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Gd. 8, 1946.
'
T, M, RUBY
‘
SPEED GOVERNOR
Filed April 27, 1945
‘
2,409,070
Patented Oct. 8, 1946
2,409,070
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,070
SPEED GOVERNOR
Thomas M. Ruby, Whitmore Lake, Mich, assignor
to King-Seeley Corporation, Ann Arbor,'Mich.,
a corporation of Michigan
Application April 27, 1945, Serial No. 590,541
8 Claims.
(Cl. 137-153)
1
2
This invention relates to speed governors for
come higher, whereby manifold pressures and
internal combustion engines, and more particu
resultant fuel velocities change but slightly with
larly, to governors of the "velocity” or "mixture
variations in speed, it has been found that the
?ow” type, consisting essentially of a valve or
reduction in atmospheric pressure and density at
throttle-plate mounted on a shaft extending
elevated altitudes operates to reduce the forces
transversely of the intake manifold of an engine
acting upon the governor valve to such an extent
to be governed; the axis of said shaft lying to
as to substantially reduce the ClOSiIlg effort on‘
one side of the center line of the manifold pas
the valve, thus increasing the no-load speed to a
sage, whereby the forces exerted on the throttle
harmful extent; thus, an engine equipped with a
plate by the passage of fuel mixture through the 10 velocity-type governor set for a no-load speed at
manifold tend to move the plate toward closed
sea level of 3,000 R. P. M. to 3,200 R. P. M. will,
position, said forces varying in value as the plate
at high altitudes, attain a no-load speed of 4,000
changes position. The reactance device in the
to 4,500 B. P. M., or, in other words, a speed of
form of a spring or combination of springs, con
the order of 30% greater than that at which the
nected to the throttle-plate shaft through a suit 15 engine was designed to operate. By means of
able linkage, serves to balance the closing forces
the present invention, this tendency may be con
exerted upon the throttle-plate, in all positions,
trolled so that the no-load speed of an engine
at governed speed; the position of the throttle
governed in accordance with the invention may
be maintained substantially constant regardless
plate, and, hence, the amount of fuel mixture
passing to the engine, being dependent upon the 20 of the altitude at which it is operated. How
load imposed upon the engine at any given
moment
ever, since an increase in the full-load speed at
high altitudes has certain advantages, it is de
sirable that the correction shall be con?ned to
the no-load end of the load-speed curve, which
.
In velocity-type governors, the forces acting
upon the throttle-plate due to the passage of fuel
mixture through the intake conduit have been
- is accomplished according to the present inven
considered two-fold, that is, impingement of the
tion.
The general object of the present invention is
the provision of a velocity-type governor includ
fuel mixture upon the respective areas of the
throttle-plate lying upon opposite sides of the
off-center shaft, and the difference in ?uid pres
sure upstream and downstream of the throttle
plate. As is well known, the ?uid pressure up
ing means operable upon a predetermined de
30 crease in atmospheric pressure for supplement
ing the forces normally urging the governor valve
toward closed position.
stream of the throttle-plate is substantially that
of the atmosphere when the carburetor throttle
A further object is the provision of a governor
including means operable upon a predetermined
valve is in open position, as is the case when the
engine is being operated under control of the
decrease in atmospheric pressure for supplement
ing the forces normally urging the governor to
ward closed position, such supplementary forces
being applied only under no-load and light-load
conditions.
governor. The pressure downstream of the gov
ernor valve at governed speed, varies with the
load from a value in the neighborhood of 2 inches
of Hg at full load to perhaps 20 inches of Hg at
no load.
It has been recognized that the governed speed
A further object is the provision, in a governor
as described, of means cooperating with the con
of an engine controlled by a velocity-type gover
nor changes with variations in the altitude at
ventional anti-steal piston for supplementing, at
40
which the engine is operated, both the full-load
and no-load speeds of the engine increasing as
the altitude increases, and the atmospheric pres
high altitudes or under conditions of reduced at
mospheric pressure, the forces normally urging
I the throttle valve toward closed position.
has not been considered important. particularly
as regards the increase of full-load speed, since
Other and further objects, features and ad
vantages will be apparent from the description
which follows, taken in connection with the ac
companying drawing. in which
such increase has been considered an advantage,
in that it automatically compensated. to a cer
tain degree, for the loss of engine power incident
cording to the present invention, taken on a plane
including the axis of the fuel-mixture conduit
to the reduction in air density and atmospheric
pressure at elevated altitudes. Under present
shaft; and
sure decreases.
