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Патент USA US2409112

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Patented Oct. 8, 1946
2,49,111
‘UNITED 'STTES 'T'PATIENT OFFICE
“PYROTECHN'IC DEVICES
Tenney L. Davis, Norwell, Mass, assignor to ‘Na
'tional‘FireWorkaIncu Hanover, Mass, a corpo
ration of Massachusetts
No Drawing. Application January 21, 1943,
Serial No. 473,097
_
(Cl. ‘152-23)
2
This invention relates to pyrotechnic compo
sitions which burn with the production of colored
.
-
quarter of an inch in' diameter are :bored through
the sides or the cases at ‘intervals on ;a spiral
‘line around them. The mixture is ignited by
means of a ?rst ?re composition loaded ‘in the
?rst and deepest of the holes. When the smoke
smokes which are cool in the sense that they are
not hot enough to set ?re to dry hay or ex
ce‘lsior vor similar readily combustible substances.
The compositions may be used in the form of a
pot is vburning, the smoke'escapes from several
loose powder or of compressed pellets, or they
of the holes-and ‘the ‘smoke is hot enough :to
may be tamped or pressed into tubular or other
set ?re to dry ‘hay, or excelsior. or shavings, for
cases in which they are to be burned; they may
similar material on which the device may hap
be used in smoke pots, which burn for a con 10 pen to be lying. After the burning is over, ‘the
siderable period of time, or they may be used
case is found to be "?lled with ‘a spon'gy‘car
to make smoke stars to be thrown out by a
bonaceous mass cemented together by some of
Roman candle or a bursting rocket ,or an aerial
the dyestu? which has fused ‘but ‘has not ‘been
bombshell. or they may ‘be usedin Smoke puif
burned or volatilized away. Fuller’searth or-clay
devices which produce clouds of smoke rapidly
is sometimes added to the compositions where it
and during short intervals of ‘time. In other
words, the various compositions to which the
present invention relates may be ‘used for ‘the
production of colored smokes, which is to say,
for the production of visible effects, in any of 20
the numerous ways which are well known to
those who are ‘skilled in the art of ?reworks
making.
serves to absorb to some extent the melted dye
stuff and to prevent it from cementing the car
bonaceous material together ‘in such manner as
to obstruct or restrict the free egress :of smoke;
Clay yields mixtures which tend to harden vif the
smoke pots are kept in storage for some time;
Fuller’s earth does not have the same unde
sirable eiTect. ‘Either substance in the compo
Smoke pots and similar pyrotechnic devices
sition, by diluting it, makes it burn more slowly
which burn with the production of colored smokes 25 and hence with the slower evolution of heat,
are used for signals and for entertainment and
and smoke pots which contain them are some
display. The compositions with which they ‘are
what cooler than otherwise ‘but still produce a
?lled are well known to those who are familiar
smoke which is so hot that it quickly sets ?re
with the art of making ?reworks, and consist
to in?ammable materials.
'
V
I
in general of mixtures of volatile colored sub 30 Pyrotechnic compositions for the production
stances with combustible-materials and voxidizing
of colored smokes commonly contain ('11). a ma
agents in such fashion‘that the latter .by their
terial which burns, (2) a dyestuff which is lvola;
burning produce heat ‘which volatilizes ‘the
tilized by the heat '"of this‘ ‘burning ‘and thus
colored substances to produce colored mists,
produces the colored smoke or mist, and gen:
clouds, or smokes. _
One familiar example of colored smoke compo.
sition is the mixture of potassium .nitrate, sulfur,
and realgar which gives a white light and a
white smoke if it ,is used in the manner .of a
Bengal light mixture, but which yields an abun
dant yellow smoke if it is burned under com
pression in a .chokecl case after being loaded on
a nipple or short spindle. The smoke or gas
35 erally ('3)
an incombustible material such as
fuller’s earth the 'e'iiect of which is entirely phys
ical as described above. I have discovered that
by the'use of ammonium nitrate, which is a cool
explosive in the sense that its explosion pro
40 duces no visible ?ash, or of ‘the cool explosive
g-uanldine derivatives (guanidine nitrate, nitro
guanidine, nitrosoguanidine, nitroaminoguani
dine, and ' l.-guanyl-él-nitrosoaminoguanyltetrae
from such an arsenic smoke pot will set ?re im
zene, commonly called tetracene, all of which ‘are
mediately to a handful of dry hay which is placed 45 cool explosives by the same criterion) in the
over the orifice from which it emerges.
