting and
thus prevent operation of the crossing signals.
When the train advances beyond the transformer
55 AGT the supply of alternating current to the
transformer is cut off and the tube associated
with transformer AGT ceases to be conducting
and operation of the crossing signals is initiated
and is continued until the train vacates the por
60 tion of the track section between transformer
AGT and the intersection.
In addition, when a train is present in the
track section and is approaching the transformer
AGT, it shunts alternating current from the
65 transformer and thus reduces the value of the
energy supplied from the transformer AGT to the
grid of the associated tube. The shunting effect
‘of the train on the transformer AGT gradually
increases as the train approaches the transformer
70 and before the train reaches the transformer,
may cause the energy supplied to the grid of the
associated tube to be reduced to a value ineffec
tive to maintain conductivity of the tube. As a
result operation of the crossing signals will be
75 initiated before the train reaches the transform
2,409,044
21
er, and the signals will be operated for somewhat
longer than the minimum period prior to arrival
of the train at the intersection. The shunting
effect of the train on the transformer AGT will
vary somewhat with ballast conditions, so the
22
naling purposes. Two track sections are shown,’
and are designated ‘IT and BT,
Each track section has at the entrance end
thereof a wayside signal, designated S with an
appropriate pre?x, while ‘each track section is
provided with coded track circuit apparatus for
point to which the train must advance before
controlling the signal for the section, and for
operation of the crossing signals is initiated will
also controlling the supply of coded energy to the
vary with changes in ballast conditions. How
rails of the adjacent section in the rear. The
ever, as operation of the crossing signals is al
coded track circuit apparatus employed in sec
10
ways initiated when the train advances beyond
tions ‘IT and ST is similar to that employed in
the transformer AGT, and as this provides for
the system shown in Fig. l and a detailed de
the minimum period of operation of the signals,
scription of the track circuit apparatus is un
the system is entirely safe and any variation in
necessary.
the period of operation of the signals is in ex
The track circuit apparatus for section ‘IT in
15
cess of the minimum period.
cludes coded feed-back equipment for indicating
If preferred as shown in Fig. 9A a condenser
NH may be substituted for the resistor 15% in the
circuit of the primary winding of the transformer
AGT. The condenser iii! operates to permit al
ternating current auxiliary track circuit energy
to be supplied to the transformer AGT, while
preventing flow of the coded direct current sig
at the exit end of the section whether or not the
section is occupied. The coded feed-back equip
ment may be arranged in any manner well known
in the art, and has been shown arranged as shown
in Letters Patent of the United States No.
2,286,002 to Frank H. Nicholson.
The track stretch includes intersections with
highways
HI and H2. The intersection with
The transformer AGT may be inductively cou
pled with the track rails. As shown in Fig. 10 25 highway H! is located in section 1T, while the
intersection with highway H2 is located in sec
a loop I82 consisting of a plurality of turns of
tion 8T at a point adjacent the entrance end of
wire is mounted between the track rails with por
nal control energy to this transformer. ~
tions of the loop adjacent the rails l and 2. The
ends of the loop are connected to the terminals
of the primary winding of the transformer AGT.
the section so that on movement of a train in
the normal direction through the track stretch it
is necessary to start operation of the crossing
signals KS2 for the intersection H2 before the
train enters section 8T.
When alternating current is supplied to rails l
and 2 at the intersection, and the portion of the
The crossings HI and H2 are located so close
track section between the loop and the inter
together
that the approach sections for the signals
section is vacant, alternating current flows in
for the two crossings overlap. It is necessary on
the portion of the rails I and 2 adjacent the loop
movement of a train in the norma1 direction
I02 and induces energy in the loop from which
through the track stretch to, initiate operation
it is supplied to the primary winding of trans
of the crossing signals X82 before the train ad
former AGT, so that energy is supplied from the
vances to the point in the track stretch at which
secondary winding of transformer AGT to the
grid of the associated tube and causes the tube 40 it is necessary to initiate operation of the cross
ing signals XSI on movement of a train through
to be conducting.
the
track stretch in the reverse direction.
When the portion of the track section between
Alternating current of one frequency, such as
the loop and the intersection is occupied, alter
60 cycles per second, is employed in the auxiliary
nating current no longer flows in the portion of
track circuit apparatus for the control of the
the rails l and 2 adjacent the loop N32, and en
crossing signals X88, and alternating current of
ergy is no longer supplied from the loop through
a different frequency, such as 100 cycles per sec
transformer AGJI‘ to the tube grid and the tube
ond,
is employed in the auxiliary track circuit ap
becomes non-conducting.
paratus for the control of the crossing signals
The modi?cation shown in Fig. 10, like that
X82, while ?lters of well known design are pro
shown in Fig. 1, operates so that the crossing sig
vided
at appropriate points to prevent interfer
nals are not started until the train advances be
ence between the two sets of auxiliary track cir
yond a predetermined point in the tracklsection.
The modi?cation shown in Fig. 10 results in
no impedance whatever to the supply of coded
direct current energy over the track rails and
consequently does not affect the length of track
circuit which can be operated.
_
This crossing signal control system is adapted
cuit apparatus.
The construction of the ?lters is not a part of
01 en
this invention, and to simplify the disclosure
these have been shown diagrammatically in the
drawings.
The same reference characters are employed in
Fig. 11 to identify the various elements of the
for use where there are two highway crossings
60 auxiliary track circuit apparatus as are employed
relatively close together so that the approach
in Fig. 1, while in Fig. 11 the reference charac
sections for the crossing signals overlap, while
ters for the auxiliary track circuit apparatus for
the system is also adapted for use where a cross~
the control of signals XS! are preceded by the
prefix I, and those for the apparatus for signals
ing is adjacent an end of a track section so that
an approach section for the signal for that cross
ing extends into the adjacent track section, and
Fig. 11 is a diagram illustrating these modi?ca
tions.
Fig. 11 consists of Figs. 11A and 1113 which
when placed together with Fig. 113 at the right,
is a diagram of a stretch of railway track over
which trai?c normally moves in the direction in
' X82 are preceded by the pre?x 2.
The equipment is shown in the condition which
it assumes when the track stretch is vacant. At
this time energy of 180 code frequency is sup
plied to coding relay BCTM so that it supplies en
ergy of this code frequency to the rails of section
BT and this energy feeds to track relay 8TB and
operates it with the result that energy is sup
plied through the decoding transformer ?DT to
dicated by the arrow, that is from left to right.
relays 8H and BJ. As relays 8H and SJ are both
The rails l and 2 of the track stretch are divided
by insulated joints 3 into track sections for sig 75 picked up signal 88 displays its green or clear
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