In the past, this phenomenon
day conditions, in which engine speeds have be
Fig. 1 is a sectional view of a governor ac
and normal to the axis of the throttle-valve‘
.
.Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the governor, with
2,409,070
3
4
spring-box cover removed, illustrating the re
actance device for balancing the forces exerted
upon the governor-plate by the passage of fuel.
In order to facilitate an understanding of the
invention, reference is made to the embodiment
thereof shown in the accompanying drawing, and
contains a piston 31, which is adapted, by move
ment toward the right in Fig. 1, progressively to
close off the ports 33—35, the piston 31 being con
detailed descriptive language is employed. It
will, nevertheless, be understood that no limita
tion is thereby intended, and that various
to pressures by cylinder tubeing- vented in both
changes and alterations are contemplated such
as would ordinarily occur to one skilled in the
art to which the invention relates.
Referring to the drawing, the numeral It] des
ignates a governor body, which may suitably take ,
the form of a casting, adapted to be inserted in
the fuel-intake manifold of an internal combus
tion engine, between the carburetor andthecyl
inders.
The governor body includes a fuel-mix
ture conduit II, which is preferably cylindrical in"
form, though not necessarily so. A throttle
plate I2 is secured upon the shaft‘or spindle I3,
which is‘ journaled transversely of the fuell-niix
ture conduit and‘ to one side of the center line
thereof, so that the upstream side I4‘ of the
throttle-plate has a substantially greater area
than has the downstream‘ side I5- of the plate;
The flow of fuel mixture is in the direction of the
nected by means of a link 38 with an expansible
sealed cartridge 39 containing a gas at sea-level
atmospheric pressure. The piston 31 is balanced
ends:
The ‘cylinder 30- which contains the car
tridge 39, and the piston 31 is vented to atmos
' phere at 4| and 42.
The construction thus described operates in the
following manner: When the carburetor or man
ually-controlled throttle-valve is substantially
closed’; the. pressure throughout the entire length
_ of the, fuel-mixture conduit II corresponds to the
engine vacuum, and the inner end of the cylinder
I9' is, therefora'subject to the engine vacuum
through. the ports 25-—28, the passage 24 and
groove 29. Since the outer end of the cylinder I9
is open to the atmosphere, there is an inwardly
actingv force upon the piston 2|, which urges the
throttle-plate :2 toward closed position. This is.
the normal anti-cheat function of the piston‘ 2|:
and requires no further explanation.
In order to supplement the forces normally act'
ing to close the throttle-plate, when the engine
is operating at elevated altitudes, with carburetor
arrows in Fig. l.
'
throttle-valve open, engine vacuum is introduced
By virtue of the unbalanced nature of the
into the inner end of the cylinder I9 through the
throttle-plate i2,‘ the tendency of the plate is to
ports 25—28, passage 24 and groove 29, thus caus
move toward closed position (clockwise in Fig. 1)
ing an’ inwardly-acting force upon the piston 2i.
under the forces exerted by the passage of fuel
Since this additional force is not desired between
mixture through the conduit Ii. This tendency‘
half load and full load, the ports 25-28 are dis
may be balanced, at governed speed, in all ll‘Ot
posed in such a position that when the throttle
tle-po-sitions, by a properly designed reactance de
plate I2 is in fairly wide-open position the ports
vice, such, as that illustrated in Fig. 2, wherein a
will be on the upstream side of the lower edge of
spring I5, adjustably secured at one end, has its’
the throttle-plate, and thus will be exposed‘ to
other end connected by means‘ of a ribbon I l’ with
substantially atmospheric pressure. However, as
a cam I8 secured on a portion of the throttle
thelload decreases, and the throttle-plate moves
shaft I3 extending! outside of the governor body 4.0 toward closed position, the ports 25-28 are pro
It.‘ The details of the reactance mechanism form
gressively transferred to the high-vacuum side of
no part of the present invention and will not be
the throttle-plate, thereby progressively subject
further described‘;
ing the inner end of the cylinder I9 to the engine
vacuum, and thus progressively increasing the to
tal of the closing forces acting upon the throttle
a
It is customary to provide, in conjunction with
velocity-type governors; a device known as an .