compositions, it is possible to make smoke puffs
The most common colored smoke compositions,
which are so cool that ‘they will not set ?re
by which many different colors are produced, are
to‘ such’ an easily in?ammable material as or
made from mixtures of lactose and potassium
dinary tissue paper, and to make colored smoke
chlorate with such volatile organic dyestuffs as 50 pots which are so cool-burning that they will not
auramine, rhodamine, chrysoidine. paranitrani
set ?re to dry hay placed directly over the ori
line red, paranitraniline yellow, and indigo. In
?ce from which the smoke is emerging. It is the
the manufacture of smoke pots, the compositions
use of ammonium nitrate and, of the cool guan
are generally tamped lightly, not pressed ?rmly,
idine explosives for this purpose which I wish
in paper or metal cylindrical cases. The cases 55 to claim as my invention. The cool explosive,
are closed at both ends, and holes about one- _
according to my invention, may be used either
2,409,111
3
4
These compositions are suitable for use in cool
along with the other combustible material, such
as meal powder, which maintains the ?re in the
burning smoke pots. The materials are powdered
?nely and mixed intimately, and the composi
composition and may thus serve the purpose of
cooling this ?re, or, since it is a combustible
tions are loaded at the hydraulic press in cylin
drical tubes which are closed at the ends, bored
with holes in the sides and supplied with ?rst ?re,
etc., as is usual in the art. It has been found
as well as a cool explosive, it may be used alone
for maintaining a ?re which while cool in the
above-mentioned sense is yet warm enough to
that the higher the melting point of the dye
stuff the higher the pressure of loading which
The advantages of this invention are in the 10 gives the best effect. With the compositions cited
loading pressures of less than 500 pounds per
greater safety and in the wider sphere ofv useful‘
volatilize the dyestuff and to produce the coloredv
smoke.
-
>
-.
ness of pyrotechnic devices which will not start -
?res. Such cool-burning colored smoke pots as
are made possible by the use of this invention
may, for example, be used as signals'in railway
work. If one is lighted and thrown from a mov- : :
ing train, it will not cause a ?re if it happens
to fall into dry grass.
' While my invention includes the use ‘of am
square inch or‘ of more than 900 pounds per square
inch produce inferior smoke pots. Four hundred
grams of either of these compositions, loaded in
a cylinder 2 inches in internal diameter, yields
a smoke pot which burns for 8 Or 10 minutes
emitting a colored smoke which does not set ?re
to dry grass or excelsior. The “meal powder” in
cluded in the foregoing examples signi?es, in
monium nitrate in cool-burning colored smoke 20 this industry, a black gun powder in a state‘ of
extremely ?ne sub-division.
'
compositions, I recognize that ammonium nitrate
As examples of smoke puffs, intimate mixtures
is hygroscopic and yields mixtures which take up
of 1 part of fuller’s earth with 15 parts of nitro
moisture from the air and consequently - fail ~
soguanidine and 5 parts of any one of the above
oftentimes to function properly after they have
mentioned volatile dyestuffs may be cited.
been in storage. Accordingly, I prefer not to use
Twenty grams of such a mixture loaded loosely
ammonium nitrate, but prefer to employ in my
in a package of thin paper and lighted by means
compositions the cool explosive guanidine de
of quickmatch, gives a large cloud of brilliantly
rivatives above-mentioned which are not hygro
colored smoke.
scopic and which serve the purpose admirably.
Having thus described my invention, whatI
The cool explosive guanidine derivatives 30
desire to claim as new is:
(guanidine nitrate, nitroguanidine, nitroso
1. A pyrotechnic composition designed to pro
guanidine, nitroaminoguanidine, and l-guanyl
duce a colored smoke, comprising a volatile col
4-nitrosoaminoguanyltetrazene, commonly called
' ored organic compound and a cool guanidine ex
tetracene) may be used for cooling colored smoke
compositions which are based either upon po
plosive.v
2. A pyrotechnic composition for the produc
tion of colored smoke, comprising a combustible
tassium nitrate, or upon some other oxidizing
agent, and I do not wish to limit the application
mixture including a volatile'dye stuff and a su?i
of my invention to colored smoke compositions cient proportion of a cool guanidine explosive to
which are based upon any particular ingredi
ent in addition to the cool explosive'guanidine 40 reduce the temperature at which said composi
tion burns to a point such that the smoke from
derivative. In other words, I wish to use the cool
it will not set ?re to dry hay, excelsior, or the
explosive guanidine derivatives along with the
other materials, devices, and methods which are ‘ . like.
3. A pyrotechnic composition for the produc
ordinarily employed in the manufacture of col
tion of colored smoke, comprising a-mixture of
ored smoke compositions. I also wish to use the
a highly combustible material adapted to main
c001 explosive guanidine derivatives alone with
tain a ?re, a cool guanidine explosive, a volatile
the volatile dyestu?s, with or without fuller’s
dye stuff serving to produce a colored smoke
earth or other inert material.
‘ when volatilized by the ‘heat of combustion of
. As examples of cool-burning colored smoke
compositions which illustrate the successful ap 50 said mixture, and a non-combustible diluent, said
cool explosive and said diluent being present in
plication of my invention, the compositions list
ed in the following table may be cited.
Color of Smoke
Orange Orange Yellow
Oil scarlet _________ _
Auramine. _ .__
Sudan orange.
Sudan blue.-.
Fuller's earth ______ ..
Meal powder ______ __
Guanidine nitrate. . _
Nitroguanidine .... __
Nitroaminoguani
' ‘dine
Tetracene. .
-
such proportions as to so reduce the temperature
_ at which said combustion burns that the smoke
from it will notset ?re to dry hay, excelsior, or
the like..
4. A pyrotechnic device of the type intended
for display, entertainment, signalling, or the like,
and in which colored smoke is produced by the
burning of compositions containing a volatile dye
stuif, characterized by the fact that the compo
sition is made cool burning by including in it a
cool guanidine explosive, and a container in
which said composition is packed under a com
pression of between ?ve hundred and nine hun
dred pounds per square inch.
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TENNEY L. DAVIS,
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