anti-steal or anti-cheat piston, the nature and‘
function of which are Well known in the art. In
the present instance, the anti-steal piston is em
ployed to perform an additional function, name~
ly, that of supplementing, at high altitudesor un- .
der conditions of decreased atmospheric pres
sure, the forces normally acting to move to‘ urge
the throttle-plate toward closed position. Thus,
referring to Fig. 1, the governor body I E! is formed
to provide; at one side, a cylinder i3,‘ which is
vented‘ to'the atmosphere at 29. A piston 2|,
slidable in the cylinder !9, is connected to-the
throttle-plate I2 through a piston-rod 22, which
engages the arm 23 secured upon the upstream
face of‘ the throttle-plate.
The body I6‘; is provided with a longitudinal
bore 24, communicating at its lower end- with a
series of transverse passages or ports 25, 26, 21,
28,‘opening into the fuel-mixture conduit II at
points adjacent the‘ downstream edge of the "I
throttle-plate when the latter is in approximate
ly-half-load position; A groove 29 formed in the
piston-rod 22 provides communication‘ between
the passage 24 and the cylinder I9.
A second cylinder 30 formed in the governor
body‘ communicates with the passage‘ 24' by
plate.
Since this additive force is desirable only‘ at
elevated altitudes, thev piston 3'! is employed for
controlling its application in the following man
ner: Normally, i. e., at low altitudes, atmospheric
pressure is introduced ‘to the cylinder I9. through
the passage 32, ports 33—36', passages 3| and 24,
and groove 29, thus dissipating the vacuum in
troduced through the ports 25-428; However, as
the altitude increases and the atmospheric pres
sure decreases, the cartridge 39 will expand and
the piston 31‘ will progressively seal off‘the ports
33—36, thus progressively diminishing the extent
to which the atmosphere is introduced into the
cylinder I9. At a certain predetermined altitude,
at which the atmospheric pressure has dimin
ished to a predetermined value, all of the ports
33-—36 will have been closed and a maximum
closing force may‘ be exerted upon the piston, 2|
by engine vacuum~ introduced through the ports
25—-28. As the altitude‘ decreases, the ports
33-36‘ are progressively uncovered; and the vac‘
uum in the cylinder I9 is thus progressively dis
sipated orv lessened in value.
' '
fuel-mixture conduit II, at a point upstream of
From the foregoing description it'will be appar
ent that the present invention providesmeans for
accomplishing the‘ various objects hereinbefore
the throttle-plate, through a passage 32 and a
‘stated.
means of a passage 3| and communicates with the
series of spaced ports -33, 34; 35. The cylinder 30 75
Having now described: my invention‘, what: I.
2,409,070
5
claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters
6
sure when the barometric pressure of the sur
rounding atmosphere is not substantially less than
normal sea-level atmospheric pressure.
6. In a speed governor for internal combustion
engines, a governor body enclosing a fuel-mixture
conduit, an unbalanced throttle-plate supported Cl engines, a governor body enclosing a fuel-mixture
conduit, an unbalanced throttle-plate supported
in said conduit and adapted to be moved toward
in said conduit and adapted to be moved toward
closed position by the ?ow of fuel mixture tnere~
closed position by the flow of fuel mixture there
through, means including a pressure-responsive
through, means including a pressure-responsive
element for urging said throttle-plate toward
closed position, and means for progressively sub 10 element for urging said throttle-plate toward
closed position, means for progressively subjecting
jecting said pressure-responsive element to in“
said pressure-responsive element to increasing
creasing degrees of engine vacuum
said
Patent, is:
1. In a speed governor for internal combustion
throttle-plate approaches its closed position.
2. In a speed governor for internal combustion
engines, a governor body enclosing a fuel-mixture
conduit, an unbalanced throttle-plate supported
in said conduit and adapted to be moved toward
closed position by the ?ow of fuel mixture there
through, means including a pressure-responsive
element for urging said throttle-plate toward
closed position and means for progressively sub
jecting said pressure-responsive element to in—
creasing degrees of engine vacuum as said
throttle-plate approaches its closed position; said
last means comprising a series of ports spaced
longitudinally of said fuel conduit on the down
stream side of said throttle-plate, and conduit
means connecting said ports and said pressure~
degrees of engine vacuum as said throttle-plate
approaches its closed position, and means for
progressively subjecting said element to atmos
pheric pressure as the barometric pressure of
the surrounding atmosphere approaches normal
sea-level atmospheric pressure.
'7. In a speed governor for internal combustion
engines, a governor body enclosing a fuel-mixture
conduit, an unbalanced throttle-plate supported
in said conduit and adapted to be moved toward
closed position by the ?ow of fuel mixture there
through, means including a pressure-responsive
element for urging said throttle-plate toward
closed position, means for progressively subject
ing said pressure-responsive element to increas
ing degrees of engine vacuum as said throttle
plate approaches its closed position, and means
3. In a speed governor for internal combustion 30 for subjecting said element to atmospheric pres
responsive element.
engines, a governor body enclosing a fuel-mixture
conduit, an unbalanced throttle-plate supported
in said conduit and adapted to be moved toward
closed position by the flow of fuel mixture there
through, means including a pressure-responsive
element for urging said throttle-plate toward
closed position, means for progressively subjecting
said pressure-responsive element to increasing
degrees of engine vacuum as said throttle-plate v
approaches its closed position, and means coun
teracting said last means when the barometric
pressure of the surrounding atmosphere is not
substantially less than normal sea-level baro
metric pressure.
4. In a speed governor for internal combustion
engines ,a governor body enclosing a fuel-mixture
conduit, an unbalanced throttle-plate supported
in said conduit and adapted to be moved toward
closed position by the flow of fuel mixture there
through, means including a pressure-responsive
element for urging said throttle-plate toward
closed position, means for progressively subject
ing said pressure-responsive element to increas—
ing degrees of engine vacuum as said throttle~
sure when the barometric pressure of the sur
rounding atmosphere is not substantially less than
normal sea-level atmospheric pressure, said last
means comprising a chamber formed in said gov
ernor body; means affording communication be
tween said chamber and said element, means af
fording communication between said chamber
and the atmosphere, and means responsive to
changes in barometric pressure for interrupting
said communication between said chamber and
said element when the barometric pressure falls
and for re-establishing said communication when
said pressure rises,
8. In a speed governor for internal combustion
engines, a governor body enclosing a fuel-mixture
conduit, an unbalanced throttle-plate supported
in said conduit and adapted to be moved toward
closed position by the ?ow of fuel mixture there
through, means including a pressure-responsive
element for urging said throttle-plate toward
closed position, means for progressively subject
ing said pressure-responsive element to increasing
plate approaches its closed position, and means .
degrees of engine vacuum as said throttle-plate
approaches its closed position, and means for
progressively subjecting said element to atmos
for progressively counteracting said last means
as the barometric pressure of the surrounding
pheric pressure as the barometric pressure of the
surrounding atmosphere approaches normal sea
level atmospheric pressure, said last means com
atmosphere approaches normal sea-level baro~
prising a chamber formed in said governor body;
metric ‘pressure.
5. In a speed governor for internal combustion 60 means a?ording communication between said
chamber and said element, a series of ports open
engines, a governor body enclosing a fuel-mixture
ing into said chamber, means affording com
conduit, an unbalanced throttle-plate supported
munication between said ports and the atmos
in said conduit and adapted to be moved toward
phere, a member movable in said chamber for
closed position by the flow of fuel mixture there
progressively closing said ports, and means re
through, means including a pressure-responsive
sponsive to barometric pressure for actuating said
element for urging said throttle-plate toward
closed position, means for progressively subject
ing said pressure-responsive element to increas
last member progressively to close said ports as
the barometric pressure falls and progressively
ing degrees of engine vacuum as said throttle
to open them as said pressure rises.
plate approaches its closed position, and means 70
for subjecting said element to atmospheric pres
THOMAS M. RUBY.
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